Table of keyboard shortcuts

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For keyboard shortcuts in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Keyboard shortcuts.

In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a sequence or combination of keystrokes on a computer keyboard which invokes commands in software.

Some keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously. Keyboard shortcuts may depend on the keyboard layout (localization).

Comparison of keyboard shortcuts[edit]

Main article: Keyboard shortcut

Keyboard shortcuts are a common aspect of most modern operating systems and associated software applications. Their use is pervasive enough that some users consider them an essential element of their routine interactions with a computer. Whether used as a matter of personal preference or for adaptive technology, the pervasiveness of common conventions enables the comparison of keyboard shortcuts across different systems. The following sections detail some of these comparisons in widely used operating systems.

General shortcuts[edit]

A note regarding KDE's shortcuts is that they can be changed and the below list contains the defaults. Some of the combinations are not true for localized versions of operating systems. For example in a non-English version of Windows, the Edit menu is not always bound to the "E" shortcut. Furthermore, many shortcuts (such as CTRL-Z, ALT-E, etc.) are just common conventions and are not handled by the operating system. Whether such commands are implemented (or not) depends on how an actual application program (such as an editor) is written. Not all applications follow (all of) these conventions.

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs Vim
File menu Alt+F, or F10 then F Ctrl+F2, then F (requires full keyboard access active, using System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls. Alternatively use Ctrl+F7 to toggle this setting.) Alt+F Meta+`, then f Alt+f (gvim)
Edit menu Alt+E Ctrl+F2, then E Alt+E Meta+`, then e Alt+e (gvim)
View menu Alt+V Ctrl+F2, then V Alt+V
Undo the last operation Ctrl+Z, or Alt+← Backspace Cmd+Z Ctrl+Z Ctrl+x, then u

or Ctrl+/
or Ctrl+_
or Undo

u
Redo the last operation Ctrl+Y, or Shift+Alt+← Backspace Shift+ Cmd+Z Shift+Ctrl+Z, or Ctrl+Y Same as undo, when undo is exhausted, it redoes. Move the cursor after one or more undos, and further undos will be redos. R
Cut the selection and store it in the clipboard Ctrl+X, or Shift+Del Cmd+X Ctrl+X Ctrl+w x

or "ax to cut in register "a" or "+x to cut in system clipboard

Copy the selection into the clipboard Ctrl+C, or Ctrl+Ins Cmd+C Ctrl+C Meta+w, or Ctrl+Ins y

or "ay or "+y

Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Ctrl+V, or Shift+Ins Cmd+V Ctrl+V Ctrl+y, or Shift+Ins p

or "ap to paste the content of the "a" register or "+p to paste the content of the system clipboard

Paste special Ctrl+Alt+V Shift+ Opt+ Cmd+V Ctrl+ Shift+V Meta+y
Select all in focused control or window Ctrl+A Cmd+A Ctrl+A Ctrl+x, then h ggVG, unlikely ever needed as most command take an optional range parameter. % means "all in focused windows" here so e.g. to copy all the text, use :%y
Cycle through installed keyboard languages / input methods Shift+Alt, or Win+Space

The latter displays a menu with the currently selected input method highlighted, and debuted in Windows 8.

Cmd+Space (not MBR)

Configure desired keypress in Keyboard and Mouse Preferences, Keyboard Shortcuts, Select the next source in Input menu.[1]

Ctrl+Alt+K via KDE Keyboard

Shift+Alt in GNOME

Ctrl+\

Navigation[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE/GNOME
New browser window with same page as current Ctrl+N (for both explorer.exe and iexplore.exe) Ctrl+N
New folder Ctrl+ Shift+N Shift+ Cmd+N Ctrl+ Shift+N
Applications menu Win or
Ctrl+Esc
Alt + "n"

e.g. for _File_ Alt + F

Lock desktop Win+L[2] Ctrl+ Shift+Eject or MBR Ctrl+ Shift+Pwr

(If "Require password after sleep or screen saver" is enabled in "System Preferences — Security & Privacy")

