Table of voting systems by country

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This table deals with voting to select candidates for office, not for the passing of legislation.

Maps[edit]

Voting systems by country[edit]

Country Body System Seats per District Total seats Threshold
Afghanistan President Runoff
House of the People SNTV 2-33 249
Albania Assembly List-PR 4-32 140 2.5% (parties), 4% (coalitions)
Algeria President Runoff
People's National Assembly Party list 380 5%
Andorra General Council Parallel: Nationwide party lists / Constituency lists 14 / 2 28
Angola President FPTP
National Assembly D'Hondt method (closed lists) 5 per province, 130 across country, + 3 representatives from abroad 233
Antigua and Barbuda House of Representatives FPTP 17
Argentina President Modified runoff
(winner in 1st round with 45% of votes; or with 40% and a 10% lead over the second)
Chamber of Deputies D'Hondt method (closed lists) 5-70 (Renewed by halves) 257 3%
Senate 2 seats to most voted party or coalition, 1 seat to second most voted party or coalition (limited vote with closed lists) 3 72
Armenia President Runoff
National Assembly Parallel: Largest remainder (Hare quota) / FPTP 90 / 1 131 5% (parties), 7% (coalitions)
Aruba Estates Proportional voting system 21
Australia Senate STV 6 per state per election, 2 per territory 76
House of Representatives IRV 150
Austria President Runoff
Nationalrat Largest remainder (Hare quota) at district and regional levels, D'Hondt method for remaining votes at national level 183 4%
Azerbaijan President FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 125
Bahamas House of Assembly FPTP 40
Bahrain Council of Representatives Runoff 40
Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangshad FPTP 300 + 30 seats reserved for women
Barbados House of Assembly FPTP 1 (per "constituency") 30
Belarus President Runoff
House of Representatives FPTP 1 110
Belgium Chamber of Representatives D'Hondt method (flexible list) 3–22 150 5%
Senate D'Hondt method (after 2014 no longer directly elected) 15, 25 40 + 21 chosen by Community parliaments + 10 co-opted
Belize National Assembly FPTP 29
Benin President Runoff
National Assembly Largest remainder method 83
Bermuda House of Assembly FPTP 36
Bhutan National Assembly FPTP 47
National Council FPTP (20 seats) 130 + 20 appointed
Bolivia President Modified runoff
(winner with 50% of votes or 40% and a 10% lead over the second)[1]
Chamber of Deputies Supplementary Member System:

FPTP in uninominal (70 seats) and rural indigenous (7 seats) circonscriptions /
D'Hondt method in 9 Departments (53 seats)[2]

