Tabasaran language

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Tabasaran
табасаран чIал tabasaran č’al
Native to Russia
Region Southern Dagestan
Ethnicity Tabasarans
Native speakers
130,000  (2010 census)[1]
Northeast Caucasian
  • Lezgic
    • Samur
      • Eastern Samur
        • Lezgi–Aghul–Tabasaran
          • Tabasaran
Official status
Official language in
 Dagestan (Russia)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tab
Glottolog taba1259[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Tabasaran (also written Tabassaran) is a Northeast Caucasian language of the Lezgic branch. It is spoken by the Tabasaran people in southern part of the Russian Republic of Dagestan. There are two main dialects: North (Khanag) and South Tabasaran. It has a literary language based on the Southern dialect, one of the official languages of Dagestan.

Tabasaran is an ergative language. The verb system is relatively simple; verbs agree with the subject in number, person and (in North Tabasaran) class. North Tabasaran has two noun classes (also dubbed with the term "grammatical gender"), whereas Southern Tabasaran has none (i.e. one fewer than North Tabasaran, because no noun classes means that all nouns belong to the same class).

Geographical distribution[edit]

It is spoken in the basin of Upper Rubas-nir and Upper Chirakh-nir.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes of Tabasaran[3]
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Epi-
glottal
Glottal
lenis fortis lenis fortis lenis fortis lenis fortis lenis fortis lenis fortis
Nasal m
Stop p
b
 

 

t̪ʼ

 
t̪ː
 
k
g
 

 
q
ɢ
 

 
ʔ
 
Affricate ts̪
ts̪ʼ
dz̪
 
ts̪ː
 

tʃʼ

 
tʃː
 
tʃʷ
tʃʷʼ
dʒʷ
 
tʃːʷ
 
Fricative f v s̪ː ʃ ʒ ʃː ʃʷ ʒʷ ʃːʷ x ɣ ʜ ʢ ɦ
Approximant j
Trill r
  • Note that the source names the epiglottal series ″pharyngeal″ indiscriminately in all the tables, also when it includes a plosive and thus clearly is not a true pharyngeal.

Writing system[edit]

Tabasaran is written using Cyrillic.

Letter IPA
А а /ɑ/
Аь аь /æ/
Б б /b/
В в /v/
Г г /ɡ/
Гг гг /ɣ/
Гъ гъ /ʕ/
Гь гь /h/
Д д /d/
Е е /ɛ/, /jɛ/
Ё ё /jo/
Ж ж /ʒ/, /dʒ/
Жв жв /ʒʷ/
З з /z/, /dz/
И и /i/
Й й /j/
К к /kʰ/
Кк кк /kː/
Къ къ /qːʰ/
Кь кь /qʼ/
Кӏ кӏ /kʼ/
Л л /l/
М м /m/
Н н /n/
О о /o/
П п /pʰ/
ПП пп /pː/
Пӏ пӏ /pʼ/
Р р /r/
С с /s/
Т т /tʰ/
Тт тт /tː/
Тӏ тӏ /tʼ/
У у /u/
Уь уь /y/
Ф ф /f/
Х х /ɦ/
Хъ хъ /qʰ/
Хь хь /x/
Ц ц /tsʰ/
Цц цц /tsːʰ/
Цӏ цӏ /tsʼ/
Ч ч /tʃʰ/
Чв чв /tʃʷʰ/
Чч чч /tʃːʰ/
Чӏ чӏ /tʃʼ/
Ш ш /ʃ/
Шв шв /ʃʷ/
Щ щ /ɕ/
Ъ ъ /ʔ/
Ы ы /ɨ/
Ь ь
Э э /ɛ/
Ю ю /y/, /ju/
Я я /æ/, /jɑ/

Note: The letters indicated in orange are encountered only in loanwords from Russian.

Grammar[edit]

Tabasaran is very probably[clarification needed] an active language of the fluid-S type[clarification needed]. It is reported to have 53 noun cases[4] but see Comrie[5] and Blake.[6][further explanation needed]

Samples[edit]

Uwu aldakurawu "Уву алдакураву" — "You are falling."

Uzuz uwu kkunduzuz "Узуз уву ккундузуз" — "I love you."

Uwu fudžuwa? "Уву фужува?" — "Who are you?"

Fici wuna? "Фици вуна?" — "How are you?"

Zakur ʕürza "Закур гъюрза" — "I'll come tomorrow"

Uzu kana qheza "Узу кана хъэза" — "I'll be back"

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tabasaran at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tabassaran". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Consonant Systems of the North-East Caucasian Languages on TITUS DIDACTICA
  4. ^ Comrie, B (1981). The languages of the Soviet Union. Cambridge University Press. 
  5. ^ Comrie, B. & Polinsky, M. (1998). The great Daghestan case hoax. 
  6. ^ Blake, Barry J. (2001). Case. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Chanmagomedov, B.G.-K. & K.T. Šalbuzov, Tabasaransko-russkij slovar’, Moskva: Ilim, 2001, ISBN 5-02-022620-3 [Includes outline of Tabasaran grammar (Grammatičeskij očerk tabasaranskogo jazyka) by K.K. Kurbanov (p. 395-476)]

External links[edit]