Ctrl+Alt+L
Show desktop Win+D or
Win+M (then use Win+ Shift+M to bring back all windows)
F11 Ctrl+Alt+D
Log out user Shift+ Cmd+Q Ctrl+Alt+Delete
Switch active user Win+L[3]
Task manager Ctrl+ Shift+Esc, Ctrl+Alt+Delete[4] Alt+ Cmd+Esc Ctrl+Esc
Rename object F2 Enter or F2 F2
Open file or program Enter Cmd+O Enter
Switch window (next/previous) Alt+Tab /

Shift+Alt+Tab

Cmd+Tab /

Shift+ Cmd+Tab

Alt+Tab /

Alt+ Shift+Tab

Switch window without dialog (next/previous) Alt+Esc /

Shift+Alt+Esc

Only works within single Applications

Cmd+` / Cmd+~

Alt+Esc /

Shift+Alt+Esc

Run application Win, enter executable name or

Win+R, enter executable name

Cmd+Space, enter executable name Alt+F2, enter executable name
Search Win, enter executable name or
Win+F
Cmd+Space /

Alt+F

Power management[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Place computer into sleep/standby mode Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel → Power Options → Advanced tab dialog box) Opt+ Cmd+Eject[5] Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel → Power Options → Advanced tab dialog box)
Shutdown computer Shift+Tab +Tab +Space Ctrl+ Opt+ Cmd+Eject

(no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageDown

(KDE; no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Restart computer Ctrl+ Cmd+Eject[5]

(no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageUp

(KDE; no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Place display in sleep mode Ctrl+ Shift+Eject
Bring up power/sleep dialog box Alt+F4 (while on Desktop only) Ctrl+Eject

Screenshots[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Save screenshot of entire screen as file Win+Print Screen or Print Screen Shift+ Cmd+3 Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME Shell [6]
Copy screenshot of entire screen to clipboard Print Screen or Ctrl+Print Screen Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+3 Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME Shell [6]
Save screenshot of window as file Shift+ Cmd+4 then Space Alt+Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of window to clipboard Alt+Print Screen Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4 then Space Alt+Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of arbitrary area to clipboard Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4
Save screenshot of arbitrary area as file Shift+ Cmd+4
Screencasting Ctrl+ Shift+Alt+R

[7] [8]

Text editing[edit]

Many of these commands may be combined with Shift to select a region of text.[9]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs Vim
Delete char to the right of cursor Del or Fn+← Backspace Del, or Ctrl+d, or Fn+← Backspace Del Ctrl+d x
Delete word to the right of cursor Ctrl+Del Opt+Del or
Opt+ Fn+← Backspace
Ctrl+Del Meta+e dw (delete space too)

or de (keep space)

Delete word to the left of cursor Ctrl+← Backspace Opt+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace, or Meta+← Backspace dge (delete space too)

or db (keep space)

Go to start of line Home, or Fn+ Cmd+ or Ctrl+A Home Ctrl+a, or Home ^ (go to first non-space)

or 0 (go to column 0)

Go to end of line End, or Fn+ Cmd+ or Ctrl+E End Ctrl+e, or End $
Go to start of document Ctrl+Home Cmd+ Ctrl+Home Meta+<, or Ctrl+Home gg
Go to end of document Ctrl+End Cmd+ Ctrl+End Meta+>, or Ctrl+End G
Go to previous word Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+b, or Ctrl+, or Meta+ b or ge
Go to next word Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+f, or Ctrl+, or Meta+ w or e
Go to previous line , or Ctrl+p Ctrl+p, or k or
Go to next line , or Ctrl+n Ctrl+n, or j or
Go to previous line break (paragraph) Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME) Meta+'{', or Control+ {
Go to next line break Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME) Meta+'}', or Control+ }
Move the cursor down the length of the viewport Page Down Fn+ Page Down Ctrl+v, or Page Down Ctrl+f, or Page Down
Move the cursor up the length of the viewport Page Up Fn+ Page Up Meta+v, or Page Up Ctrl+b, or Page Up
Find Ctrl+F Cmd+F

Cmd+E (Search with current selection)