3-15 (uninominal) + 0-1 (special) /
1-13 (plurinominal)
130
Senate D'Hondt method[2] 4 36
Bosnia and Herzegovina Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina FPTP 1 3 (one each of the three major ethnic groups)
House of Representatives Sainte-Laguë method 14, 28 42
Botswana National Assembly FPTP 57 + 4 co-opted + 2 ex officio
Brazil President Runoff
Chamber of Deputies D'Hondt method (open lists) 8–70 513 1 Hare quota
Senate Bloc voting for dual-member elections, FPTP otherwise 1, 2 (alternates each election) 81
Bulgaria President Runoff
National Assembly D'Hondt method (closed lists)[3] 4–14[3] 240 4%
Burkina Faso President Runoff
National Assembly of Burkina Faso Largest remainder (Hare quota) 2-16 127
Burma (Myanmar) People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) FPTP 440 (25% appointed by military)
National Assembly (Amyotha Hluttaw) FPTP 224 (25% appointed by military)
Burundi President
National Assembly D'Hondt method 4–11 100 + 18–21 co-opted 2%
Senate Electoral college 1 34 + 3–20 co-opted + ex-presidents
Cambodia National Assembly D'Hondt method 1-18 123
Cameroon President Runoff
National Assembly FPTP in single-member constituencies; in multi-member constituencies: party with over 50% of vote gets all seats, otherwise highest party gets half, rest distributed by Largest remainder (Hare quota) 1–7 180 5%
Canada House of Commons FPTP 1 308
Cape Verde President Runoff
National Assembly D'Hondt method 2-15 72
Cayman Islands Legislative Assembly Bloc voting 2 15 + 3 ex officio
Central African Republic President FPTP
National Assembly Runoff 1 105
Chad President Runoff
National Assembly FPTP in single member districts; in multi member districts: list-PR (largest remainder) (closed list) but if one list >50% it gets all the seats 155
Chile President Runoff
Chamber of Deputies Binomial System (open list) 2 120
Senate Binomial System (open list) 2 38
Colombia President Runoff
Chamber of Representatives D'Hondt method 2–18 162
Senate D'Hondt method 100 + 2 (indigenous) 102
Comoros President Runoff
Assembly of the Union Runoff 18 + 15 elected by local assemblies
Republic of the Congo President Runoff[4]
National Assembly Runoff 153
Costa Rica President Runoff
Legislative Assembly Largest remainder method 4-20 57
Croatia President Runoff
Sabor D'Hondt method, plus some reserved for minorities and Croatians living abroad 14 153 5%
Cuba National Assembly of People's Power Endorsement of selected candidates 1 609
Cyprus President Runoff
House of Representatives Largest remainder (Hare quota; open lists) 3–21 80 (56 for Greek-Cypriots; 24 for Turkish-Cypriots (currently vacant)) and 3 observers from religious minorities 1.8%
Czech Republic Chamber of Deputies D'Hondt method 5–25 200 5% (party), 10/15/20% (coalition of 2/3/4+ parties),
Senate Runoff 1 81
Democratic Republic of Congo President FPTP[5]
National Assembly Largest remainder 1-17 500
Denmark Folketinget D'Hondt method 179 2%
Djibouti President Runoff
National Assembly 3-35 65
Dominica House of Assembly FPTP 21 + 9 appointed + Speaker + 1 ex officio
Dominican Republic President Runoff
Chamber of Deputies D'Hondt method 2–36 150
Senate FPTP 32
East Timor President Runoff
Parliament Parallel: Largest remainder (75 seats), FPTP (13 seats) 75 / 1 88
Ecuador President Runoff
National Congress D'Hondt method 2–18 100
Egypt President Runoff
People's Assembly Modified Runoff 2 444 + 64 allocated for women + 10 appointed
Shura Council Runoff 174 + 88 appointed
El Salvador President Runoff
