Tadao Ando

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Tadao Ando
Tadao Ando 2004.jpg
Tadao Ando (2004)
Born (1941-09-13) September 13, 1941 (age 72)
Minato-ku, Osaka, Japan
Nationality Japanese
Awards

Alvar Aalto Medal, 1985
Pritzker Prize, 1995
RIBA Royal Gold Medal, 1997
AIA Gold Medal, 2002

Neutra Medal for Professional Excellence, 2012
Practice Tadao Ando Architects & Associates
Buildings

Row House, Sumiyoshi, 1979
Church of the Light, Osaka, 1989

Water Temple, Awaji, 1991
Projects Rokko Housing I, II, III, Kobe, 1983-1999

Tadao Ando (安藤 忠雄 Andō Tadao?, born September 13, 1941) is a Japanese self-taught architect[1][2] whose approach to architecture and landscape was categorized by architectural historian Francesco Dal Co as "critical regionalism".

Early life[edit]

Ando was born in 1941 in Minato-ku, Osaka, Japan, and was raised in Asahi-ku in the city. He worked as a truck driver and boxer before settling on the profession of architecture, despite never having taken formal training in the field. Struck by the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Imperial Hotel on a trip to Tokyo as a second-year high-school student, he eventually decided to end his boxing career of less than two years after graduating from high school and to pursue architecture. He attended night classes to learn drawing and took correspondence courses on interior design.[3] He visited buildings designed by renowned architects like Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis Kahn before returning to Osaka in 1968 to establish his own design studio, Tadao Ando Architects and Associates.

Career[edit]

Style[edit]

Time's 1 and 2, Kyoto, 1984 and 1991
Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas
Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, showing the restaurant
Galleria Akka, Osaka, 1988

Ando was raised in Japan where the religion and style of life strongly influenced his architecture and design. Ando's architectural style is said to create a "haiku" effect, emphasizing nothingness and empty space to represent the beauty of simplicity. He favors designing complex spatial circulation while maintaining the appearance of simplicity. A self-taught architect, he keeps his Japanese culture and language in mind while he travels around Europe for research. As an architect, he believes that architecture can change society, that "to change the dwelling is to change the city and to reform society".[4] "Reform society" could be a promotion of a place or a change of the identity of that place. According to Werner Blaser, "Good buildings by Tadao Ando create memorable identity and therefore publicity, which in turn attracts the public and promotes market penetration".[5]

The simplicity of his architecture emphasizes the concept of sensation and physical experiences, mainly influenced by the Japanese culture. The religious term Zen, focuses on the concept of simplicity and concentrates on inner feeling rather than outward appearance. Zen influences vividly show in Ando’s work and became its distinguishing mark. In order to practise the idea of simplicity, Ando's architecture is mostly constructed with concrete, providing a sense of cleanness and weightiness at the same time. Due to the simplicity of the exterior, construction and organization of the space are relatively potential in order to represent the aesthetic of sensation.

Besides Japanese religious architecture, Ando has also designed Christian churches, such as the Church of the Light (1989) and the Church in Tarumi (1993). Although there are different characteristic between Japanese and Christian churches, Ando treats them in a similar way. He believes there should be no difference in designing religious architecture and houses. As he explains,

We do not need to differentiate one from the other. Dwelling in a house is not only a functional issue, but also a spiritual one. The house is the locus of mind (kokoro), and the mind is the locus of god. Dwelling in a house is a search for the mind (kokoro) as the locus of god, just as one goes to church to search for god. An important role of the church is to enhance this sense of the spiritual. In a spiritual place, people find peace in their mind (kokoro), as in their homeland.[6]

Besides speaking of the spirit of architecture, Ando also emphasises the association between nature and architecture. He intends for people to easily experience the spirit and beauty of nature through architecture. He believes architecture is responsible for performing the attitude of the site and makes it visible. This not only represents his theory of the role of architecture in society but also shows why he spends so much time studying architecture from physical experience.