Ctrl+F

Ctrl+K (GNOME; interactive search)

Ctrl+s /
Go to next search result F3 Cmd+G Ctrl+G (GNOME) or F3 (KDE)[10] Ctrl+s n
Go to previous search result Shift+F3 Shift+ Cmd+G Shift+Ctrl+G (GNOME) or Shift+F3 (KDE)[10] Ctrl+r N
Search and replace Ctrl+H Cmd+F Ctrl+H (GNOME) or Ctrl+R (KDE) Meta+% %s/fosh/fish/gc[11]
Search with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+s All search uses regular expressions.
Search and replace with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+%

Text formatting[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME[12] Emacs Vim
Bold Ctrl+B Cmd+B Ctrl+B
Underline Ctrl+U Cmd+U Ctrl+U
Italic Ctrl+I Cmd+I Ctrl+I
Uppercase / Lowercase Shift+F3 Opt+ Cmd+C Shift+F3 Meta+u for upper,

Meta+l for lower, Meta+c for capitalized.

gU for upper, gu for lower, ~ to toggle.
Superscript Ctrl+ Shift+= Ctrl+ Cmd++ (Pages and Adobe Applications only?) Ctrl+ Shift+P[13]
Subscript Ctrl+= Ctrl+ Cmd+- (Pages and Adobe Applications only?) Ctrl+ Shift+B[13]
Make selected text larger/smaller Ctrl+ Shift+>/Ctrl+ Shift+<,

Ctrl+[/Ctrl+]

Make selected text bulleted or Numbered Items Ctrl+ Shift+L
Insert Linebreak Shift+ Enter Alt+ Enter Shift+ Enter

Browsers / Go menu[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Go to Address Bar Alt+D or Alt+C or F6
depending on language
Cmd+L Ctrl+L or Alt+D or F6
Go to the previous location in history Alt+ or ← Backspace Cmd+[ or Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the next location in history Alt+ or Shift+← Backspace (web browser only) Cmd+] or Cmd+ Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchy Alt+ (Vista, 7 or 8 only) or ← Backspace (Windows Explorer) Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or application Alt+Home Cmd+Home Ctrl+Home (KDE) /

Alt+Home (GNOME)

Web browsers[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs-w3m Vimperator
Bookmarks menu Ctrl+B Cmd+B (Firefox) Alt+B v :bmarks
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com) Ctrl+ Enter Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) or

Control+ Enter (Chrome)

Ctrl+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org) Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter Shift+ Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net) Shift + Enter Shift + Enter (Firefox) Shift + Enter
Add bookmark for current page Ctrl+D Cmd+D Ctrl+B /

Ctrl+D

a :bmark
Add bookmark for current link Meta+a
Manage bookmarks Ctrl+B Cmd+ Opt+B (Chrome/Safari) or

Cmd+ Shift+B (Firefox)

Ctrl+ Shift+R /

Ctrl+B

Focus and select Web search bar Ctrl+E Cmd+E (Opera) or

Cmd+K (Firefox) or
Opt+ Cmd+F (Safari)

Ctrl+k t (open in a new tab)

or T (open in current tab)

Focus and select address bar Ctrl+L or F6 or Alt+D Cmd+L Ctrl+L or Alt+D or F6 g s None (?). Use O to alter URL, use y to copy it.
Refresh a webpage F5 or Ctrl+R Cmd+R F5 or Ctrl+R R r
Refresh a webpage ignoring cache Ctrl+ Shift+F5 or Ctrl+ Shift+R Cmd+ Shift+R Ctrl+ Shift+F5 or Ctrl+ Shift+R R
Open a new window Ctrl+N Cmd+N (Chrome) Ctrl+N :winopen
Zoom Options (zoom in / zoom out / zoom 100%) Ctrl++ / Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0 Cmd++ / Cmd+- / Cmd+0 Ctrl++ / Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0 zi / zo / zz (text only)

or zI / zO / zZ (text and images)

