Tadao Ando (2004)
September 13, 1941 |
Minato-ku, Osaka, Japan
|Awards||Neutra Medal for Professional Excellence, 2012|
|Practice||Tadao Ando Architects & Associates|
Row House, Sumiyoshi, 1979
|Projects||Rokko Housing I, II, III, Kobe, 1983-1999|
Tadao Ando (安藤 忠雄 Andō Tadao?, born September 13, 1941) is a Japanese self-taught architect  whose approach to architecture and landscape was categorized by architectural historian Francesco Dal Co as "critical regionalism".
Ando was born in 1941 in Minato-ku, Osaka, Japan, and raised in Asahi-ku in the city. He led an eventful life, working as a truck driver and boxer prior to settling on the profession of architecture, despite never having taken formal training in the field. Struck by the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Imperial Hotel on a trip to Tokyo as a second-year high-school student, he eventually decided to end his boxing career of less than two years after graduating from high school and to pursue architecture. He attended night classes to learn drawing and took correspondence courses on interior design. He visited buildings designed by renowned architects like Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis Kahn before returning to Osaka in 1968 to establish his own design studio, Tadao Ando Architects and Associates.
Ando has a strong background in Japanese culture. He was raised in Japan and lives there. Japanese religion and style of life strongly influenced his architecture and design. Ando's architectural style is said to create a "haiku" effect, emphasizing nothingness and empty space to represent the beauty of simplicity. He favors designing complex spatial circulation while maintaining the appearance of simplicity. A self-taught architect, he keeps his Japanese culture and language in mind while he travels around Europe for research. As an architect, he believes that architecture can change society, that "to change the dwelling is to change the city and to reform society". "Reform society" could be a promotion of a place or a change of the identity of that place. According to Werner Blaser, "Good buildings by Tadao Ando create memorable identity and therefore publicity, which in turn attracts the public and promotes market penetration".
The simplicity of his architecture emphasizes the concept of sensation and physical experiences, mainly influenced by the Japanese culture. The religious term Zen, focuses on the concept of simplicity and concentrates on inner feeling rather than outward appearance. Zen influences vividly show in Ando’s work and became its distinguishing mark. In order to practise the idea of simplicity, Ando’s architecture is mostly constructed with concrete, providing a sense of cleanness and weightiness at the same time. Due to the simplicity of the exterior, construction and organization of the space are relatively potential in order to represent the aesthetic of sensation.
Unlike most religious architecture that mainly focuses on preserving history, one of his works, the Komyo-ji Temple in Saijo, Ehime, is made out of wood, which requires regular maintenance and repair. However, from the perspective of Japanese culture, the most significant concept of the shrine is for it to be able to spread the divine spirit from the inside and being able to eternalize it through the architecture.
Besides Japanese religious architecture, Ando also designs Christian Churches, such as the Church of the Light (1989) and the Church in Tarumi (1993). Although there are different characteristic between Japanese and Christian churches, Ando treats them in a similar way. He believes there should be no difference in designing religious architecture and houses. As he explains,
We do not need to differentiate one from the other. Dwelling in a house is not only a functional issue, but also a spiritual one. The house is the locus of mind (kokoro), and the mind is the locus of god. Dwelling in a house is a search for the mind (kokoro) as the locus of god, just as one goes to church to search for god. An important role of the church is to enhance this sense of the spiritual. In a spiritual place, people find peace in their mind (kokoro), as in their homeland.
Besides speaking of the spirit of architecture, Ando also emphasises the association between nature and architecture. He intends for people to easily experience the spirit and beauty of nature through architecture. He believes architecture is responsible for performing the attitude of the site and makes it visible. This not only represents his theory of the role of architecture in society but also shows why he spends so much time studying architecture from physical experience.
Buildings and works
Tadao Ando's body of work is known for the creative use of natural light and for structures that follow natural forms of the landscape, rather than disturbing the landscape by making it conform to the constructed space of a building. Ando's buildings are often characterized by complex three-dimensional circulation paths. These paths interweave between interior and exterior spaces formed both inside large-scale geometric shapes and in the spaces between them.
His "Row House in Sumiyoshi" (Azuma House, 住吉の長屋), a small two-story, cast-in-place concrete house completed in 1976, is an early work which began to show elements of his characteristic style. It consists of three equal rectangular volumes: two enclosed volumes of interior spaces separated by an open courtyard. The courtyard's position between the two interior volumes becomes an integral part of the house's circulation system. The house is famous for the contrast between appearance and spatial organization which allow people to experience the richness of the space within the geometry.