In 1995, Ando won the Pritzker Prize for architecture, considered the highest distinction in the field.[7] He donated the $100,000 prize money to the orphans of the 1995 Kobe earthquake.[8]

Buildings and works[edit]

Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Art, Kobe

Tadao Ando's body of work is known for the creative use of natural light and for structures that follow natural forms of the landscape, rather than disturbing the landscape by making it conform to the constructed space of a building. Ando's buildings are often characterized by complex three-dimensional circulation paths. These paths interweave between interior and exterior spaces formed both inside large-scale geometric shapes and in the spaces between them.

His "Row House in Sumiyoshi" (Azuma House, 住吉の長屋), a small two-story, cast-in-place concrete house completed in 1976, is an early work which began to show elements of his characteristic style. It consists of three equal rectangular volumes: two enclosed volumes of interior spaces separated by an open courtyard. The courtyard's position between the two interior volumes becomes an integral part of the house's circulation system. The house is famous for the contrast between appearance and spatial organization which allow people to experience the richness of the space within the geometry.

Ando's housing complex at Rokko, just outside Kobe, is a complex warren of terraces and balconies, atriums and shafts. The designs for Rokko Housing One (1983) and for Rokko Housing Two (1993) illustrate a range of issues in traditional architectural vocabulary—the interplay of solid and void, the alternatives of open and closed, the contrasts of light and darkness. More significantly, Ando's noteworthy engineering achievement in these clustered buildings is site specific—the structures survived undamaged after the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995.[9] New York Times architectural critic Paul Goldberger argues that,

Ando is right in the Japanese tradition: spareness has always been a part of Japanese architecture, at least since the 16th century; [and] it is not without reason that Frank Lloyd Wright more freely admitted to the influences of Japanese architecture than of anything American."[9]

Like Wright's Imperial Hotel in Tokyo Second Imperial Hotel 1923-1968, which did survive the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, site specific decision-making, anticipates seismic activity in several of Ando's Hyōgo-Awaji buildings.[10]

Projects[edit]