Tab management[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs-w3m Vimperator
New tab Ctrl+T Cmd+T Ctrl+ Shift+N or Ctrl+ Shift+T or Ctrl+T Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+t t
Close tab Ctrl+W Cmd+W Ctrl+W Mozilla Firefox [14] & Opera [15] & Chrom{e,ium} [16] & Arora [17] & Epiphany [18] & Midori

Ctrl+F4 Mozilla Firefox [14] & Opera [15] & Chrom{e,ium} [16] & Arora [17]

d
Close all tabs but the current one Cmd+ Opt+t (Safari) Ctrl+c, then Meta+w
Go to next tab Ctrl+Tab Control+Tab or Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari) Ctrl+PageDown or Ctrl+Tab or Ctrl+. Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+n gt
Go to previous tab Ctrl+ Shift+Tab Shift+Control+Tab or Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari) Ctrl+PageUp or Ctrl+ Shift+Tab or Ctrl+, Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+p gT
Go to tab-n Ctrl+n (Chrome/Firefox/Internet Explorer) Cmd+n (Chrome) Alt+n (Chrome/Firefox) or

Ctrl+n '(Chrome)

First tab: g0

Last tab: g$

Open a previously closed tab Ctrl+ Shift+T Cmd+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome) Ctrl+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome)[16][19][20] Ctrl+ Shift+T (Firefox)[19] u
Open a previously closed window Ctrl+ Shift+N (Firefox)

Window management[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME Emacs
Force window mode (Application requires functionality for set action) Alt+ Enter Option+Alt+ Enter or Option+Alt+F or Cmd+F or Cmd+ Option+F
Pop up window menu Alt+Space Alt+F3 Alt+Space Ctrl+`, then b
Close the focused window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 or Ctrl+W or Alt+Space then C[21] Cmd+W Alt+F4 Alt+F4 Ctrl+x, then k
Restore the focused window to its previous size Alt+Space then R[21] Alt+F3 then X Alt+F5 Ctrl+x, then r, then j, then letter of the window state register.
Move the focused window Alt+Space then M[21] then Arrow Keys and Enter(to save location) Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F3 then M then Arrow Keys

Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F7 then Arrow Keys

Resize the focused window Alt+Space then S[21] then Arrow Keys Alt+F3 then S then Arrow Keys Alt+F8 then Arrow Keys Ctrl+x, then ^ vertically
Hide the focused window Cmd+H Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Hide all except the focused window Cmd+ Option+H
Lower the focused window Alt+Esc
Minimize the focused window Alt+Space then N,[21] or Win+ (Windows 7 and Vista Home Premium) Cmd+M Alt+F3 then N Alt+F9 Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Maximize the focused window Alt+Space then X,[21] or Win+ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Cmd+L Alt+F3 then X Alt+F10 Ctrl+x, then 1
Maximize horizontally Available, but no default Available, but no default
Maximize vertically Win+ Shift+ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Available ('Zoom'), but no default Available, but no default Available, but no default
Minimize all Win+M or Win+D Cmd+Alt+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Minimize all non focused windows Win+Home (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1) Available, but no default
Undo minimize all Shift+ Win+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal size F11 Cmd+ Shift+F F11 F11
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbar Depends on application, system default: Cmd+CTRL+F Ctrl+ Shift+F Ctrl+F11
Rollup/down window Available, but no default Alt+F12
Show all open windows Win+Tab F9 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Win works per desktop on Gnome 3+ Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all windows of current application F3 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Ctrl+` Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all workspaces F8 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Win then mouse over the desktop bar on the right edge of the screen
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace Win+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+

/ / /

Move window between multiple monitors Win+ Shift+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8)
Move window to workspace n Available, but no default
Switch to next/previous workspace list Available, but no default
Go to workspace n Ctrl+n Ctrl+Fn
Go to left/right/up/down workspace [24] Ctrl+ /

Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.5 to 10.6), Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.7)

Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+ /

/ /

Quit application of current window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies[25] Cmd+Q[26] Ctrl+Alt+Esc q
Close dialog Esc Esc
Open/Focus (preview) pinned program on the taskbar Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)
Open new program window of pinned program in Quick Launch Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Quick Launch toolbar (Windows Vista, 7 and 8.1)
Open new program window of the pinned program on the taskbar (if program is already opened) Win+ Shift+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)
Focus the first taskbar entry. Pressing again will cycle through them Win+T, you can back and forth. Hold Shift to cycle backwards (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)
Peek at the desktop Win+Space (Windows 7 only) F11 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Bring gadgets to the front of the Z-order and cycle between gadgets Win+G (Windows Vista,7) or Win+Space (Vista only, no cycling)
External display options (mirror, extend desktop, etc.) Win+P (Windows 7 and Windows 8)

User interface navigation (widgets and controls)[edit]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous control Tab / Shift+Tab With full keyboard access active (System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls)

Tab / Shift+Tab

Tab / Shift+Tab Tab / Shift+Tab

Ctrl+Tab / Shift+Ctrl+Tab

Pop up tooltip for currently focused control Shift+F1 Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control Shift+F1 Cmd+? Shift+F1 Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous pane Ctrl+F6 / Alt+F6 Cmd+` F6 / Shift+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned window F8
Give focus to window's menu bar F10 or Alt Cmd+ Shift+/, then type command name, or
Ctrl+F2 (or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards - requires full keyboard access active using System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls))
Alt F10
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects (aka context menu) Shift+F10 or Menu Varies with laptop / extended keyboard type; enable Mouse keys in Universal Access, then Function+Ctrl+5 or Ctrl+5 (numeric keypad) or Function+Ctrl+i (laptop) Menu Menu or Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle button Space Space Space Space
Activate focused button, menu item etc. Enter Space (also Enter for menu items) Enter Enter
Select/move to first/last item in selected widget Home / End Home / End
Scroll selected view by one page up/left/down/right /

(or Fn++Fn+ on some keyboards)

PageUp / Ctrl+PageUp /
PageDown / Ctrl+PageDown
Scroll selected view to top/bottom or on MacBook Pro Fn + Opt +

or on MacBook Pro Fn + Opt +

Switch focus to the next/previous tab within a window Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+Tab /

Cmd+`

Ctrl+Tab ->

Ctrl+ Shift+Tab <-

Switch focus to the next/previous panel on the desktop Ctrl+Alt+Tab / Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Tab
Switch focus to the next/previous panel (without dialog) Ctrl+Alt+Esc /

Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Esc

Command line shortcuts[edit]

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used in a command line environment.

Action Microsoft Windows
(cmd.exe)
Microsoft Windows
(Windows PowerShell)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(bash)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(POSIX shell)
Scroll through History of typed commands / / / or Ctrl+P/Ctrl+N ESC K / ESC J
Signal end-of-file Ctrl+Z Ctrl+D
Abort current command/typing Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C
Erase word to the left Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+W
Erase word to the right Ctrl+Delete Alt+D
Erase line to the left Ctrl+Home Ctrl+Home Ctrl+U
Erase line to the right Ctrl+End Ctrl+End Ctrl+K
Yank/paste previously erased string Ctrl+Y
Move one word to the left (backward) Ctrl+ Alt+ Alt+B
Move one word to the right (forward) Ctrl+ Alt+ Alt+F
Move to beginning of line Home Home Ctrl+A

or Home

Move to end of line End End Ctrl+E

or End

Reverse search of history F8 F8 Ctrl+R
Stop execution of the current job Ctrl+Z
Insert the next character typed verbatim Ctrl+V
Autocomplete command/file name Tab (enabled by default in Windows XP and later) Tab Tab (usually once) Esc (usually twice)
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Shift+Ins
Scroll window up Shift+PageUp (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageUp
Scroll window down Shift+PageDown (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageDown

Accessibility[edit]

  • In Windows, it is possible to disable these shortcuts using the Accessibility or Ease of Access control panel.
  • In GNOME, these shortcuts are possible if Universal Access is enabled.
Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME
Utility Manager Win+U
Use keyboard to control cursor (Left Alt+Left Shift+Numlock [27]
Allow user to press shortcuts one key at a time ( Shift 5 times) ***( Shift 5 times) [28]
Hear beep when -lock key pressed (Numlock for 5 seconds)
Stop/slow repeating characters when key is pressed (Right Shift for 8 seconds) ***( Shift for 8 seconds)[29]

