Isle of Man TT

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"Isle of Man Tourist Trophy" redirects here. For a series of car races held on the Isle of Man between 1905 and 1922, see RAC Tourist Trophy.
Isle of Man TT.svg
Isle of Man Tourist Trophy
Region Isle of Man
Date 30 May to 12 June (2015)
Type Road Course
Clerk of the Course Gary Thompson MBE BEM
Event Organiser ACU Events Ltd
Principal sponsor Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
History
First race 1907
Number of races 95 (2014)
First winner Charles R. Collier (1907)
Most wins Joey Dunlop 26 (1977–2000)
Lap record Bruce Anstey 17 minutes, 6.682 seconds 132.298 mph or 212.913 km/h (2014)

The International Isle of Man TT (Tourist Trophy) Race is an annual motor-cycle racing event held on the Isle of Man which was for many years the most prestigious motorcycle race in the world.[1] The event was part of the FIM Motorcycle Grand Prix World Championship from 1949–1976 before the Grand Prix was transferred to the United Kingdom after safety concerns including a riders' boycott,[2] and then run by the FIM as the British Grand Prix for the 1977 season.[3] The Isle of Man TT Races became part of the TT Formula 1 Championship from 1977 to 1990 to preserve the event's racing status. From 1989 the racing has been developed by the Isle of Man Department of Tourism as the Isle of Man TT Festival. The Isle of Man TT is held during May/June of each year and traditionally concludes with the Blue Riband event, the prestigious Isle of Man Senior TT race.

Description[edit]

The Isle of Man TT (Tourist Trophy) Race is run in a time-trial format on public roads legally closed for racing by the Road Racing Act 1982 (Isle of Man) a provisions of an Act of Tynwald (the parliament of the Isle of Man). Since 1911 the Isle of Man TT Races have been held on the 37.73 miles (60.72 km)[4] Snaefell Mountain Course which consists of a number of public roads in the Isle of Man closed for racing.

Origins[edit]

During the 1906 International Cup for Motor-Cycles held in Austria, the event was plagued by accusations of cheating and sharp practices. A conversation on the train journey home between the Secretary of the Auto-Cycle Club, Freddie Straight and the brothers from the Matchless motor-cycle company, Charlie Collier and Harry Collier and the Marquis de Mouzilly St. Mars led to a suggestion for a race the following year for road touring motor-cycles based on the automobile races to be held in the Isle of Man on closed public roads.

Proposed new race[edit]

The new race was proposed by the Editor of "The Motor-Cycle" Magazine at the annual dinner of the Auto-Cycle Club held in London on 17 January 1907.[5] It was proposed that the races would run in two classes with single-cylinder machines to average 90 mpg and twin-cylinder machines to average 75 mpg fuel consumption. To emphasise the road touring nature of the motor-cycles there were regulations for the inclusion of saddles, pedals, mudguards and exhaust silencers.

First Isle of Man TT Race[edit]

The Norton Twin motorcycle which won the first Isle of Man TT races in 1907.

The first race was held on Tuesday 28 May 1907 and was called the International Auto-Cycle Tourist Trophy.[6] The event was organised by the Auto-Cycle Club over 10 laps of the St John's Short Course of 15 miles 1,470 yards.

The first Isle of Man TT Race in 1907 was for two different classes of touring motor-cycles. The winner of the single-cylinder class, and overall winner of the first event in 1907, was Charlie Collier riding a Matchless motor-cycle in a time of 4 hours, 8 minutes and 8 seconds at an average race speed of 38.21 mph. The winner of the twin-cylinder class was Rem Fowler riding a Peugeot engined Norton at an average race speed of 36.21 mph.[7]

The trophy presented to Charlie Collier as the winner of the 1907 Isle of Man TT Race, was donated by the Marquis de Mouzilly St. Mars.[8] It featured a stylised version of Olympic God Hermes by Giovanni Da Bologna as a silver figurine astride a winged wheel. The trophy was similar in design to the 18 carat gold Montague Trophy presented to John Napier (Arrol-Johnston) as the inaugural winner of the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy car race in 1905 now known as the RAC Tourist Trophy.[9] The Marquis de Mouzilly St. Mars Trophy is now presented annually to the winner of the Isle of Man Senior TT Motor-Cycle Race.

Early Isle of Man TT race history (1904–1910)[edit]

Gordon Bennett and Tourist Trophy car races[edit]

Motor racing began on the Isle of Man in 1904 with the Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial and were originally restricted to touring automobiles. As the Motor Car Act 1903 placed a speed restriction of 20 mph on automobiles in the UK, Julian Orde, Secretary of the Automobile Car Club of Britain and Ireland approached the authorities in the Isle of Man for the permission to race automobiles on public roads.[10] The Highways (Light Locomotive) Act 1904 gave permission in the Isle of Man for the 52.15 mile Highlands Course for the 1904 Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial which was won by Clifford Earl (Napier) in 7 hours 26.5 minutes for 5 laps (255.5 miles) of the Highlands Course. The 1905 Gordon Bennett Trial was held on 30 May 1905 and was again won by Clifford Earl driving a Napier automobile in 6 hours and 6 minutes for 6 laps of the Highland Course. This was followed in September 1905 with the first Isle of Man Tourist Trophy Race for racing automobiles, now known as the RAC Tourist Trophy and was won by John Napier (Arrol-Johnston) in 6 hours and 9 minutes at an average speed of 33.90 mph.[11]

International Motor-Cycle Cup Race (1905)[edit]

For the 1905 Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial it was decided to run an eliminating trial for motorcycles the day after for a team to represent Great Britain in the International Motor-Cycle Cup Races. An accident at Ramsey Hairpin forced out one of the pre-race favourites and the inability of the motorcycle competitors to climb the steep Mountain Section of the course forced the organisers to use a 25-mile section of the Gordon Bennett Trial course. This ran from Douglas south to Castletown and then north to Ballacraine along the primary A3 road and returned to the start at the Quarterbridge in Douglas via Crosby and Glen Vine along the current Snaefell Mountain Course in the reverse direction. The 1905 International Motor-Cycle Cup Race for 5 laps (125 miles) was won by J.S. Campbell (Ariel) despite a fire during a pit stop[12] in 4 hours, 9 minutes and 36 seconds at an average race speed of 30.04 mph.[13]

Format of the Races[edit]

Competitors line up to start the race line-up for the start of the 2010 Senior TT Race.