Langen Foundation
Langen Foundation
Langen Foundation
The Church of the Light in Ibaraki, Osaka
Honpuku Temple (Water Temple)
Suntory Museum in Osaka
Akita Museum of Art, stairs
Lee Ufan museum
Westin Awaji Island Hotel
Hyogo prefectural museum of art
Hyogo prefectural museum of art
The Shikokumura gallery
Building/project Location Country Date
Tomishima House Osaka Japan 1973
Uchida House Japan 1974
Uno House Kyoto Japan 1974
Hiraoka House Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1974
Shibata House Ashiya, Hyogo Prefecture Japan 1974
Tatsumi House Osaka Japan 1975
Soseikan-Yamaguchi House Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1975
Takahashi House Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1975
Matsumura House Kobe Japan 1975
Row House in Sumiyoshi (Azuma House) Sumiyoshi, Osaka Japan 1976
Hirabayashi House Osaka Prefecture Japan 1976
Bansho House Aichi Prefecture Japan 1976
Tezukayama Tower Plaza Sumiyoshi, Osaka Japan 1976
Tezukayama House-Manabe House Osaka Japan 1977
Wall House (Matsumoto House) Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1977
Glass Block House (Ishihara House) Osaka Japan 1978
Okusu House Setagaya, Tokyo Japan 1978
Glass Block Wall (Horiuchi House) Sumiyoshi, Osaka Japan 1979
Katayama Building Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1979
Onishi House Sumiyoshi, Osaka Japan 1979
Matsutani House Kyoto Japan 1979
Ueda House Okayama Prefecture Japan 1979
Step Takamatsu, Kagawa Japan 1980
Matsumoto House Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture Japan 1980
Fuku House Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture Japan 1980
Bansho House Addition Aichi Prefecture Japan 1981
Koshino House Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1981
Kojima Housing (Sato House) Okayama Prefecture Japan 1981
Atelier in Oyodo Osaka Japan 1981
Tea House for Soseikan-Yamaguchi House Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1982
Ishii House Shizuoka Prefecture Japan 1982
Akabane House Setagaya, Tokyo Japan 1982
Kujo Townhouse (Izutsu House) Osaka Japan 1982
Rokko Housing One (34°43′32″N 135°13′39″E / 34.725613°N 135.227564°E / 34.725613; 135.227564) Rokko, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1983
Bigi Atelier Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 1983
Umemiya House Kobe Japan 1983
Kaneko House Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 1983
Festival Naha, Okinawa prefecture Japan 1984
Time's Kyoto Japan 1984
Koshino House Addition Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1984
Melrose, Meguro Tokyo Japan 1984
Uejo House Osaka Prefecture Japan 1984
Ota House Okayama Prefecture Japan 1984
Moteki House Kobe Japan 1984
Shinsaibashi TO Building Osaka Prefecture Japan 1984[11]
Iwasa House Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1984
Hata House (34°46′05″N 135°19′26″E / 34.76805°N 135.32397°E / 34.76805; 135.32397) Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1984
Atelier Yoshie Inaba Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 1985
Jun Port Island Building Kobe Japan 1985
Mon-petit-chou Kyoto Japan 1985
Guest House for Hattori House Osaka Japan 1985
Taiyō Cement Headquarters Building Osaka Japan 1986
TS Building Osaka Japan 1986
Chapel on Mount Rokko Kobe Japan 1986
Old/New Rokkov Kobe Japan 1986
Kidosaki House Setagaya, Tokyo Japan 1986
Fukuhara Clinic Setagaya, Tokyo Japan 1986
Sasaki House Minato, Tokyo Japan 1986
Main Pavilion for Tennoji Fair Osaka Japan 1987
Karaza Theater 1987
Ueda House Addition Okayama Prefecture Japan 1987
Church on the Water Tomamu, Hokkaido Japan 1988
Galleria Akka Osaka Japan 1988
Children's Museum Himeji, Hyōgo Japan 1989
Church of the Light (34°49′08″N 135°22′19″E / 34.818763°N 135.37201°E / 34.818763; 135.37201) Ibaraki Osaka Prefecture Japan 1989[12][13]
Collezione Minato, Tokyo Japan 1989
Morozoff P&P Studio Kobe Japan 1989
Raika Headquarters Osaka Japan 1989
Natsukawa Memorial Hall Hikone, Shiga Japan 1989
Yao Clinic, Neyagawa Osaka Prefecture Japan 1989
Matsutani House Addition Kyoto Japan 1990
Ito House, Setagaya Tokyo Japan 1990
Iwasa House Addition Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1990
Garden of Fine Arts Osaka Japan 1990
S Building Osaka Japan 1990
Water Temple (34°32′47″N 134°59′17″E / 34.546406°N 134.98813°E / 34.546406; 134.98813) Awaji Island, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1991[14]
Atelier in Oyodo II Osaka Japan 1991
Time's II Kyoto Japan 1991
Museum of Literature Himeji, Hyōgo Japan 1991
Sayoh Housing Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1991
Minolta Seminar House Kobe Japan 1991