[30][31]

Inverse (Reverse Colors) Mode Left Alt+Left Shift+PrtScn Cmd+ Opt+Ctrl+8 Meta+ Shift+i (if enabled)
Inverse (Reverse Colors) Mode (Only current window) Meta+ Shift+u (if enabled)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mac 101: Set your preferences". Article: HT2490. Apple Inc. 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  2. ^ Singh, Swapnil (2012-02-08). "10 Cool Windows Shortcuts You Need to Know". Tricktactoe.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  3. ^ Takes you to the "Switch User" screen when Fast User Switching has been enabled (enabled by default in XP).
  4. ^ Shows task manager in Windows XP if the welcome screen is enabled. Otherwise displays an NT-style menu, with the option of launching the task manager; likewise for Vista.
  5. ^ a b "Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts". Article: HT1343. Apple Inc. 2010-10-29. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Taking Screenshots". User Guide 2.32. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "Cheat Sheet". https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/CheatSheet. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "Screen Shot Record". GNOME Help Guide. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  9. ^ For the concept of "selected text" see also X Window selection
  10. ^ a b "HIG/Keyboard Shortcuts". KDE Techbase. KDE. 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  11. ^ In whole document (%), substitute (s) fosh by fish, don't stop at one substitution per line (g) and ask for confirmation for each substitution (c).
  12. ^ "Appendix A — Keyboard Shortcuts". Libre Office Documentation. The Document Foundation. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  13. ^ a b community.linuxmint.com. "OpenOffice.org and LibreOffice Keyboard Shortcuts — Linux Mint Community". Community.linuxmint.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  14. ^ a b "Keyboard shortcuts — Perform common Firefox tasks quickly | Firefox Help". Support.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  15. ^ a b "Opera Help: Keyboard Shortcuts". Help.opera.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  16. ^ a b c "Linux keyboard shortcuts — Google Chrome Help". Support.google.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  17. ^ a b "DefaultKeyboardShortcuts — arora — The Default Keyboard Shortcuts in Arora (Non-Mac Keyboard) - Cross Platform WebKit Browser — Google Project Hosting". Code.google.com. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  18. ^ "Shortcuts". Library.gnome.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  19. ^ a b "Keyboard shortcuts — Perform common Firefox tasks quickly | Firefox Help". Support.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  20. ^ "Opera Help: Keyboard Shortcuts". Help.opera.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f In Microsoft Windows, all shortcuts with Alt+Space followed by another key are language dependent. The Alt+Space combination opens the window menu, and the following key selects from the menu. As the menu labels (and their underlined hotkeys) vary with the Windows system language, the hotkeys are different for international versions of Microsoft Windows, and may change if users change their Windows system language preference. The given examples are valid for English user preferences/version of Windows.
  22. ^ a b c d "Mac OS X 10.6 Help: Using a screen saver". Docs.info.apple.com. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Mac OS X 10.4 Help: Setting a hot corner for Dashboard". Docs.info.apple.com. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  24. ^ The WinSplit window manager application for Windows knows to emulate this behaviour.
  25. ^ There is no single consistent shortcut for closing a document or quitting an application in Windows XP. In many multiple document interface applications, Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4 closes a document and Alt+F4 quits. In other applications where each document is in its own window, such as later versions of Microsoft Word, Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4, and Alt+F4 close a document, and there is no consistent shortcut for quitting an application.
  26. ^ Mac OS uses Cmd+W Close (window), Cmd+Q Quit (application) and Cmd+ Opt+Esc Force Quit (application). Quit is closest to Kill.
  27. ^ "Click and Move Mouse Pointer Using the Keypad". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  28. ^ "Turn on Sticky Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  29. ^ "Turn On Slow Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  30. ^ "Turn Off Repeated Key Presses". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  31. ^ "Turn On Bounce Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 

External links[edit]