Ando's housing complex at Rokko, just outside Kobe, is a complex warren of terraces and balconies, atriums and shafts. The designs for Rokko Housing One (1983) and for Rokko Housing Two (1993) illustrate a range of issues in traditional architectural vocabulary—the interplay of solid and void, the alternatives of open and closed, the contrasts of light and darkness. More significantly, Ando's noteworthy engineering achievement in these clustered buildings is site specific—the structures survived undamaged after the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995. New York Times architectural critic Paul Goldberger argues that,
Ando is right in the Japanese tradition: spareness has always been a part of Japanese architecture, at least since the 16th century; [and] it is not without reason that Frank Lloyd Wright more freely admitted to the influences of Japanese architecture than of anything American."
Like Wright's Imperial Hotel in Tokyo Second Imperial Hotel 1923-1968, which did survive the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, site specific decision-making, anticipates seismic activity in several of Ando's Hyōgo-Awaji buildings.
|Hiraoka House||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1974|
|Shibata House||Ashiya, Hyogo Prefecture||Japan||1974|
|Soseikan-Yamaguchi House||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1975|
|Takahashi House||Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1975|
|Row House in Sumiyoshi (Azuma House)||Sumiyoshi, Osaka||Japan||1976|
|Hirabayashi House||Osaka Prefecture||Japan||1976|
|Bansho House||Aichi Prefecture||Japan||1976|
|Tezukayama Tower Plaza||Sumiyoshi, Osaka||Japan||1976|
|Tezukayama House-Manabe House||Osaka||Japan||1977|
|Wall House (Matsumoto House)||Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1977|
|Glass Block House (Ishihara House)||Osaka||Japan||1978|
|Okusu House||Setagaya, Tokyo||Japan||1978|
|Glass Block Wall (Horiuchi House)||Sumiyoshi, Osaka||Japan||1979|
|Katayama Building||Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1979|
|Onishi House||Sumiyoshi, Osaka||Japan||1979|
|Ueda House||Okayama Prefecture||Japan||1979|
|Matsumoto House||Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture||Japan||1980|
|Fuku House||Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture||Japan||1980|
|Bansho House Addition||Aichi Prefecture||Japan||1981|
|Koshino House||Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1981|
|Kojima Housing (Sato House)||Okayama Prefecture||Japan||1981|
|Atelier in Oyodo||Osaka||Japan||1981|
|Tea House for Soseikan-Yamaguchi House||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1982|
|Ishii House||Shizuoka Prefecture||Japan||1982|
|Akabane House||Setagaya, Tokyo||Japan||1982|
|Kujo Townhouse (Izutsu House)||Osaka||Japan||1982|
|Rokko Housing One ()||Rokko, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1983|
|Bigi Atelier||Shibuya, Tokyo||Japan||1983|
|Kaneko House||Shibuya, Tokyo||Japan||1983|
|Festival||Naha, Okinawa prefecture||Japan||1984|
|Koshino House Addition||Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1984|
|Uejo House||Osaka Prefecture||Japan||1984|
|Ota House||Okayama Prefecture||Japan||1984|
|Shinsaibashi TO Building||Osaka Prefecture||Japan||1984|
|Iwasa House||Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1984|
|Hata House ()||Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1984|
|Atelier Yoshie Inaba||Shibuya, Tokyo||Japan||1985|
|Jun Port Island Building||Kobe||Japan||1985|
|Guest House for Hattori House||Osaka||Japan||1985|
|Taiyō Cement Headquarters Building||Osaka||Japan||1986|
|Chapel on Mount Rokko||Kobe||Japan||1986|
|Kidosaki House||Setagaya, Tokyo||Japan||1986|
|Fukuhara Clinic||Setagaya, Tokyo||Japan||1986|
|Sasaki House||Minato, Tokyo||Japan||1986|
|Main Pavilion for Tennoji Fair||Osaka||Japan||1987|
|Ueda House Addition||Okayama Prefecture||Japan||1987|
|Church on the Water||Tomamu, Hokkaido||Japan||1988|
|Children's Museum||Himeji, Hyōgo||Japan||1989|
|Church of the Light ( )||Ibaraki Osaka Prefecture||Japan||1989|
|Morozoff P&P Studio||Kobe||Japan||1989|
|Natsukawa Memorial Hall||Hikone, Shiga||Japan||1989|