Legislative Assembly D'Hondt method 3–20 84
Equatorial Guinea President FPTP[6]
Chamber of People's Representatives Party list 80
Estonia Riigikogu Party list 7–12 per electoral district 101 5%
Ethiopia House of People's Representatives FPTP 546
Fiji House of Representatives D'Hondt method (open lists) [7] 50 50 5%
Finland President Runoff
Eduskunta (and MEPs) D'Hondt method (open lists) 6–34 200
France President Runoff
National Assembly Runoff 1 577
French Senate Electoral college 348
Gabon President FPTP
National Assembly Runoff 111 + 9 appointed
Gambia President FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 48 + 5 appointed
Georgia President Runoff
Parliament Parallel: Party-list / FPTP 150 5%
Germany Bundestag MMP: Sainte-Laguë / FPTP 299 / 1 598 + overhang seats 5% or 3 district seats
Ghana President Runoff
Parliament FPTP 230
Greece Hellenic Parliament SMPR: 250 seats proportionally divided via several allocations; 50 bonus seats to the first party 42 / 1 300 3%
Grenada House of Representatives FPTP 15
Guatemala President Runoff
Congress of the Republic D'Hondt method 29 / 1 158
Guinea President Runoff
National Assembly Parallel: 76 Hare quota + 38 FPTP 76 / 1 114
Guinea-Bissau President Runoff
National People's Assembly Party list 100
Guyana National Assembly Largest remainder (Hare quota) 53 (+12 appointed by local councils)
Haiti President Runoff
Chamber of Deputies Runoff 1 99
Holy See (Vatican) Pope Electoral college
Honduras President FPTP
National Congress Largest remainder (Hare quota) 1-23 128
Hong Kong Legislative Council Parallel
District constituencies: Largest remainder (Hare quota)
Functional constituencies: FPTP, Bloc voting, IRV
4–8 (District constituencies) / 1-3 (Functional constituencies) 60
Hungary National Assembly Parallel: 106 FPTP + 93 national list-PR 199 5% (10% for coalitions)
Iceland President FPTP
Alþing D'Hondt method 9 63 5%
India President Electoral college
House of the People FPTP 1 545
House of the states Single Transferable Vote by state legislatures varies from 1-31 seats 233
Indonesia President Runoff
People's Representative Council Hare quota (open lists) 2-12 560 2.5% nationially
Regional Representatives Council SNTV 4 132
Iran President Runoff
Majlis of Iran Runoff 290
Assembly of Experts 86
Iraq Council of Representatives Party list 5-59 275
Ireland President IRV
Seanad Éireann STV (49/60 seats - restricted franchise) N/A 60
Dáil Éireann STV 3–5 166[8]
Israel Knesset D'Hondt method (Closed Lists) 120 120 2%
Italy Chamber of Deputies 617 list-Largest remainder + 1 FPTP + 12 Largest remainder (Hare quota) for the Italians living abroad 1/45 (parties run at-large) 630 2% (parties in coalition, except that the first party below 2% in a coalition does receive seats)
4% (free parties)
10% (coalitions)
20% (parties in a single district with ethnic minorities)
Senate 301 list-Largest remainder + 1 FPTP + 7 AMS + 6 Largest remainder (Hare quota) for the Italians living abroad 1/49 315 3% (parties in coalition)
8% (free parties)
20% (coalitions)
Ivory Coast President Runoff
National Assembly FPTP 225
Jamaica House of Representatives FPTP 1 60
Japan House of Representatives Parallel: D'Hondt method (180 seats) / FPTP (300 seats) 6-29 / 1 480
House of Councillors Parallel: D'Hondt method (48 seats) / SNTV (73 seats) 24 / 1-4 per election 121 per election
Jordan Chamber of Deputies FPTP 104 + 6 women elected by electoral college
Kazakhstan President Runoff
Majilis Party-list 98 + 9 members elected by electoral college 7%
