TYPO3 CMS 6.0 backend
|Original author(s)||Kasper Skårhøj|
|Stable release||6.1 / April 30, 2013|
|Available in||51 languages|
|Type||Content management system|
|License||GNU General Public License|
TYPO3 is a free and open source web content management framework based on PHP. It is released under the GNU General Public License. It can run on several web servers, such as Apache or IIS, on top of many operating systems, among them Linux, Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, Mac OS X and OS/2.
TYPO3 is, along with Drupal, Joomla! and Wordpress, among the most popular content management systems worldwide, however it is more widespread in Europe than in other regions. The biggest market share can be found in German-speaking countries.
TYPO3 is credited to be highly flexible - It can be extended by new functions without writing any program code. Also, the software is available in more than 50 languages and has a built-in localization system - therefore supports publishing content in multiple languages. Due to its features, scalability and maturity, TYPO3 is used by to build and manage websites of different types and size ranges, from small sites for individuals or nonprofit organizations to multilingual enterprise solutions for large corporations. According to the ability to support a corporate environment, it is classified as an enterprise level content management system.
History & Usage 
TYPO3 was initially authored by Kasper Skårhøj in 1997. It is now developed by two teams. The maintenance (versions 4.x, 6 and newer) tree's team leader is Oliver Hader. The development (TYPO3 Neos) tree's team leader is Robert Lemke.
Latest calculations from the TYPO3 Association claim that it is currently used in more than 500,000 installations. However the number of installations crawled by the public website "CMS Crawler" was around 217,000 by July 2012.
Delivered with a base set of interfaces, functions and modules, TYPO3's functionality spectrum is implemented by extensions. More than 5000 extensions are currently available for TYPO3 for download under the GNU General Public License from a repository called the TYPO3 Extension Repository, or TER.
System architecture 
Conceptually, TYPO3 consists of two parts: the frontend, visible to visitors, and the administrative backend. The frontend displays the web content. The backend is responsible for administration and managing content. The core functions of TYPO3 include user privileges and user roles, timed display control of content (show/hide content elements), a search function for static and dynamic content, search-engine friendly URLs, an automatic sitemap, multi-language capability for frontend and backend, and more.
Like most modern CMSes, TYPO3 follows the policy of separation of content and layout: The website content is stored in a relational database, while the page templates are stored on the file system. Therefore both can be managed and updated separately.
TYPO3 defines various basic types of content data. Standard content elements are described as text, text with media, images, (plain) HTML, video etc. Various additional types of content elements can be handled using extensions.
The fundamental content unit is a "page". Pages represent a URL in the frontend and are organized hierarchically in the backends' page tree. Standard pages serve as "containers" for one or multiple content elements. There are several additional special page types:
- shortcuts (they show content from another page)
- mount points (that insert a part of the page tree at the mount point)
- external URLs
- system folders (to handle complex data such as registered users)
- ...and more
Internally, TYPO3 is managed by various PHP arrays. They contain all the information necessary to generate HTML code from the content stored in the database. This is achieved by a unique configuration language called TypoScript.
Design elements 
Designing and developing with TYPO3 is commonly based on the following elements, among others:
- Page tree
- Representation of of all pages of a site, their structure and properties
- System-wide configuration parameters
- Traditionally, a simple HTML skeleton with markers (e.g., „###MARKER###“) and range markers, called subparts (e.g., „<!-- ###CONTENT### Start --> … <!-- ###CONTENT### End -->“); that are replaced by various content elements: navigation, text, graphics etc.) or serve as a subtemplate. Since TYPO3 4.3, the new template engine Fluid can be used.
- see TypoScript
- Additional plug-ins to enable additional functions. See Extensions
- As TYPO3 CMS is written in PHP, therefore most features can be modified or extended by experienced users. Mentionable here is the XCLASS mechanism, by which classes and methods can be overwritten and extended. If available, hooks are preferred.
TypoScript is a descriptive meta-language which defines how a website in TYPO3 is rendered. Strictly speaking, it is a configuration language, which is purely declarative. In Typoscript, configuration values are defined, which are parsed into a system-wide PHP array. TypoScript is object-based and organized in a tree-like structure.
TypoScript Template: The section associated with generating frontend output is called TypoScript Template. Its main use is to generate HTML code, possibly based on one or more HTML templates. The array controls the functions that, for example, are executed when the page is rendered in the frontend. Therefore it enables developers to globally manage features and extensions for the entire website with just a few modifications. Simplified: By creating an object in TypoScript, the system is instructed to execute several PHP functions, which create the desired output.