The Isle of Man TT Races since the first race in 1907 have been in the format of time-trial. The races held on the Clypse Course during the period 1954-1959 were the more traditional full grid starts along with the 1924 Lightweight TT Race and Clubmen TT Races from 1948 were also "mass-start" races. The current format is a "clutch start" and race competitors will be "started singly at 10 second intervals".[14]

Race Procedure[edit]

  • Start Preliminaries
    • First Signal - 45 minutes before the start with a warm-up of engines in the Race Paddock and assembly area.
    • Second Signal - 30 minutes before start.
    • Third Signal - 15 minutes before start and race competitors move to the start-line and form-up in qualification order.
    • Fourth Signal - 5 minutes before start and the signal to clear grid and race competitors move towards the exit-gate.

Eligibility[edit]

Entrants must be in possession of a valid National Entrants or FIM Sponsors Licence for Road Racing.

Race Classes[edit]

Superbike TT[edit]

The current specification for entries into the Superbike TT race are defined as:

  • Any machine complying with the following specifications:
    • TT Superbike: (Machines complying with the 2015 FIM Superbike Championship specifications)
      • Over 750cc up to 1000cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
      • Over 750cc up to 1000cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke
      • Over 850cc up to 1200cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke

Minimum Weight 165 kg. Other machines admitted at the discretion of the Organisers [15]

Supersport TT[edit]

The 1911 Isle of Man TT was the first time the Junior TT race took place and was open to 300 cc single-cylinder and 340 cc twin cylinder motor-cycles and was contested over 5 laps of the new 37.5 mile Snaefell Mountain Course. The first event on the new course was the Junior TT Race and was contested by 35 entrants. It was won by Percy J. Evans riding a Humber motor-cycle at an average race speed of 41.45 mph. The 1912 event was the first to limit the Junior TT to only 350 cc machines and this engine capacity prevailed until 1994 and replaced with the 600cc Supersport class.

  • 1911 For single cylinder motor-cycles not exceeding 300 cc engine capacity and 340 cc twin cylinder motor-cycles.
  • 1912-1948 For motor-cycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity.
  • 1949-1953 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity and held on the Snaefell mountain course.
  • 1954-1959 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity and held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960-1976 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1977-1993 for motor-cycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1994- onwards for motor-cycles not exceeding 600 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.

The 2015 specifications for entries into the Supersport TT race are:

    • TT Superbike: (Machines complying with the 2015 FIM Supersport Championship specifications)
  • Over 400cc up to 600cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
  • Over 600cc up to 750cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke
  • Over 600cc up to 675cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke

Minimum Weight 161 kg[16]

Superstock TT[edit]

The 2015 specifications for entries for the Superstock TT, an event for production based motor-cycles racing on treaded road tyres, are based on the FIM Superstock Championship specifications, as follows:

  • Superstock TT: (Machines complying with the 2012 FIM Superstock Championships specifications)
    • Over 750cc up to 1000cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
    • Over 750cc up to 1000cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke
    • Over 850cc up to 1200cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke

Minimum (Dry) Weight 170 kg[17]

Lightweight TT[edit]

The winner of the 2012 Lightweight TT Ryan Farquhar (2) Kawasaki 650cc at the startline TT Grandstand

The 1922 Isle of Man TT was the first time the Lightweight TT race took place. It was won by the motor-cycle journalist Geoff S. Davison, riding a Levis, at an average speed of 49.89 mph for 7 laps of the Snaefell Mountain Course. As with the Ultra-Lightweight TT Race the event was dropped from the race schedule in 2004, the Lightweight TT was reintroduced 2008-2009, held on the Billown Circuit and then dropped from the race schedule on cost grounds.

  • 1924-1948 For motor-cycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity.
  • 1949-1953 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity and held on the Snaefell mountain course.
  • 1954-1959 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 250cc engine capacity and held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960-1976 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1977-2004 for motor-cycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 2008-2009 for motor-cycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity and held on the Billown Circuit.
  • 2012 - The event was reintroduced for the 2012 Isle of Man TT Races for water-cooled four-stroke twin cylinder not exceeding a capacity of 650cc and complying with the ACU Standing Regulations.[18]

The 2015 specifications for entries into the Lightweight TT race are:

  • Machines must comply with general technical rules as per ACU Standing Regulations and 2015 IOM TT regulations.
    • Any four-stroke twin cylinder motor-cycle originally sold for road use with a water-cooled engine of up to 650cc engine capacity.
    • Eligible machines must be from models homologated[clarification needed] for road use 2006 or later.[19]

Sidercar TT[edit]

Sidecar TT Race Competitors line up to start the race

The 1923 Isle of Man TT was the first time the Sidecar TT race was run over 3 laps (113 miles) of the Mountain Course and was won by Freddie Dixon and passenger Walter Perry with a special Douglas banking-sidecar at an average race speed of 53.15 mph. For the 1926 Isle of Man TT Races the Sidecar TT and Ultra-Lightweight TT were dropped for the lack of entries.

The Sidecar TT Race was re-introduced for the 1954 Isle of Man TT Race for Sidecars not exceeding 500cc engine capacity and the Sidecar TT Race was run on the Clypse Course. A non-championship 750cc class for sidecars was introduced for the 1968 Isle of Man TT Race. For the 1976 Isle of Man TT Race the event became a race held over two-legs. From 1975, the previous 500cc and 750 classes for Sidecars was replaced by a 1000cc engine capacity class.