Naoshima Contemporary Art Museum Naoshima, Kagawa Japan 1995[15]
Japanese Pavilion for Expo 92 Seville Spain 1992
Otemae Art Center Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1992
Forest of Tombs Museum Kumamoto Prefecture Japan 1992
Rokko Housing Two Rokko, Kobe Japan 1993
Vitra Seminar House Weil am Rhein Germany 1993
Gallery Noda Kobe Japan 1993
YKK Seminar House Chiba Prefecture Japan 1993
Suntory Museum Osaka Japan 1994
Maxray Headquarters Building Osaka Japan 1994
Chikatsu Asuka Museum Osaka Prefecture Japan 1994
Kiyo Bank, Sakai Building Sakai, Osaka Japan 1994
Garden of Fine Art Kyoto Japan 1994
Museum of wood culture Kami, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1994
Inamori Auditorium Kagoshima Japan 1994
Nariwa Museum Okayama Prefecture Japan 1994
Atelier in Oyodo Annex Osaka Japan 1995
Nagaragawa Convention Center Gifu Japan 1995
Naoshima Contemporary Art Museum Annex Naoshima, Kagawa Prefecture Japan 1995
Meditation Space, UNESCO Paris France 1995
Asahi Beer Oyamazaki Villa Museum of Art Kyoto Prefecture Japan 1995[16]
Shanghai Pusan Ferry Terminal Osaka Japan 1996
Museum of Literature II, Himeji Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1996
Gallery Chiisaime (Sawada House) Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1996
Museum of Gojo Culture & Annex Gojo, Nara Prefecture Japan 1997
Toto Seminar House Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1997
Yokogurayama Natural Forest Museum Kochi Prefecture Japan 1997
Harima Kogen Higashi Primary School & Junior High School Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1997
Koumi Kogen Museum Nagano Prefecture Japan 1997
Eychaner/Lee House Chicago, Illinois United States 1997
Daikoku Denki Headquarters Building Aichi Prefecture Japan 1998
Daylight Museum Shiga Prefecture Japan 1998
Junichi Watanabe Memorial Hall Sapporo Japan 1998
Asahi Shimbun Okayama Bureau Okayama Japan 1998
Siddhartha Children and Women Hospital Butwal Nepal 1998
Church of the Light Sunday School Ibaraki, Osaka Prefecture Japan 1999
Rokko Housing III' Kobe Japan 1999
Shell Museum, Nishinomiya Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 1999
Fabrica (Benetton Communication Research Center) Treviso Italy 2000
Awaji-Yumebutai (34°33′40″N 135°00′29″E / 34.560983°N 135.008144°E / 34.560983; 135.008144[17]) Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 2000
Rockfield Shizuoka Factory Shizuoka Japan 2000
The Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts St. Louis, Missouri United States 2001[18]
Komyo-ji (shrine) Saijō, Ehime Japan 2001
Ryotaro Shiba Memorial Museum Higashiosaka, Osaka prefecture Japan 2001
Teatro Armani-Armani World Headquarters Milan Italy 2001
Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Art Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture Japan 2002[19]
Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth Fort Worth, Texas United States 2002[20]
Piccadilly Gardens Manchester United Kingdom 2003
4x4 house Kobe Japan 2003
Invisible House Treviso Italy 2004
Chichu Art Museum Naoshima, Kagawa Japan 2004[21]
Langen Foundation Neuss Germany 2004[22]
Gunma Insect World Insect Observation Hall Kiryū, Gunma Japan 2005
Picture Book Museum Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture Japan 2005[23]
Sakanouenokumo Museum Matsuyama, Ehime Japan 2006
Morimoto (restaurant) Chelsea Market, Manhattan United States 2005
Omotesando Hills, Jingumae 4-Chome Tokyo Japan 2006
House in Shiga Ōtsu, Shiga Japan 2006
Benesse House Naoshima, Kagawa Japan 2006
21 21 Design Sight Minato, Tokyo Japan 2007
Stone Hill Center expansion for the Clark Art Institute Williamstown, Massachusetts United States 2008[24]
Punta della Dogana (restoration) Venice Italy 2009[25]
Tokyo Skytree[26][27][28] Tokyo Japan 2009
House, stable, and mausoleum for fashion designer and film director Tom Ford rancho near Santa Fe, New Mexico United States 2009
Rebuilding the Kobe Kaisei Hospital Nada Ward, Kobe Japan 2009
Gate of Creation, Universidad de Monterrey Monterrey Mexico 2009
Capella Niseko Resort and Residences Niseko, Abuta District, Shiribeshi, Hokkaido Prefecture Japan 2010
Interior design of Miklós Ybl Villa Budapest Hungary 2010
Kaminoge Station, Tokyu Corporation Tokyo Japan 2011
Centro Roberto Garza Sada of Art Architecture and Design Monterrey Mexico 2012
Asia University Museum of Arts Wufeng,Taichung Taiwan 2012
Akita Museum of Art Akita, Akita Japan 2012
Hansol Museum (San Museum ) [29] Wonju South Korea 2013
Aurora Museum Shanghai China 2013
Visitor, Exhibition and Conference Center, Clark Art Institute Williamstown, Massachusetts United States 2014