TSconfig: TypoScript also influences the backend and other aspects of a TYPO3 project. The TSconfig branch of the TypoScript tree consists of User TSconfig and Page TSconfig. It's built by the same syntax as the TypoScript Template described above.
[objectpath].[attribute] [operator] [value]
- = assign a value
- < copy an object
- =< insert a reference to an object
- > delete an object
In order to create any output at all, at least a PAGE-object has to be defined. Using the following code will render the text "Hello World" in the frontend, wrapped in <h2> HTML tags:
page = PAGE page.10 = TEXT page.10.value = Hello, world! page.10.wrap = <h2>|</h2>
Other important TypoScript objects are CONTENT (get content from the database) and TEMPLATE (render a HTML template).
Extensions are the cornerstone in the internal architecture of TYPO3. A feature that was introduced with version 3.5 in 2003 is the Extension Manager, a control center managing all TYPO3 extensions. The division between the TYPO3 core and the extensions is an important concept which determined the development of TYPO3 in the past years. Extensions are designed in a way so they can supplement the core seamlessly. This means that a TYPO3 system will appear as a unit while actually being composed of the core application and a set of extensions providing various features.
They can be downloaded from the online repository (TER) directly from the backend, and are installed and updated with a few clicks. Every extension is identified by a unique extension key (for example, tt_news). Also, developers can share new or modified extensions by uploading them to the repository.
Examples for popular extensions:
- News (extension key: tt_news): Website news with front page teasers and article handling
- TemplaVoila (extension key: templavoila), a popular third-party template engine extension
- RealURL (extension key: realurl): Creates SEO-friendly URLs, "pretty" URLs
- Front End User Registration (extension key: sr_feuser_register): A self-registration system for website users
- Direct Mail (extension key: direct_mail): Newsletter mailer system with options for personalized mails and feedback statistics
Generally, extensions are written in PHP. The full command set of PHP 5.3 can be used (regarded the system requirements of the specific TYPO3 version), but TYPO3 also provides several library classes for better efficiency: Best known and most used is the piBase library class. With introduction of TYPO3 4.3 in 2009, piBase has been replaced (or extended) by the Extbase library, which is a modern, MVC-based development framework. To ensure backwards compatibility, both libraries can to be used in the same TYPO3 installation. Extbase itself is a backport of some features of FLOW3, a general web application framework and also the base for future versions of TYPO3 (see Phoenix)
Version history 
|Legend:||Old version||Older version, still supported||Current version||Latest preview version||Future release|
|Package name||Branch||Version ||Release date||Major changes|
|3.x||Old version, no longer supported: 3.0||2001||
|Old version, no longer supported: 3.2||May 2002||
|Old version, no longer supported: 3.3||3 June 2002|
|Old version, no longer supported: 3.5||18 February 2003||
|Old version, no longer supported: 3.6||30 April 2004|
|Old version, no longer supported: 3.7||24 September 2004||
|Old version, no longer supported: 3.8||23 May 2005|
|Old version, no longer supported: 3.8.1||14 November 2005||
|4.x||Old version, no longer supported: 4.0||7 April 2006|
|Old version, no longer supported: 4.1||6 March 2007|
|Old version, no longer supported: 4.2||24 May 2008||
|Old version, no longer supported: 4.3||30 November 2009|
|Old version, no longer supported: 4.4||22 June 2010|
|Older version, yet still supported: 4.5 LTS||26 January 2011|
|Older version, yet still supported: 4.6||25 October 2011|
|Older version, yet still supported: 4.7||24 April 2012|
|6.x||Older version, yet still supported: 6.0.0||27 November 2012|
|Current stable version: 6.1||30 April 2013|
|Future release: 6.2 LTS||October 2013||
|TYPO3 Neos||1.x||Latest preview version of a future release: 1.0 Alpha 3||December 2012|
|1.x||Older version, yet still supported: 1.0||20 October 2011|
|Current stable version: 1.1||28 August 2012||
TYPO3 Neos 
A completely rewritten version (working title "Phoenix") was originally planned as TYPO3 version 5.0. While working on this new release and analyzing the 10-year history and complexity of TYPO3 v4, the TYPO3 community decided to publish version 5 as a completely new product that can not replace version 4 in the near future, and therefore needs to have its own name. Phoenix is based on FLOW3 and various other packages and will be released in late 2012.