The new FIM Formula 2 class for Sidecars was introduced for the 1990 Isle of Man TT.

  • 1954-1959 FIM World Championship Event for Side-Cars not exceeding 500cc engine capacity. Race held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960-1976 FIM World Championship Event held on Mountain Course.
  • 1968-1974 Non-Championship event for Sidecars not exceeding 750cc.
  • 1975-1989 Sidecars not exceeding 1000cc engine capacity.
  • 1990- FIM Formula 2 Sidecar race for two-stroke engines not exceeding 350cc or four-stroke engines not exceeding 600cc.

The 2015 specifications for entries into the Sidecar TT race are:

  • Machines must comply with general technical rules as per ACU Standing Regulations and 2015 Isle of Man TT regulations.
    • Engine Types
      • 501 – 600cc, 4 stroke, 4 cylinder, Production based motor-cycle engines.

Senior TT[edit]

Ian Hutchinson on the start-line of the Senior TT Race on 11 June 2010

For the 1911 Isle of Man TT the first TT event using the Snaefell Mountain Course or Mountain Course, two separate races were introduced. The first event was a four lap Junior TT Race and a separate Senior TT race for 500 cc single-cylinder and 585 cc twin-cylinder motor-cycles over 5 laps of the new 37.5 mile Snaefell Mountain Course. The new technical challenges of the Mountain Course forced changes on entrants and motor-cycle manufacturers alike. The American Indian Motor-Cycle factory fitted a two-speed gearbox and chain-drive. This proved to be the winning combination when Oliver Godfrey won the 1911 Isle of Man Senior TT race riding an Indian at an average speed of 47.63 mph. Fitted with an obsolete six-speed belt drive, Charlie Collier riding a Matchless motor-cycle finished second in the 1911 Senior TT race and was later disqualified for illegal refuelling. During an early morning practice session for the 1911 Isle of Man TT races, Victor Surridge died after crashing his Rudge motor-cycle at Glen Helen, the first death of a competitor on the Snaefell Mountain Course and the first death in the Isle of Man of a person in an automotive accident.[20]

  • 1911 For single cylinder motor-cycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity and 585cc twin cylinder motor-cycles.
  • 1912-1939 For motor-cycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity.
  • 1947-1948 For motor-cycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity and a ban on engine supercharging.
  • 1949-1976 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 500cc engine capacity.
  • 1977-1984 for motor-cycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity.
  • 1985-2004 for motor-cycles complying with ACU TT Formula 1 rules not exceeding 1,010 cc engine capacity.
  • 2004 onwards for motor-cycles complying with ACU/FIM Superbike rules not exceeding 1,000 cc engine capacity.

The 2015 specifications for entries into the Senior TT race are:

  • TT Superbike: (Machines complying with the 2015 FIM Superbike Championship specifications)
    • (Over 750cc up to 1000cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
    • (Over 750cc up to 1000cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke
    • (Over 850cc up to 1200cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke

[21]

  • Supersport Junior TT (without limitation of tyre choice)
    • TT Superstock (without limitation of tyre choice)
    • Other machines admitted at the discretion of the Organisers.

TT Zero Challenge[edit]

TT Zero – a new event for the 2010 Isle of Man TT races – replaced the TTXGP race for 1 lap (37.73 miles) of the Snaefell Mountain Course. The TT Zero event as an officially sanctioned Isle of Man TT race is for racing motorcycles where "The technical concept is for motorcycles (two wheeled) to be powered without the use of carbon based fuels and have zero toxic/noxious emissions." [22] The Isle of Man Government offered a prize of £10,000 for the first entrant to exceed the prestigious 100 mph (22 minutes and 38.388 seconds) average speed around the Mountain Course. Description

  • Prototype electrically propelled motor-cycles. Powered solely by stored electricity (battery/accumulator).[23]
  • Weight
  • Motor-cycles minimum weight is 100 kg and up to 300 kg. Weighed in race ready mode.
  • Accumulator (storage battery)
  • The accumulator is defined as any equipment used for the intermediate storage of electrical energy supplied by the solar generator or by the charging unit. Any on-board accumulator is considered as an integral part of the vehicle’s accumulator. All on-board electrical equipment, unless consisting of items originally powered by dry batteries, small accumulator or their own solar cells, must receive its energy supply from the vehicle’s official accumulator.[24]
  • Voltage
  • The voltage is limited to 600 volts between two points.[25]
  • Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
  • It is permitted to recover energy generated by the kinetic energy of the vehicle using a Regenerative brake or Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS).[26]
  • Aerodynamic aids and Streamlining.
  • The competitor must be completely visible from either side, except for the riders hands and forearms which may be obscured by bodywork.
  • Bodywork in front of the rider must not be higher than the competitor's shoulders.

Discontinued Race Classes[edit]

Ultra-Lightweight TT[edit]

The 1924 Isle of Man TT was the first time the Ultra-Lightweight TT race took place for motor-cycles not exceeding 175 cc engine capacity. It was won by Jack Porter, riding a New Imperial motor-cycle at an average speed of 51.21 mph for 3 laps of the Snaefell mountain course. The Ultra-Lightweight TT Race was re-introduced for the 1951 Isle of Man TT Race for motor-cycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity. The Ultra-Lightweight class was part of the Isle of Man TT Races until 1974 races and then dropped from the TT Race meeting. The Ultra-Lightweight TT Race was re-introduced for the 1989 Isle of Man TT Races again for two-stroke 125cc motor-cycles and was part of the Isle of Man TT Festival until the 2004 Isle of Man TT Races and was then dropped due to lack of entries. The event was reintroduced 2008-2009 and held on the Billown Circuit and then dropped from the race schedule on cost grounds for the 2010 Isle of Man TT races.

  • 1924-1925 For motor-cycles not exceeding 175 cc engine capacity.
  • 1951-1953 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity and held on the Snaefell mountain course.
  • 1954-1959 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity and held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960-1974 FIM World Championship event for motor-cycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1989-2004 for motor-cycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 2008-2009 for motor-cycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity and held on the Billown Circuit.
  • 1962-1968 Additional World Championship event for Ultra-Lightweight TT motor-cycles not exceeding 50 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.