|Yao Clinic, Neyagawa||Osaka Prefecture||Japan||1989|
|Matsutani House Addition||Kyoto||Japan||1990|
|Ito House, Setagaya||Tokyo||Japan||1990|
|Iwasa House Addition||Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1990|
|Garden of Fine Arts||Osaka||Japan||1990|
|Water Temple ()||Awaji Island, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1991|
|Atelier in Oyodo II||Osaka||Japan||1991|
|Museum of Literature||Himeji, Hyōgo||Japan||1991|
|Sayoh Housing||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1991|
|Minolta Seminar House||Kobe||Japan||1991|
|Naoshima Contemporary Art Museum||Naoshima, Kagawa||Japan||1995|
|Japanese Pavilion for Expo 92||Seville||Spain||1992|
|Otemae Art Center||Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1992|
|Forest of Tombs Museum||Kumamoto Prefecture||Japan||1992|
|Rokko Housing Two||Rokko, Kobe||Japan||1993|
|Vitra Seminar House||Weil am Rhein||Germany||1993|
|YKK Seminar House||Chiba Prefecture||Japan||1993|
|Maxray Headquarters Building||Osaka||Japan||1994|
|Chikatsu Asuka Museum||Osaka Prefecture||Japan||1994|
|Kiyo Bank, Sakai Building||Sakai, Osaka||Japan||1994|
|Garden of Fine Art||Kyoto||Japan||1994|
|Museum of wood culture||Kami, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1994|
|Nariwa Museum||Okayama Prefecture||Japan||1994|
|Atelier in Oyodo Annex||Osaka||Japan||1995|
|Nagaragawa Convention Center||Gifu||Japan||1995|
|Naoshima Contemporary Art Museum Annex||Naoshima, Kagawa Prefecture||Japan||1995|
|Meditation Space, UNESCO||Paris||France||1995|
|Asahi Beer Oyamazaki Villa Museum of Art||Kyoto Prefecture||Japan||1995|
|Shanghai Pusan Ferry Terminal||Osaka||Japan||1996|
|Museum of Literature II, Himeji||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1996|
|Gallery Chiisaime (Sawada House)||Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1996|
|Museum of Gojo Culture & Annex||Gojo, Nara Prefecture||Japan||1997|
|Toto Seminar House||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1997|
|Yokogurayama Natural Forest Museum||Kochi Prefecture||Japan||1997|
|Harima Kogen Higashi Primary School & Junior High School||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1997|
|Koumi Kogen Museum||Nagano Prefecture||Japan||1997|
|Eychaner/Lee House||Chicago, Illinois||United States||1997|
|Daikoku Denki Headquarters Building||Aichi Prefecture||Japan||1998|
|Daylight Museum||Shiga Prefecture||Japan||1998|
|Junichi Watanabe Memorial Hall||Sapporo||Japan||1998|
|Asahi Shimbun Okayama Bureau||Okayama||Japan||1998|
|Siddhartha Children and Women Hospital||Butwal||Nepal||1998|
|Church of the Light Sunday School||Ibaraki, Osaka Prefecture||Japan||1999|
|Rokko Housing III'||Kobe||Japan||1999|
|Shell Museum, Nishinomiya||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||1999|
|Fabrica (Benetton Communication Research Center)||Treviso||Italy||2000|
|Awaji-Yumebutai ()||Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||2000|
|Rockfield Shizuoka Factory||Shizuoka||Japan||2000|
|The Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts||St. Louis, Missouri||United States||2001|
|Komyo-ji (shrine)||Saijō, Ehime||Japan||2001|
|Ryotaro Shiba Memorial Museum||Higashiosaka, Osaka prefecture||Japan||2001|
|Teatro Armani-Armani World Headquarters||Milan||Italy||2001|
|Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Art||Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture||Japan||2002|
|Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth||Fort Worth, Texas||United States||2002|
|Piccadilly Gardens||Manchester||United Kingdom||2003|
|Chichu Art Museum||Naoshima, Kagawa||Japan||2004|
|Gunma Insect World Insect Observation Hall||Kiryū, Gunma||Japan||2005|
|Picture Book Museum||Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture||Japan||2005|
|Sakanouenokumo Museum||Matsuyama, Ehime||Japan||2006|
|Morimoto (restaurant)||Chelsea Market, Manhattan||United States||2005|
|Omotesando Hills, Jingumae 4-Chome||Tokyo||Japan||2006|
|House in Shiga||Ōtsu, Shiga||Japan||2006|
|Benesse House||Naoshima, Kagawa||Japan||2006|
|21 21 Design Sight||Minato, Tokyo||Japan||2007|