Starting with the new version, the TYPO3 Association asked all contributors to sign an individual Contributor License Agreement (CLA). Signing such an agreement is not necessary, but recommended. This recommendation is common practice. it is also used by Zend Framework, Apache, Yahoo and other software publishers
See also 
- Content management
- Content management system
- List of content management systems
- List of applications with iCalendar support
- TCPDF library for generating PDF documents with TYPO3
- TYPO3 Flow web application framework, providing the base of TYPO3 Neos
- Pages in category TYPO3
Further reading 
- Rene Fritz, Daniel Hinderink, Werner Altmann – TYPO3: Enterprise Content Management (Paperback) – ISBN 1-904811-41-8
- Michael Peacock – Building Websites with TYPO3 (Paperback) – ISBN 1-84719-111-8
- Dan Osipov - TYPO3 4.3 Multimedia Cookbook (Paperback) - ISBN 978-1-84719-848-8
- Dmitry Dulepov – TYPO3 Extension Development (Paperback) – ISBN 978-1-84719-212-7
- TYPO3 download section
- Distribution of content management systems among websites that use German
- Publishing solution popularity for TYPO3
- TYPO3 - The Enterprise CMS
- Hinderink e.a., Werner Altmann; René Fritz; Daniel (2005). TYPO3 : enterprise content management (1. ed.). Birmingham [u.a.]: Packt Publ. ISBN 1-904811-41-8.
- "The History of TYPO3". The History of TYPO3. Retrieved 2012-04-11.
- "Reshuffling in the core team: Leadership and Roles". TYPO3 Association.
- TYPO3 in numbers
- TYPO3 Extension Repository
- "TypoScript Templates". TYPO3 Core & Documentation Team. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "TSconfig Reference". typo3.org.
- "TypoScript - a quick overview". TYPO3 Wiki.
- "What are extensions?", TYPO3.org
- Official Extbase MVC Framework Documentation
- http://typo3.org/download/ Information on support cycles of TYPO3 versions
- Installation manual for TYPO3 3.0
- Installation manual for TYPO3 3.0 w/ Screenshots of version 3.2
- Download older versions of TYPO3
- Source code of all newer versions with release dates
- Typo3 3.6.0 fertig gestellt | heise online
- release notes for TYPO3 3.8
- release notes for TYPO3 3.8.1
- http://typo3.org/news/article/support-for-typo3-40-is-officially-over/ End of life of TYPO3 4.0
- release notes for TYPO3 4.0
- "Inline Relational Record Editing". TYPO3 Wiki.
- release notes for TYPO3 4.1
- release notes for TYPO3 4.2
- release notes for TYPO3 4.3
- release notes for TYPO3 4.4
- Information on TYPO3 4.4
- TYPO3 4.5 Projects - TYPO3 450alpha3 - TYPO3 Forge
- TYPO3 4.5 Projects - TYPO3 450beta1 - TYPO3 Forge
- buzz.typo3.org: TYPO3 4.5 will be the most secure TYPO3 version ever
- Status report for TYPO3 4.5, Oct. 2010
- TYPO3 4.5 Kick-Off, TYPO3 Developer Days 2010
- TYPO3 4.6 release date rec. 6. October 2012
- Roadmap for TYPO3 4.6
- Overview of TYPO3 4.6 projects
- typo3.org: A Brief Introduction to TYPO3 version 4.6
- TYPO3 Receives German Governmental Funding for Accessibility and Usability Project, rec. 27 Juli 2011
- Core - Feature #12664: Idea about faster loading modules - TYPO3 Forge
- Roadmap - typo3.org
- TYPO3 4.7 Projects - Wiki - TYPO3 Forge
- "TYPO3 4.7 release notes".
- Government Package demo site (german)
- Development Report: File Abstraction Layer
- TYPO3 6.0 Release Timeline - typo3.org
- TYPO3 6.0 - Back to the Future
- The TYPO3 Core Team is giving a short summary about the upcoming releases of TYPO3. - typo3.org
- TYPO3 Roadmap - Phoenix
- The TYPO3 Core Team is giving a short summary about the upcoming releases of TYPO3
- release notes for FLOW3 1.0 rec. 11 October 2011
- "FLOW3 1.1 Release Notes". TYPO3 Association. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "The TYPO3 Core Team is giving a short summary about the upcoming releases of TYPO3".
- "TYPO3 Phoenix project site". TYPO3 Association.
- TYPO3 Licences
- Zend Framework CLA
- Apache Foundation CLA
- YUI CLA
- OSS Watch on CLAs
- Dambekalns, Karsten. "TYPO3 Neos and Flow - September 2012". TYPO3 Associtiation. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "TYPO3 Neos Alpha Releases". TYPO3 Association. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Change Log Neos 1.0.0 alpha2". TYPO3 Association. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
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