Production TT and Clubman TT Races[edit]

The Production TT, racing for production based motor-cycles had been part of the Isle of Man TT Races since 1967 for 250cc, 500cc & 750cc classes replacing the Lightweight, Junior and Senior production motor-cycles of the Clubmans TT races (19471956). These production based machines raced until the 1976 Isle of Man TT until the classes were discontinued. The Production TT was reintroduced for the 1984 Isle of Man TT Races for 3 classes reduced to two classes on safety grounds for the 1990 races. For the 2005 Isle of Man TT the Superstock TT race replaced the previous 1000cc & 600cc Production TT classes that had been part of the Isle of Man TT race schedule since 1989.

Practice Sessions[edit]

2013 Isle of Man TT — Start of the Newcomers Speed Control Lap with Isle of Man TT winners John McGuinness (left) and Bruce Anstey (right)

At the Isle of Man TT Races there is one week of practice and one week of racing. Historically there was an early morning practice session from 05:00-07:30 am but this was discontinued for the 2004 Isle of Man TT Races. During an early morning practice at the 1927 Isle of Man TT, Archie Birkin, brother of Tim Birkin of the Bentley Boys, was killed at Rhencullen. From 1928 practice sessions for the Isle of Man TT Races and Manx Grand Prix were held on closed roads. Evening practice sessions were introduced for the 1937 Isle of Man TT and continue to this day. The Thursday afternoon practice session from 13:45-17:00, introduced in the late 1950s, was discontinued for the Centenary 2007 Isle of Man TT.

The current event begins with a Saturday evening untimed practice session from 18:00 - 21:30, with the public roads that comprise the Snaefell Mountain Course closed. The section of the primary A18 Snaefell Mountain Road from Ramsey Hairpin to Creg-ny-Baa closes at 17:00 for the practice periods, 1 hour before the rest of the course.

The first practice session holds two Newcomers controlled lap for new Solo and Sidecar competitors to the event. These competitors are escorted for 1 lap of the Mountain Course by the TT Travelling Marshall's at a steady pace set and accompanied by experienced Isle of Man TT and Manx Grand Prix competitors.

The schedule for the first Saturday untimed session:

18:20 - 18:45 Solo Motor-Cycles Newcomers Speed Control Lap
18:35 - 19:00 Sidecar Newcomers' Control Lap
18:50 - 19:50 Lightweight TT / Newcomers (all solo classes)
19:55 - 20:50 Sidecar practice session.

Practice Week sessions[edit]

The main practice and timed practice sessions are held on Monday-Friday of the next week. The public roads forming the Mountain Course are again closed 18:00 - 21:30 for the Solo and Sidecar classes.

Schedule for the five day timed session Monday-Friday:

18:20 - 19:55 Solo Motor-Cycles timed practice session.
20:00 - 20:50 Sidecar timed practice session.

Race Week practice sessions[edit]

Further scheduled timed practice sessions after the race periods for the 2015 Isle of Man TT Races.

Saturday 6 June:

16:40 - 17:40 Solo Motor-Cycles timed practice session.

Monday 8 June:

12:30 - 13:00 Sidecar timed practice session.

Wednesday 10 June:

15:50 - 16:45 Solo Motor-Cycles timed practice session for the 2015 Isle of Man TT Races. .

Practice TT Zero[edit]

2012 Isle of Man TT  TT Zero - (2) Mark Miller Motoczysz Elpc followed by (3) John McGuinness

Schedule for the TT Zero Challenge timed sessions:

Friday 5 June 20:30 - 20:50

Saturday 6 June 17:45 - 18:30

Monday 8 June 16:00 - 16:30

In the event of inclement weather either delaying or leading to the cancellation of one or more timed practice sessions, a reserve morning session can be held with the public roads closed 06:00 - 07:30 on the Mountain Course. Further untimed practice sessions are held during race week after the racing has been completed for selected race classes.

Race schedule 2015[edit]

There are 4 scheduled race days:

Saturday 6 June:

11:00 TT Superbike Race - 6 laps (236.38 miles).
14:00 Sidecar Race 1 - 3 laps (113.00 miles).

Monday 8 June:

10:45 Supersport TT Race 1 - 4 laps (150.92 miles).
14:00 Superstock TT Race - 4 laps (150.92 miles).

Wednesday 10 June:

10:45 TT Zero Challenge Race - 1 lap (37.73 miles).
12:00 Supersport TT Race 2 - 4 laps (150.92 miles).
14:30 Sidecar Race 'B' - 3 laps (113.00 miles).

Friday 11 June:

10:15 Lightweight TT Race - 3 laps (113.00 miles).
13:00 Senior TT Race - 6 laps (236.38 miles).

The section of the primary A18 Snaefell Mountain Road from Ramsey Hairpin to Creg-ny-Baa closes for the race periods, 30 minutes before the rest of the course.

TT Course Official Vehicles[edit]

After the completion of a practice or race period, an official course vehicle displaying the notice Roads Open will proceed along the Mountain Course, after passing each point of the Course opening the road to public access. For the A18 Snaefell Mountain Road the official vehicle displays the notice Roads Open One Way.

Practice and Race Crossing Places[edit]

The 1982 Road Racing Act (Isle of Man) and the supplementary TT Road Races Orders allow vehicles and pedestrians to cross the Snaefell Mountain Course at certain points between scheduled race periods under the supervision of a police officer. These points include:

In Douglas[edit]

Elsewhere[edit]

  • A1 Douglas to Peel road with the A23 Eyreton Road and the B36 Old Church Road, Crosby
  • A3 Castletown to Ramsey road junction with B10 Sartfield Road and the Ballaleigh Road at Barregarrow Crossroads, Michael
  • A3 junction with A10 Station Road and C37 Ballaugh Glen Road at Ballaugh Bridge
  • A3 junction with A14 Sandygate Road and A14 Tholt-y-Will Glen Road at Sulby Crossroads
  • A2 Albert Square and Princes Road, Ramsey at the junction with A18 Snaefell Mountain Road.
  • A18 Bemahague Road between Signpost Corner and Bedstead Corner, Onchan.