|Stone Hill Center expansion for the Clark Art Institute||Williamstown, Massachusetts||United States||2008|
|Punta della Dogana (restoration)||Venice||Italy||2009|
|Centro Roberto Garza Sada of Art Arquitecture and Design||Monterrey||Mexico||2012|
|Asia University Museum of Arts||Wufeng,Taichung||Taiwan||2012|
|Akita Museum of Art||Akita, Akita||Japan||2012|
|Hansol Museum||Wonju||South Korea||2013|
Completed works depicted
Projects in progress
|House, stable, and mausoleum for fashion designer and film director Tom Ford||rancho near Santa Fe, New Mexico||United States||2009|
|Rebuilding the Kobe Kaisei Hospital||Nada Ward, Kobe||Japan||2009|
|Gate of Creation, Universidad de Monterrey||Monterrey||Mexico||2009|
|Capella Niseko Resort and Residences||Niseko, Abuta District, Shiribeshi, Hokkaido Prefecture||Japan||2010|
|Interior design of Miklós Ybl Villa||Budapest||Hungary||2010|
|Kami-noge Station, Tokyu Corporation||Tokyo||Japan||2011|
|Visitor, Exhibition and Conference Center, Clark Art Institute||Williamstown, Massachusetts||United States||2014|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
- Great buildings Tadao Ando
- Pritzker prize
- Makiko Kitamura (September 29, 2009), Bono’s Home Designer Ando Plans Art Center at Provence Winery Bloomberg.
- Masao Furuyama. “Tadao Ando”. Taschen, 2006. ISBN 978-3-8228-4895-1.
- Werner Blaser, Tadao Ando, Architecktur der Stille, Architecture of Silence Birkhäuser, 2001. ISBN 3-7643-6448-3.
- Jin Baek, Nothingness: Tadao Ando’s Christian Sacred Space. Routledge, 2009. ISBN 978-0-415-47854-0.
- Ando 1995, Prtizker Prize web page.[dead link]
- Muschamp, Herbert. (1995). "Among the Fountains with Tadao Ando; Concrete Dreams In the Sun King's Court," New York Times. September 21, 1995.
- Goldberger, Paul. "Architecture View: 'Laureate' in a Land of Zen and Microchips," The New York Times. April 23, 1995.
- Bassin, Joan. "Frank Lloyd Wright's Imperial Hotel", National Building Museum exhibition.
- WHAT WE DO IS SECRET » An Encounter[dead link]
- [dead link]
- Michelle Chan (2000-02-23). "Church of the Light - Tadao Ando". Arch.mcgill.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- Floornature - architectural news, design and information resource for ceramic tile and stone
-  Naoshima Contemporary Art Museum
- "Asahi Beer Oyamazaki Villa Museum of Art". Asahibeer-oyamazaki.com. 2013-12-26. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- Site Design and Development by TOKY Branding + Design. "The Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts website". 38.64;-90.2: Pulitzerarts.org. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Art[dead link]
- Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth[dead link]
- Chichu Art Museum
- "Langen Foundation". Langenfoundation.de. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- "Works 安藤忠雄 Tadao Ando". Tadao-ando.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- "Clark Art Institute". Andotadao.org. 2009-03-14. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- "Arte contemporanea | Palazzo Grassi" (in (Italian)). Palazzograssi.it. 2013-12-18. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- Tadao Ando, UIA 2005 Gold Medalist[dead link]
- Francesco Dal Co. Tadao Ando: Complete Works. Phaidon Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7148-3717-2
- Kenneth Frampton. Tadao Ando: Buildings, Projects, Writings. Rizzoli International Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-8478-0547-6
- Randall J. Van Vynckt. International Dictionary of Architects and Architecture. St. James Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55862-087-7
- Masao Furuyama. “Tadao Ando”. Taschen, 2006. ISBN 978-3-8228-4895-1
- Werner Blaser, “Tadao Ando, Architecktur der Stille, Architecture of silence” Birkhäuser, 2001. ISBN 3-7643-6448-3
- Jin Baek, “Nothingness: Tadao Ando’s Christian Sacred Space”. Routledge, 2009. ISBN 978-0-415-47854-0
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tadao Ando.|
- Tadao Ando official website
- Tadao Ando page at greatbuildingsonline.com
- Architectural Record Magazine | Interviews | Tadao Ando
- Tadao Ando at the Museum of Modern Art
- Tadao Japanese Pavillion in 1992 Expo