Kenya President FPTP
National Assembly of Kenya FPTP 210 + 12 appointed + 2 ex officio
Kiribati President FPTP
House of Assembly Modified runoff 40 + 1 delegate from Banaba Island and 1 ex officio
Kuwait National Assembly limited vote (4 votes for 10 seats) 10 50
Kyrgyzstan President Runoff
Legislative Assembly Parallel: Closed-lists (15 seats) / Runoff (45) 60
Assembly of People's Representatives 45
Laos National Assembly Bloc voting 115
Latvia Saeima Sainte-Laguë method 14–28 100 5%
Lebanon Chamber of Deputies Bloc voting 2-10 128
Lesotho National Assembly MMP Party list (40 seats) / FPTP (80 seats) 120
Liberia President Runoff
House of Representatives FPTP 1 73
Senate FPTP 2 per county, 1 per election 30
Liechtenstein Diet Largest remainder (Hare quota) 10, 15 25 8%
Lithuania President Runoff
Seimas Parallel: Largest remainder (70 seats) / Runoff (71 seats) 70 / 1 141 5% (parties), 7% (coalitions)
Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies D'Hondt method 7-23 60
Macau Legislative Council Party list / Functional constituencies / Appointed 12 29
Macedonia President Runoff
Assembly D'Hondt method 20 120
Madagascar President Runoff
National Assembly FPTP 1–2 160
Malawi President FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 194
Malaysia Dewan Rakyat FPTP 1 222
Maldives President Runoff
Majlis FPTP 1 77
Mali President Runoff
National Assembly Runoff 160
Malta President
House of Representatives STV 5 65
Marshall Islands Legislature FPTP 33
Mauritania President Runoff
National Assembly Parallel: 106 in 46 districts; in districts with 1-2 seats : Runoff, in larger districts: List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list) + twice 20 nationally (one set of 20 reserved for women): List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list) 146
Mauritius National Assembly Bloc voting 2–3 62 + 8 'best losers' appointed
Mexico President FPTP
Chamber of Deputies Parallel: Largest remainder (Hare quota) (200 seats) / FPTP (300 seats) 40 / 1 500
Senate Parallel: Largest remainder (Hare quota) / winner takes 2, second takes 1 (limited vote with closed lists) 32 / 3 128
Federated States of Micronesia Congress FPTP (10 seats), PR (4 seats) 14
Moldova Parliament of the Republic of Moldova D'Hondt method 101 101 4%
Monaco National Council Parallel: Plurality-at-large voting in single nationwide constituency (16 seats); D'Hondt method (8 seats)[9] 24 For proportional-representation seats, 5%[9]
Mongolia President FPTP
State Great Khural FPTP 76
Montenegro Parliament D'Hondt method (closed lists) 5, 76 81 3%
Montserrat Legislative Council 9 9
Morocco Assembly of Representatives Parallel: Largest remainder (295 seats) / list of women (30 seats) 325
Mozambique President Runoff
Assembly of the Republic D'Hondt method 250 250 5%
Namibia President Runoff
National Assembly Hare quota + 6 appointed 72 78
Nauru Parliament 18
Nepal House of Representatives Semi Proportional Representation (German System) 205
Netherlands House of Representatives D'Hondt method (flexible list) 150 150 0.67%
Senate D'Hondt method 75 75 Election is conducted among the members of the twelve provincial councils
New Zealand House of Representatives (Parliament) MMP: Sainte-Laguë method (51+ seats) / FPTP (69 district seats which also includes 7 seats reserved for Maori) 120 + overhang seats 5% or 1 district seat
Nicaragua President FPTP
National Assembly D'Hondt method 1-20 92
Niger President Runoff
National Assembly Party list (105 seats) + 8 from FPTP 113
Nigeria President Runoff