TT Course Access Road[edit]

A further access road operates continuously during practice and race periods from the junction of the A5 New Castletown Road and the Quarterbridge to an exit near the former Braddan Bridge railway halt and the A23 Ballafletcher Road, Douglas. This access road uses a small section of the former Douglas to Peel railway line and is restricted to cars and light vans below a weight limit of 3,500 kg (pedestrian access is prohibited). The TT Access Road runs parallel to a section of the A1 Peel Road which is part of the Snaefell Mountain Course.

Description[edit]

The Oxford Companion to World Sports and Games notes,

The oldest motor-cycle racing circuit still in use is the Snaefell Mountain Course over which the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy races are run. Starting at the town of Douglas on the south-east coast, the course takes a wide sweep to the west and north to enter the town of Ramsey on the north-east coast and thence return to the starting point, each lap measuring 3734 miles (60.7 km) and taking in over 200 bends while climbing from sea level to an altitude of over 1,300 ft (396 m). This circuit is the epitome of the natural road course, all the roads used being ordinary public highways closed for the racing and practice sessions.

[27]

Traditionally held in the last week of May and the first week of June, the TT races create a carnival atmosphere. Picnicking crowds flanking the circuit are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country – Le Tour de France.

Safety and Danger[edit]

The TT races are extremely dangerous because riders achieve high speeds on very narrow, twisting streets, roads and lanes flanked by stone walls and buildings. Between 1907 and 2014 there have been 245 rider competitor fatalities during official practices or races on the Snaefell Mountain Course (this number includes the riders killed during the Manx Grand Prix and Isle of Man Clubman TT races). The worst year for fatalities was 1970 when six riders lost their lives at the TT. Another racer died at the Manx Grand Prix later in the same year.

Due to the ongoing dangers and safety concerns, doubts are expressed every year over the future of the TT. On "Mad Sunday" any member of the public can ride the mountain section of the course, which is open one way from Ramsey to Douglas. In 2012 there were just four accidents on the open day - while in previous years there had been dozens.

In 2013, a rider lost control on the first lap of the Senior TT, and his machine hit spectators near the bottom of Bray Hill, close to the start area on the outskirts of Douglas. Eleven were injured.[28]

Total overall race winners[edit]

Rider Wins
Joey Dunlop 26
John McGuinness 21
Dave Molyneux 17
Mike Hailwood 14
Michael Dunlop, Steve Hislop, Phillip McCallen 11
Giacomo Agostini, Robert Fisher, Ian Lougher, Stanley Woods 10
Bruce Anstey, Mick Boddice, David Jefferies, Dave Saville, Siegfried Schauzu, Charlie Williams 9
Ian Hutchinson, Jim Moodie, Chas Mortimer, Phil Read 8
Mick Grant, Tony Rutter 7
Geoff Duke, Jimmie Guthrie, Jim Redman, John Surtees 6
Alec Bennett, Nick Crowe, Brian Reid, Robert Dunlop, Carlo Ubbiali 5
Klaus Enders, Freddie Frith, Wal Handley, Trevor Ireson, Dave Leach, Ray Pickrell, Tarquinio Provini, Michael Rutter, Bill Smith, Jock Taylor, John Williams 4
Adrian Archibald, Ray Amm, Simon Beck, Graeme Crosby, Max Deubel, Harold Daniell, Carl Fogarty, Alex George, Tom Herron, Alan Jackson, Ryan Farquhar, Tony Jefferies, Klaus Klaffenböck, Dave Leech, Rob McElnea, Bob McIntyre, Phil Mellor, Dave Morris, Chris Palmer, Walter Schneider, Ian Simpson, Darren Carguillo, Rolf Steinhausen, Luigi Taveri, Barry Woodland 3
Fergus Anderson, Hugh Anderson, Manliff Barrington, Artie Bell, Geoff Bell, Lowry Burton, Kel Carruthers, Charlie Collier, Steve Cull, Howard R Davies, Freddie Dixon, Charlie Dodson, Cameron Donald, Iain Duffus, Marc Flynn, Dick Greasley, Shaun Harris, John Hartle, Fritz Hillebrand, Gary Hocking, Tim Hunt, Bill Ivy, Gary Johnson, Alistair King, Con Law, Eddie Laycock, Bill Lomas, Graeme McGregor, Brian Morrison, Trevor Nation, Gary Padgett, Cecil Sandford, Tom Sheard, Edwin Twemlow, Nigel Piercy, Steve Plater, Jock Porter, Malcolm Uphill, Eric Williams, Paul Williams 2
Steve Abbott, Dario Ambrosini, Frank A Applebee, Ivor Arber, Reg Armstrong, Georg Auerbacher, Mark Baldwin, W.H. Bashall, Ian Bell, Ben Birchall, Dieter Braun, Eric Briggs, Norman Brown, Ralph Bryans, Jimmy Buchan, Trevor Burgess, Roger Burnett, Florian Camathias, Maurice Cann, Phil Carpenter, Shannon Carpenter, Phil Carter, Harold Clark, Rod Coleman, Harry A Collier, Syd Crabtree, Dave Croxford, J.D. Daniels, Leo Davenport, G.S. Davison, Steve Day, Tommy de la Hay, Ernst Degner, Eddie Dow, P.J. Evans, Helmut Fath, Jack Findlay, Rem Fowler, Sid Gleave, Oliver Godfrey, Les Graham, Stuart Graham, Werner Haas, Conrad Harrison, Dean Harrison, Ron Haslam, R.J. Hazlehurst, F.G. Hicks, James Hillier, Mac Hobson, Bill Hodgson, John Holden, Robert Holden, Rupert Hollaus, Colin Hopper, Clive Horton, Eric Housley, Dennis Ireland, Mitsuo Itoh, Brian Jackson, Nick Jefferies, C. W. Johnston, Ken Kavanagh, Bob Keeler, Neil Kelly, Ewald Kluge, Ray Knight, David Lashmar, Monty V. Lockwood, Frank Longman, Heinz Luthringshauser, Jack Marshall, Keith Martin, Hugh Mason, Cromie McCandless, Bill McVeigh, Georg Meier, Ted Mellors, Mark Miller, Derek Minter, George O'Dell, Eric Oliver, Mat Oxley, Les Parker, Denis Parkinson, Graham Penny, A. Phillips, Derek Powell, Cliff Pritchard, Cyril Pullin, Brian Purslow, Richard Quayle, Johnny Rea, Tim Reeves, Harry Reed, Tommy Robb, Brett Richmond, Tony Rogers, Nigel Rollason, Dave Roper, Fritz Scheidegger, Martyn Sharpe, Dave Simmonds, Bill Simpson, Jimmie Simpson, Barry Smith, Omobono Tenni, Steve Tonkin, G.H. Tucker, Kenneth Twemlow, Henry Tyrell-Smith, Chris Vincent, Terry Vinicombe, Graham Walker, Frank Whiteway, Cyril Williams, Peter Williams, Stan Wood, T.L. Wood 1

