Tabula Peutingeriana

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Tabula Peutingeriana (section)—top to bottom: Dalmatian coast, Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, Sicily, African Mediterranean coast

The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also anglicized as Peutinger's Tabula[1] and the Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (road map) showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. The original map upon which it is based probably dates to the 4th or 5th century and was itself based on a map prepared by Agrippa during the reign of the emperor Augustus. The present map is a 13th century copy and covers Europe (without Spain or the British Isles), North Africa, and parts of Asia (the Middle East, Persia, India). The scholar Konrad Peutinger reconstructed its British and Iberian section.

Archetype[edit]

The Tabula is thought to be the distant descendant of a map prepared under the direction of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the friend and ally of Augustus. After Agrippa's death, that map was engraved on marble and placed in the Porticus Vipsania, not far from the Ara Pacis. That early imperial dating for the archetype of the map is also supported by Glen Bowersock, based on numerous details of Roman Arabia that look entirely anachronistic for a 4th-century map.[2] Therefore, he also points to the map of Vipsanius Agrippa.[3] This chronology is also consistent with the presence on the Tabula of Pompeii, which was never rebuilt after the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.

The original map, of which this is a unique copy, was last revised in the fourth or early fifth century.[4][5] It shows the city of Constantinople, founded in 328, and the prominence of Ravenna, seat of the Western Empire from 402, suggested a fifth-century revision to the editors Levi and Levi.[4] The presence of certain cities of Germania Inferior that were destroyed in the mid-fifth century also provides a terminus ante quem.

Map description[edit]

The Tabula Peutingeriana is the only known surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus; it was made by a monk in Colmar in the 13th century. It is a parchment scroll, 0.34 m high and 6.75 m long, assembled from eleven sections, a medieval reproduction of the original scroll. It is a very schematic map: the land masses are distorted, especially in the east-west direction. The map shows many Roman settlements, the roads connecting them, rivers, mountains, forests and seas. The distances between the settlements are also given. In total no less than 555 cities and 3500 other place names are shown.[6] The three most important cities of the Roman Empire, Rome, Constantinople and Antioch, are represented with special iconic decoration. Besides the totality of the Empire, the map shows the Near East, India and the Ganges, Sri Lanka (Insula Taprobane), and even an indication of China. It shows a "Temple to Augustus" at Muziris, one of the main ports for trade to the Roman Empire on the southwest coast of India.[7] In the West, the absence of the Iberian Peninsula indicates that a twelfth original section has been lost in the surviving copy; it was reconstructed in 1898 by Konrad Miller.[8]

The table appears to be based on "itineraries", lists of destinations along Roman roads, as the distances between points along the routes are indicated.[9] Travelers would not have possessed anything so sophisticated as a modern map, but they needed to know what lay ahead of them on the road and how far. The Peutinger table represents these roads as a series of stepped lines along which destinations have been marked in order of travel. The shape of the parchment pages accounts for the conventional rectangular layout. However, a rough similarity to the coordinates of Ptolemy's earth-mapping gives some writers a hope that some terrestrial representation was intended by the unknown compilers.

The stages and cities are represented by hundreds of functional place symbols, used with discrimination from the simplest icon of a building with two towers to the elaborate individualized "portraits" of the three great cities. The editors Annalina and Mario Levi concluded that the semi-schematic, semi-pictorial symbols reproduce Roman cartographic conventions of the itineraria picta described by Vegetius,[10] of which this is the sole testimony.

History[edit]

The map was discovered in a library in Worms by Conrad Celtes, who was unable to publish his find before his death and bequeathed the map in 1508 to Konrad Peutinger, a German 15–16th-century humanist and antiquarian, after whom it is named. It is conserved at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Hofburg, Vienna.[11] The map was copied for Ortelius and published shortly after his death in 1598. A partial first edition was printed at Antwerp in 1591 (Fragmenta tabulæ antiquæ) by Johannes Moretus, who would print the full Tabula in December 1598, also at Antwerp.

The Peutinger family kept the map until 1714, when it was sold. It bounced between royal and elite families until it was purchased by Prince Eugene of Savoy for 100 ducats; upon his death in 1737, it was purchased for the Habsburg Imperial Court Library (Hofbibliothek) in Vienna, where it remains. In 1753 Franz Scheyb published a copy and in 1872 Konrad Miller, a German professor, was allowed to copy the map. Several publishing houses in Europe made copies. In 1892 William and North gate published a copy and in 1911 a sheet was added to show the missing sections of England and Spain.

In 2007, the map was placed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register, and in recognition of this, it was displayed to the public for a single day on November 26, 2007. Because of its fragile condition, it is not ordinarily on display.[12]

Map[edit]

The Tabula Peutingeriana, from the reconstructed British and Iberian panel in the west to India in the east.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ravenstein, Ernest George (1911), "Map", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. XVII, p. 637 
  2. ^ G.W.Bowersock (1994), pp.169-170,175,177,178-179,181,182,184
  3. ^ G.W.Bowersock (1994), p.185
  4. ^ a b Annalina Levi and Mario Levi, Itineraria picta: Contributo allo studio della Tabula Peutingeriana (Rome:Bretschneider) 1967.
  5. ^ History of cartography, Leo Bagrow, R. A. Skelton
  6. ^ Peutinger Map article by Jona Lendering (accessed February 22, 2014)
  7. ^ Ball (2000), p. 123.
  8. ^ Talbert, Richard J. A. (2010). Rome's World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered. Cambridge University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-521-76480-3. 
  9. ^ Not all the stages are between towns: sometimes a crossroads marks the staging point.
  10. ^ Vegetius' "...viarum qualitas, compendia, diverticula, montes, flumina ad fidem descripta suggest a more detailed "pictorial itinerary" than either the Antonine Itinerary or the Tabula Peutingeriana offers.
  11. ^ Accession number: Codex 324.
  12. ^ Bethany Bell, "Ancient Roman road map unveiled", BBC News, 26 November 2007.

References[edit]

  • Annalina Levi and Mario Levi. Itineraria picta: Contributo allo studio della Tabula Peutingeriana (Rome: Bretschneider) 1967. Includes the best easily available reproduction of the Tabula Peuringeriana, at 2:3 scale.
  • Ball, Warwick. (2000). Rome in the East: The transformation of an empire. Routledge. London and New York. ISBN 0-415-11376-8.
  • Glen Bowersock. Roman Arabia (Harvard University Press) 1994. ISBN 0-674-77756-5.
  • Tabula Peutingeriana. Le antiche vie del mondo, edited by F. Prontera, Florence, Olschki, 2003. ISBN 9788822252692
  • Richard Talbert. 2010. Rome's World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered (Cambridge University Press). ISBN 9780521764803; online content.

External links[edit]