House of Representatives FPTP 1 360
Senate FPTP 1 109
Niue Assembly Bloc voting (6 seats) 1–6 6 + 14 representatives of the villages
North Korea Supreme People's Assembly Endorsement of candidate 687
Norway Storting Modified Sainte-Laguë method (open lists) 4–17 150 + 19 leveling seats 4% for leveling seats
Pakistan National Assembly FPTP, with Party list for women 272 + 10 for religious minorities + 60 for women
Palau President
House of Delegates FPTP 16
Senate FPTP 9
Palestine President FPTP
Legislative Council Parallel: Sainte-Laguë method (closed list; 66 seats) / Bloc voting or FPTP (66 seats) 66 / 1–9 132 2%
Panama President FPTP
National Assembly Single-member constituencies: FPTP; multi-member: Saripolo or Sartori method (Largest remainder, but remainders only for those with no seats) 1–7 78
Papua New Guinea National Parliament IRV 1 109
Paraguay President FPTP[10]
Chamber of Deputies D'Hondt method 1-19 80
Senate D'Hondt method 45 45
Peru President Runoff
Congress of the Republic Largest remainder 1-35 120
Philippines President FPTP
House of Representatives Parallel: Party list (closed lists; modified Hare quota with 3-seat cap and no remainders) / FPTP (229 districts in 2010, 232 in 2013) 57 / 1 (2010), 58 / 1 (2013) 286 (2010), 292 (2013) 2%; parties with less than 2% of the vote may win seats if the list seats haven't been completely distributed.
Senate Bloc voting 12 / 1 24
Poland President Runoff
Sejm D'Hondt method 7–19 460 5% (8% for coalitions, 0% for national minorities)
Senate FPTP 1 100
Portugal President Runoff
Assembly of the Republic D'Hondt method (Closed Lists) 2–47 230
Romania President Runoff
Chamber of Deputies Proportional system where candidate that obtains more than 50% of the vote is assured his seat. There may be more winners than seats available. 412 5% (parties), 8-10% (coalitions) or 6 district seats
Senate Proportional system where candidate that obtains more than 50% of the vote is assured his seat. There may be more winners than seats available. 176 5% (parties), 8-10% (coalitions) or 3 district seats
Russia President Runoff
State Duma Largest remainder (Closed lists) 450 450 7%
Rwanda President FPTP[11]
Chamber of Deputies Largest remainder 53 53 + 24 elected by provincial councils + 3 appointed 5%
Saint Kitts and Nevis National Assembly FPTP 11 + 3 appointed + 1 ex officio
Saint Lucia House of Assembly FPTP 17
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines House of Assembly FPTP 15 + 6 appointed
Samoa Fono FPTP / Bloc voting 1–2 47
San Marino Grand and General Council SMPR using a D'Hondt method with national majority bonus 60
São Tomé and Príncipe President Runoff
National Assembly Party list 55
Senegal President Runoff
National Assembly Parallel voting: 60 by PR, 90 by majority 150
Serbia President Runoff
National Assembly D'Hondt method 250 250 5% (0.4% for minorities)
Seychelles President FPTP
National Assembly Parallel: Hare quota (9 seats) / FPTP (25 seats) 9 / 1 34
Sierra Leone President Runoff[12]
Parliament FPTP 1 112 + 12 Paramount chiefs 12.5%
Singapore President FPTP
Parliament Bloc voting / FPTP 1 or 4 or 5 or 6 (depending on constituency) 87 + 9 appointed + 9 NCMP
Slovakia President Runoff
National Council of the Slovak Republic Hagenbach-Bischoff (semi-open lists) 150 150 5% / 7% (coalitions of 2-3 parties) / 10% (coalitions of at least 4 parties)
Slovenia President Runoff
National Assembly D'Hondt method (88 seats) + 2 seats by Borda Count 11/8 + 2 single-seat constituencies 90 4%
Solomon Islands National Parliament FPTP 50