FIM Championship Rounds (1949–1976)[edit]

The Isle of Man TT was part of the FIM Motor-Cycle Grand Prix World Championship (now MotoGP) between 1949 and 1976. During this period the Isle of Man TT Races counted as the United Kingdom round including the Sidecar TT, 50cc Ultra-Lightweight TT, 125cc Lightweight TT, 250cc Lightweight TT, 350cc Junior TT and 500cc Senior TT races counting towards the FIM Motor-Cycle Grand Prix World Championship.

Year 50 cc (Ultra-Lightweight TT) 125 cc (Lightweight TT) 250 cc (Lightweight TT) 350 cc (Junior TT) 500 cc (Senior TT) Report
Rider Manufacturer Rider Manufacturer Rider Manufacturer Rider Manufacturer Rider Manufacturer
1976 United Kingdom Tom Herron Yamaha United Kingdom Chas Mortimer Yamaha United Kingdom Tom Herron Yamaha Report
1975 United Kingdom Chas Mortimer Yamaha United Kingdom Charlie Williams Yamaha United Kingdom Mick Grant Kawasaki Report
1974 United Kingdom Charlie Williams Yamaha United Kingdom Tony Rutter Yamaha United Kingdom Phil Carpenter Yamaha Report
1973 United Kingdom Tommy Robb Yamaha United Kingdom Charlie Williams Yamaha United Kingdom Tony Rutter Yamaha Australia Jack Findlay Suzuki Report
1972 United Kingdom Chas Mortimer Yamaha United Kingdom Phil Read Yamaha Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1971 United Kingdom Chas Mortimer Yamaha United Kingdom Phil Read Yamaha United Kingdom Tony Jefferies Yamsel Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1970 Germany Dieter Braun Suzuki Australia Kel Carruthers Yamaha Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1969 United Kingdom Dave Simmonds Kawasaki Australia Kel Carruthers Benelli Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1968 Australia Barry Smith Derbi United Kingdom Phil Read Yamaha United Kingdom Bill Ivy Yamaha Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1967 United Kingdom Stuart Graham Suzuki United Kingdom Phil Read Yamaha United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Honda United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Honda United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Honda Report
1966 United Kingdom Ralph Bryans Honda United Kingdom Bill Ivy Yamaha United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Honda Italy Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Honda Report
1965 Switzerland Luigi Taveri Honda United Kingdom Phil Read Yamaha Rhodesia Jim Redman Honda Rhodesia Jim Redman Honda United Kingdom Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Report
1964 New Zealand Hugh Anderson Suzuki Switzerland Luigi Taveri Honda Rhodesia Jim Redman Honda Rhodesia Jim Redman Honda United Kingdom Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Report
1963 Japan Mitsuo Itoh Suzuki New Zealand Hugh Anderson Suzuki Rhodesia Jim Redman Honda Rhodesia Jim Redman Honda United Kingdom Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Report
1962 Germany Ernst Degner Suzuki Switzerland Luigi Taveri Honda United Kingdom Derek Minter Honda United Kingdom Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Gary Hocking MV Agusta Report
1961 United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Honda United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Honda United Kingdom Phil Read Norton United Kingdom Mike Hailwood Norton Report
1960 Italy Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Gary Hocking MV Agusta United Kingdom John Hartle MV Agusta United Kingdom John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1959 Italy Tarquinio Provini MV Agusta Italy Tarquinio Provini MV Agusta United Kingdom John Surtees MV Agusta United Kingdom John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1958 Italy Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Italy Tarquinio Provini MV Agusta United Kingdom John Surtees MV Agusta United Kingdom John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1957 Italy Tarquinio Provini Mondial United Kingdom Cecil Sandford Mondial United Kingdom Bob McIntyre Gilera United Kingdom Bob McIntyre Gilera Report
1956 Italy Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Italy Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Australia Ken Kavanagh Moto Guzzi United Kingdom John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1955 Italy Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta United Kingdom Bill Lomas Moto Guzzi United Kingdom Bill Lomas Moto Guzzi United Kingdom Geoff Duke Gilera Report
1954 Austria Rupert Hollaus NSU Germany Werner Haas NSU New Zealand Rod Coleman AJS Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Ray Amm Norton Report
1953 United Kingdom Leslie Graham MV Agusta United Kingdom Fergus Anderson Moto Guzzi Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Ray Amm Norton Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Ray Amm Norton Report
1952 United Kingdom Cecil Sandford MV Agusta United Kingdom Fergus Anderson Moto Guzzi United Kingdom Geoff Duke Norton Republic of Ireland Reg Armstrong Norton Report
1951 United Kingdom Cromie McCandless Mondial United Kingdom Tommy Wood Moto Guzzi United Kingdom Geoff Duke Norton United Kingdom Geoff Duke Norton Report
1950 Italy Dario Ambrosini Benelli United Kingdom Artie Bell Norton United Kingdom Geoff Duke Norton Report
1949 Republic of Ireland Manliff Barrington Moto Guzzi United Kingdom Freddie Frith Velocette United Kingdom Harold Daniell Norton Report