Awards[edit]

Kaminoge Station in Tokyo
The interior of the Omotesando Hills shopping complex in Tokyo
Tokyo Skytree
Award Organization/location Country Date
Annual Prize (Row House, Sumiyoshi) Architectural Institute of Japan Japan 1979
Cultural Design Prize (Rokko Housing One and Two) Tokyo Japan 1983
Alvar Aalto Medal Finnish Association of Architects Finland 1985
Gold Medal of Architecture French Academy of Architecture France 1989
Carlsberg Architectural Prize (International) Copenhagen Denmark 1992
Japan Art Academy Prize Japan Art Academy Japan 1993
Asahi Prize Tokyo Japan 1994
Pritzker Architecture Prize (International) Chicago United States 1995
Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Paris France 1995
Praemium Imperiale First “FRATE SOLE” Award in Architecture Japan Art Association Japan 1996
Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Paris France 1997
Royal Gold Medal RIBA Great Britain 1997
AIA Gold Medal American Institute of Architects United States 2002
Kyoto Prize Inamori Foundation Japan 2002
Person of Cultural Merit Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Japan 2003
UIA Gold Medal[30] International Union of Architects France 2005
Order of Culture The Emperor Japan 2010
Neutra Medal for Professional Excellence Cal Poly Pomona College of Environmental Design United States 2012

References[edit]

  1. ^ Great buildings Tadao Ando
  2. ^ Pritzker prize
  3. ^ Makiko Kitamura (September 29, 2009), Bono’s Home Designer Ando Plans Art Center at Provence Winery Bloomberg.
  4. ^ Masao Furuyama. “Tadao Ando”. Taschen, 2006. ISBN 978-3-8228-4895-1.
  5. ^ Werner Blaser, Tadao Ando, Architecktur der Stille, Architecture of Silence Birkhäuser, 2001. ISBN 3-7643-6448-3.
  6. ^ Jin Baek, Nothingness: Tadao Ando’s Christian Sacred Space. Routledge, 2009. ISBN 978-0-415-47854-0.
  7. ^ Ando 1995, Prtizker Prize web page.[dead link]
  8. ^ Muschamp, Herbert. (1995). "Among the Fountains with Tadao Ando; Concrete Dreams In the Sun King's Court," New York Times. September 21, 1995.
  9. ^ a b Goldberger, Paul. "Architecture View: 'Laureate' in a Land of Zen and Microchips," The New York Times. April 23, 1995.
  10. ^ Bassin, Joan. "Frank Lloyd Wright's Imperial Hotel", National Building Museum exhibition.
  11. ^ WHAT WE DO IS SECRET » An Encounter[dead link]
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ Michelle Chan (2000-02-23). "Church of the Light - Tadao Ando". Arch.mcgill.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  14. ^ Floornature - architectural news, design and information resource for ceramic tile and stone
  15. ^ [2] Naoshima Contemporary Art Museum
  16. ^ "Asahi Beer Oyamazaki Villa Museum of Art". Asahibeer-oyamazaki.com. 2013-12-26. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  17. ^ map
  18. ^ Site Design and Development by TOKY Branding + Design. "The Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts website". 38.64;-90.2: Pulitzerarts.org. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  19. ^ Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Art[dead link]
  20. ^ Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth[dead link]
  21. ^ Chichu Art Museum
  22. ^ "Langen Foundation". Langenfoundation.de. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  23. ^ "Works 安藤忠雄 Tadao Ando". Tadao-ando.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  24. ^ "Clark Art Institute". Andotadao.org. 2009-03-14. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  25. ^ "Arte contemporanea | Palazzo Grassi" (in Italian). Palazzograssi.it. 2013-12-18. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  26. ^ "Tokyo sky tree". stad. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  27. ^ "Tokyo Sky Tree Tower". batangastoday.com. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  28. ^ "Building detail". Glasstreelandstone.com. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ Tadao Ando, UIA 2005 Gold Medalist[dead link]

Literature[edit]

  • Francesco Dal Co. Tadao Ando: Complete Works. Phaidon Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7148-3717-2
  • Kenneth Frampton. Tadao Ando: Buildings, Projects, Writings. Rizzoli International Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-8478-0547-6
  • Randall J. Van Vynckt. International Dictionary of Architects and Architecture. St. James Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55862-087-7
  • Masao Furuyama. “Tadao Ando”. Taschen, 2006. ISBN 978-3-8228-4895-1
  • Werner Blaser, “Tadao Ando, Architecktur der Stille, Architecture of silence” Birkhäuser, 2001. ISBN 3-7643-6448-3
  • Jin Baek, “Nothingness: Tadao Ando’s Christian Sacred Space”. Routledge, 2009. ISBN 978-0-415-47854-0

External links[edit]