South Africa National Assembly Droop quota (Closed lists) 400 400
South Korea President FPTP
National Assembly Parallel: Party list (54 seats) / FPTP (245 seats) 299
Spain Congress of Deputies D'Hondt method (Closed Lists) 1–35 350 3%
Senate Limited vote (3 votes for 4 seats) (208 members), appointment by regional legislatures (51 members) 2–4 259
Sri Lanka President Sri Lankan contingent vote
Parliament of Sri Lanka Largest remainder (Hare quota) 4-20 225
Suriname National Assembly of Suriname Party list 2-17 51
Sweden Riksdag Modified Sainte-Laguë (Open list) 349 4% (or 12% in a constituency)
Switzerland National Council D'Hondt method (open lists) 1–-34 200
Council of States Varies with canton (generally runoff) 1–2 46
Syria President Runoff[13]
People's Council
Taiwan (Republic of China) President FPTP
Legislative Yuan Parallel: FPTP (73 seats) / Largest remainder (Hare quota) (34 seats)
Aboriginal seats: SNTV (6 seats)
1
Aboriginal constituencies: 3
113 5%
Tajikistan President
Supreme Assembly of Tajikistan Parallel: Party list (22 seats) / Runoff single-member constituencies (41 seats) 63
Tanzania President FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 324
Thailand House of Representatives Parallel: Party list (125 seats) / FPTP (375 seats) 125/1 500
Senate FPTP or SNTV 200
Togo President Runoff
National Assembly of Togo Runoff 81
Tonga Legislative Assembly Runoff 9 + 9 elected by nobles + 10 members of Privy Council + 2 governors
Trinidad and Tobago House of Representatives FPTP 1 41
Tunisia President Runoff[14]
Chamber of Deputies Party-list [15]  ?  ?
Turkey President Runoff
Grand National Assembly D'Hondt method 2-25 550 10%
Turkmenistan President FPTP
Assembly Runoff 50
Tuvalu Parliament FPTP or SNTV 1–2 15
Uganda President FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 214 + 78 from various groups
Ukraine President Runoff
Verkhovna Rada Parallel: Party list (Hare quota) / FPTP 225 / 1 450 5%
United Kingdom House of Commons FPTP 1 650
Scottish Parliament Additional Member System 1 129
Welsh Assembly Additional Member System 1 60
Northern Ireland Assembly Single Transferable Vote 6 108
London Assembly Additional Member System 1 25
Local elections FPTP for England and Wales, Single Transferable Vote for Scotland and Northern Ireland
Police commissioner elections Supplementary vote system (or First-past-the-post voting in case there are only 2 candidates) 37 Police and Crime Commissioners in England. 4 Police and Crime Commissioners in Wales. 41
United States President Electoral college (electors generally chosen using FPTP on per state basis[16])
House of Representatives FPTP 1 435[17]
Senate FPTP 2 per state, 1 per election 100[17]
Uruguay President Runoff
Chamber of Deputies D'Hondt method 2-42 99
Chamber of Senators D'Hondt method 30 30 + vice-president
Uzbekistan President Runoff
Vanuatu Parliament SNTV 52
Venezuela President FPTP
National Assembly Parallel: Regional party list (closed list; D'Hondt method) (52 seats) / FPTP or bloc voting, and FPTP in districts reserved for indigenous peoples (113 seats) 2 (20 states)-3 (4) / 1 (68 districts), 2 (15), and 3 (4); at least 1 district per state. The three indigenous' districts comprise some whole states 165
Vietnam National Assembly 498
Yemen President Runoff
Assembly of Representatives FPTP 301
Zambia President FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 150
Zimbabwe President Runoff
House of Assembly FPTP 210
Senate FPTP 60 + 11 appointed by the President