Current lap records[edit]

Category Rider(s) Machine Year Time Average speed
Outright Bruce Anstey BA Honda CBR1000RR 2014 17:06.682 132.298 miles per hour (212.913 km/h)
Superbike TT Bruce Anstey BA Honda CBR1000RR 2014 17:06.682 132.298 miles per hour (212.913 km/h)
Supersport TT Michael Dunlop Honda CBR600RR 2013 17:35.659 128.666 miles per hour (207.068 km/h)
Lightweight TT James Hillier Kawasaki ER650 2013 19:00.168 119.130 miles per hour (191.721 km/h)
Ultra-Lightweight TT Chris Palmer Honda 2004 20:20.87 110.52 miles per hour (177.86 km/h)
Senior TT Michael Dunlop BMW S1000RR 2014 17:11.591 131.668 miles per hour (211.899 km/h)
Superstock TT Michael Dunlop Honda CBR1000RR 2013 17:15.114 131.220 miles per hour (211.178 km/h)
TT Zero John McGuinness Mugen Shinden 2014 19:17.300 117.366 miles per hour (188.882 km/h)
Sidecar TT Nick Crowe and
Daniel Sayle
LCR Honda 600 Sidecar 2007 19:24.24 116.667 miles per hour (187.757 km/h)

Awards[edit]

Race winner trophies[edit]

Race Trophy Rider(s) Machine Year Average speed
Senior TT Senior Tourist Trophy1 Michael Dunlop BMW 1000 cc 2014 128.680 mph (207.090 km/h)
TT Superbike TT Superbike Trophy Michael Dunlop BMW 1000 cc 2014 128.415 mph (206.664 km/h)
TT Superstock John Hartle Trophy Michael Dunlop BMW 1000 cc 2014 127.216 mph (204.734 km/h)
TT Supersport Race 1 Junior Tourist Trophy Gary Johnson Triumph 675 cc 2014 124.526 mph (200.405 km/h)
TT Supersport Race 2 Classic TT Trophy Michael Dunlop Honda 600 cc 2014 125.078 mph (201.294 km/h)
TT Lightweight Lightweight TT Trophy Dean Harrison Kawasaki 650 cc 2014 117.460 mph (189.034 km/h)
TT Sidecar Race 1 Fred W. Dixon Trophy Conrad Harrison
Mike Aylott
Honda 600 cc 2014 113.987 mph (183.444 km/h)
TT Sidecar Race 2 Sidecar TT Trophy Dave Molyneux
Patrick Farrance
DMR 600 cc 2014 113.147 mph (182.092 km/h)
  • ^1 Marquis de Mouzilly St Mars Trophy.

Fastest lap awards[edit]

Race Trophy Rider(s) Machine Year Average speed Time
Overall Jimmy Simpson Trophy Bruce Anstey Honda 1000 cc 2014 132.298 mph (212.913 km/h) 17:06.682
Senior TT Norman Brown Trophy Michael Dunlop BMW 1000 cc 2014 131.668 mph (211.899 km/h) 17:11.591
TT Superbike John Williams Trophy Bruce Anstey Honda 1000 cc 2014 132.298 mph (212.913 km/h) 17:06.682
TT Superstock Don Ryder Trophy Michael Dunlop BMW 1000 cc 2014 129.778 mph (208.857 km/h) 17:26.621
TT Supersport Race Formula 2 TT Trophy Michael Dunlop Honda 600 cc 2014 127.403 mph (205.035 km/h) 17:46.129
TT Sidecar Race Jock Taylor Trophy Dave Molyneux
Patrick Farrance
DMR 600 cc 2014 115.538 mph (185.940 km/h) 19:35.612

Special awards[edit]

Race Trophy Rider(s) Machine Year
TT Solo Championship Joey Dunlop Trophy Michael Dunlop BMW 1000 cc 2014
TT Privateer’s Champion TT Privateer’s Champion Ivan Lintin Honda 600/1000 cc 2014
Overall Sidecar Championship RAC Sidecar Trophy Conrad Harrison
Mike Aylott
Honda 600 cc 2014
Sidecar Passenger Championship Craig Trophy Mike Aylott Honda 600 cc 2014
Supersport Championship TT Supporters’ Club Trophy Michael Dunlop Honda 600 cc 2014
Sidecar Chassis Championship Fred Hanks Trophy Conrad Harrison
Mike Aylott
Shelbourne Honda 600 cc 2014
Newcomers Sidecar Driver Championship Peter Chapman Trophy Alan Founds LCR Suzuk 600 cc 2014
Newcomers Sidecar Passenger Championship Dave Wells Trophy Tom Peters LCR Suzuk 600 cc 2014
British competitor
British manufacture
Joe Craig Trophy Gary Johnson Triumph 675 cc 2014
Irish (North or South) solo competitor Martin Finnegan Trophy Michael Dunlop BMW 1000 cc 2014
Isle of Man solo competitor Gavin Lee Trophy Conor Cummins Honda 1000 cc 2014

Other Special awards[edit]

Race Trophy Rider(s) Machine Year Average speed Time
Fastest Newcomer Vernon Cooper Trophy Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR 2014 129.104 mph (207.773 km/h) 17:32.078
Fastest Female Susan Jenness Trophy Estelle Leblond SGR 600 cc 2014 102.161 mph (164.412 km/h) 22:09.547

Isle of Man TT Race History[edit]

Race history 1920-1929[edit]

