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Thioredoxin 2
Protein TXN2 PDB 1uvz.png
PDB rendering based on 1uvz.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols TXN2 ; MT-TRX; MTRX; TRX2
External IDs OMIM609063 MGI1929468 HomoloGene40849 GeneCards: TXN2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TXN2 209077 at tn.png
PBB GE TXN2 209078 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 25828 56551
Ensembl ENSG00000100348 ENSMUSG00000005354
UniProt Q99757 P97493
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_012473 NM_019913
RefSeq (protein) NP_036605 NP_064297
Location (UCSC) Chr 22:
36.86 – 36.88 Mb
Chr 15:
77.92 – 77.93 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Thioredoxin, mitochondrial also known as thioredoxin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TXN2 gene.[1][2][3]


This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial member of the thioredoxin family, a group of small multifunctional redox-active proteins. The encoded protein may play important roles in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and in protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis.[3] It has been shown that TGF-beta-mediated induction of HMGA2 was weakened by the expression of TXN2.[4]

Clinical Significance[edit]

It has been demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms in the TXN2 gene may be associated with the risk of spina bifida.[5]


  1. ^ Spyrou G, Enmark E, Miranda-Vizuete A, Gustafsson J (Jan 1997). "Cloning and expression of a novel mammalian thioredoxin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272 (5): 2936–41. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.5.2936. PMID 9006939. 
  2. ^ Zhou J, Damdimopoulos AE, Spyrou G, Brüne B (Mar 2007). "Thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 have opposed regulatory functions on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 282 (10): 7482–90. doi:10.1074/jbc.M608289200. PMID 17220299. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: TXN2 thioredoxin 2". 
  4. ^ Ishikawa F, Kaneko E, Sugimoto T, Ishijima T, Wakamatsu M, Yuasa A et al. (Jan 2014). "A mitochondrial thioredoxin-sensitive mechanism regulates TGF-β-mediated gene expression associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 443 (3). doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.12.050. PMID 24342608. 
  5. ^ Wen S, Lu W, Zhu H, Yang W, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ et al. (Feb 2009). "Genetic polymorphisms in the thioredoxin 2 (TXN2) gene and risk for spina bifida". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A 149A (2). doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32589. PMID 19165900. 

Further reading[edit]