Key[edit]

Seats per district 
Most elections are split into a number of electoral districts. In some elections, there is one person elected per district. In others, there are many people elected per district. Electoral districts can have different names, see list of electoral districts by nation.
Total number of seats 
the number of representatives elected to the body in total.
Election threshold 
see Election threshold
FPTP 
Using the system of First Past The Post voting to pick a single winner per district
Party list 
One of many Party-list proportional representation systems. Where possible, this has been replaced by the allocation system used within the party-list (e.g. D'Hondt method)
Parallel voting 
This means that two simultaneous systems are used to elect representatives to the same body. If there is interchange between the two systems (e.g. the number elected in one system affects the number elected in the other) then this is called the additional member system.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Spanish) "Segunda Parte, Título II, Capítulo Primero, Sección II" (PDF). Nueva Constitución Política del Estado. p. 40. Retrieved 2009-02-12. "Artículo 167: I. [...] Será proclamada a la Presidencia y a la Vicepresidencia la candidatura que haya reunido el cincuenta por ciento más uno de los votos válidos; o que haya obtenido un mínimo del cuarenta por ciento de los votos válidos, con una diferencia de al menos diez por ciento en relación con la segunda candidatura. II. En caso de que ninguna de las candidaturas cumpla estas condiciones se realizará una segunda vuelta electoral entre las dos candidaturas más votadas, en el plazo de sesenta días computables a partir de la votación anterior. Será proclamada [...] la candidatura que haya obtenido la mayoría de los votos." 
  2. ^ a b (Spanish) "Capítulo III - DE LAS ELECCIONES DEL ÓRGANO LEGISLATIVO PLURINACIONAL" (PDF). Régimen electoral transitorio. 2009-04-14. Retrieved 02-07-2011. 
  3. ^ a b Determined for the 2005 parliamentary elections based on the 2001 census data. Independent candidates need to gather votes equal to the total number of votes cast in the constituency divided by the number of local seats. The remaining seats are distributed among parties by the D'Hondt method applied to the total number of votes for each. Party lists are one per constituency, the seats each party wins are further distributed among its local lists again by D'Hondt applied to local numbers of votes for the party, and a mechanism of shifting seats from one local Party list to another, to adjust the total seats for all parties for each constituency to the allocated local number of seats (minus the number of successful local independent candidates).
  4. ^ Constitution of the Republic of the Congo, Article 69, paragraph (1): "The President of the Republic shall be elected by an absolute majority of the votes cast. If this is not obtained in the first round of balloting, it shall be followed, the second following Sunday, by a second round. Only the two candidates having received the largest number of votes in the first round shall be presented."
  5. ^ Previously, a presidential candidate required an absolute majority of votes in order to be elected, but a 2011 constitutional amendment reduced this requirement to a simple majority. source
  6. ^ Constitution of Equatorial Guinea, Item 31: (Constitutional law No. 1/1995 of 17 January): "The President of the Republic shall be the Head of State; he shall be the symbol of national unity and shall represent the Nation. He shall be elected by a relative majority of the votes cast through direct, equal and secret universal suffrage. The law shall determine the conditions of the electoral process."
  7. ^ Fijan elections office. "Electoral decree 2014". Retrieved 03 july 2014. 
  8. ^ The Ceann Comhairle or Speaker of Dáil Éireann is returned automatically for whichever constituency s/he was elected if they wish to seek re-election, reducing the number of seats contested in that constituency by one. (In that case, should the Ceann Comhairle be from a three-seater, only two seats are contested in the general election from there.) As a result, if the Ceann Comhairle wishes to be in the next Dáil, only 165 seats are actually contested in a general election.
  9. ^ a b Monaco, Inter-Parliamentary Union
  10. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay, 1992, Article 230: "The president and vice president of the Republic will be elected jointly and directly by the people, by a simple majority of voters, in general elections held between 90 and 120 days prior to the expiration of the ongoing constitutional term."
  11. ^ Constitution of Rwanda, Article 100: "The election of the President of the Republic shall be by universal suffrage through a direct and secret ballot with a simple majority of the votes cast. The Supreme Court proclaims the final results of the election."
  12. ^ THE CONSTITUTION OF SIERRA LEONE, 1991 (Act No. 6 of 1991), section 42(2)(e): "no person shall be elected as President of Sierra Leone unless at the Presidential election he has polled not less than fifty-five per cent of the valid votes in his favour; and", section 42(2)(f): "in default of a candidate being duly elected under paragraph (e), the two candidates with the highest number or numbers of votes shall go forward to a second election which shall be held within fourteen days of the announcement of the result of the previous election, and the candidate polling the higher number of votes cast in his favour shall be declared President."
  13. ^ Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic, 2012, Article 86 (2): "Te candidate who obtains the absolute majority of votes shall be elected President. If none of the candidates obtains this absolute majority, the two candidates with the highest number of votes shall stand for election within two weeks."
  14. ^ "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la présidentielle au 23 novembre" (in French). Jeune Afrique. 25 June 2014. 
  15. ^ "Constituante tunisienne | La Tunisie adopte enfin sa nouvelle loi électorale". Jeuneafrique.com (in French) (Jeune Afrique). 2 June 2014. 
  16. ^ In each of the states of Maine and Nebraska, two electors are chosen using FPTP on a statewide basis, and one elector is chosen from each Congressional district using FPTP on a per district basis.
  17. ^ a b The state of Louisiana uses the nonpartisan blanket primary for all House and Senate seats.
    The state of Georgia uses runoff voting for the main election with primaries for House and Senate seats. Many states use runoff voting in the primaries.

Much of the data on Bulgaria from Central electoral committee - "Methods for determining the number of mandates in constituencies and the results of the vote" (in Bulgarian); A mathematical analysis of the system

Much of the data regarding which voting system is used is drawn from this 2002 report from the International Insititute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).

Much of the data regarding the size of the parliaments comes from this 1997 report from the same Institute.

Some of the data has been updated since then.

External links[edit]