The Isle of Man TT and motor-cycle racing in the Isle of Man did not restart after the end of the First World War until 1920. Changes were made to the Snaefell Mountain Course and competitors now turned left at Cronk-ny-Mona and followed the primary A18 Snaefell Mountain Road to Governor's Bridge with a new start/finish line on Glencrutchery Road which lengthened the course to 37 ¾ miles.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ The Guinness Motorcycle Sport Fact Book page 120 by Ian Morrisson Guinness Publishing Ltd (1991) The Bath Press ISBN 0-85112-953-6
  2. ^ TT News – Preview Edition 2012 page 16-18 Isle of Man Newspapers Ltd (2012) Johnson Press Publishing Bridson & Horrox Publishing Ltd
  3. ^ TT News – Preview Edition 2012 page 16-18 Isle of Man Newspapers Ltd (2012) Johnson Press Publishing Bridson & Horrox Publishing Ltd
  4. ^ Official TT Guide 1992 page 45 Isle of Man Department of Tourism (1992) Mannin Media Publication
  5. ^ Isle of Man TT page 10-11 Charles Deane (1st Edition) (1975) Patrick Stevens Ltd ISBN 0 85059 172 4
  6. ^ Official Programme - International Auto-Cycle Tourist Trophy 28th May 1907 page 1-3 The Auto-Cycle Club. Reproduction (2007) Isle of Man Post
  7. ^ The Motor Cycle dated 5 June 1907 p.445
  8. ^ Isle of Man TT by Charles Deane pp. 12 (1st Edition)(1975) Patrick Stevens Ltd ISBN 0 85059 172 4
  9. ^ TT Pioneers - Early Car Racing in the Isle of Man by Robert Kelly p viii, 40 & 68 The Manx Experience (1996) The Alden Press ISBN No 1 873120 61 3
  10. ^ Island Racer 2004 pp 112–113 Mortons Media Group Ltd ISSN 1743-5838
  11. ^ TT Pioneers – Early Car Racing in the Isle of Man by Robert Kelly p68 The Manx Experience (1996) The Alden Press ISBN No 1 873120 61 3
  12. ^ The Motor Cycle pp545 dated 19 June 1905
  13. ^ Island Racer 2003 p89 Mortons Media Group Ltd ISSN 1743-4830
  14. ^ 2015 International Tourist Trophy Regulations page 22 ACU Events Isle of Man Limited (2015) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
  15. ^ 2015 International Tourist Trophy Regulations ACU Events Isle of Man Limited page 5 and page 58 Appendix A
  16. ^ 2015 International Tourist Trophy Regulations page 2 & Appendix C ACU Events Isle of Man Limited
  17. ^ International Tourist Trophy Regulations 2015 page 5/Appendix D page 34 ACU Events (Isle of Man) Limited (2015) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
  18. ^ International Isle of Man TT Regulations 2012 page 41-42 Appendix-E ACU Events (Isle of Man) Ltd (2012) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
  19. ^ International Tourist Trophy Regulations 2012 page 3/Appendix E page 43 ACU Events (Isle of Man) Limited (2015) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
  20. ^ TT Topics and Tales by David Wright - Amulree Publications (4 April 2006) ISBN 1901508099
  21. ^ 2010 International Tourist Trophy Regulations page 2 ACU Events Isle of Man Limited
  22. ^ REGULATIONS TT ZERO – 2010 International Tourist Trophy – Isle of Man 29 May – 11 June p27 ACU Events Ltd (2010)
  23. ^ REGULATIONS TT ZERO – 2010 International Tourist Trophy – Isle of Man 29 May – 11 June Appendix C page 25 ACU Events Ltd (2010)
  24. ^ REGULATIONS TT ZERO – 2010 International Tourist Trophy – Isle of Man 29 May – 11 June Appendix C page 25 ACU Events Ltd (2010)
  25. ^ 2015 International Tourist Trophy Regulations page 50 -54 & Appendix F ACU Events Isle of Man Limited
  26. ^ REGULATIONS TT ZERO – 2010 International Tourist Trophy – Isle of Man 29 May – 11 June Appendix C page 25 ACU Events Ltd (2010)
  27. ^ The Oxford Companion to Sports and Games Edited by John Arlott Oxford University Press (1975) pp. 669 ISBN 0-19-211538-3
  28. ^ "Eleven spectators injured after motorbike crash during first lap of Isle of Man TT race". Daily Mail. 7 June 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Barker, Stuart (2007). 100 One Hundred Years of the TT. EMAP ISBN 1-84605-235-1
  • Duckworth, Mick (2007). TT 100 – The Authorised History of the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy Racing. Lily Publications ISBN 9781899602674
  • Harris, Nick (1991). Motocourse History of the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy Races 1907–1989 Hazelton Publishing ISBN 0-905138-71-6
  • Mac McDiarmid (2004). The Magic of The TT. A Century of Racing over The Mountain Haynes Publishing. ISBN 1-84425-002-4
  • Noyes, Denis (1999) 50 Years Of Moto Grand Prix. Hazelton Publishing Ltd ISBN 1-874557-83-7
  • Pidcock, Fred & Snelling, Bill (2007) History of the Isle of Man Clubman's TT Races 1947–1956. Amulree Publications ISBN 1-901508-10-2
  • Savage, Mike (1997) TT Heroes. Amulree Publications ISBN 0-9521126-9-8
  • Snelling, Bill (1996). The Tourist Trophy in Old Photographs Collected by Bill Snelling. Sutton Publishing ISBN 1-84015-059-9
  • Stroud, Jon (2007). The Little Book of the TT. Green Umbrella Publishing ISBN 1-905828-24-1
  • Wright, David (2007). 100 Years of the Isle of Man TT Races. A Century of Motorcycle Racing. Crowood Press ISBN 1-86126-906-4
  • Wright, David (2006). TT Topics and Tales. Amulree Publications ISBN 1-901508-09-9

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 54°10′02″N 4°28′44″W / 54.16722°N 4.47889°W / 54.16722; -4.47889