|Industry||television and radio network|
|Fate||Acquired by Clear Channel Communications|
|Successor||Clear Channel Communications[a] (now iHeartMedia)|
The company is rooted in the family of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States. William Howard's half-brother, Peter Rawson Taft II, purchased the Cincinnati Times-Star newspaper in 1879; its later publishers included Peter's son Hulbert Taft Sr., and grandson Hulbert Taft Jr.
The company is notable for having been the owner of such major media and entertainment properties as Hanna-Barbera Productions, Worldvision Enterprises, Ruby-Spears Productions, KECO Entertainment and many television and radio stations. It also owned 50% of CIC Video's Australian operations, CIC-Taft Home Video.
The company went through a huge reorganization period starting in the late 1980s with its acquisition by Carl Lindner, Jr. to become Great American Broadcasting. Shortly after filing for bankruptcy in 1993, it became Citicasters and was in 1999, acquired by Clear Channel Communications. Taft — as Citicasters — is still incorporated as a holding company within Clear Channel.
In April 1949 Taft's first TV station, WKRC-TV in Cincinnati began broadcasting.
In 1951, in its first expansion outside Ohio, Radio Cincinnati acquired a 20 percent interest in WBIR-AM-FM in Knoxville, Tennessee from father-and-son owners J. Lindsay and Gilmore Nunn. A year-and-a-half later, the Taft family increased its stake to 30 percent when the Nunns sold additional shares in that station to Martha and Robert Ashe, John P. Hart, and Radio Cincinnati.
In August 1956 WBIR-TV in Knoxville began broadcasting, under the same ownership structure as the WBIR radio stations.
In 1958, the Cincinnati Times-Star was merged into the Cincinnati Post, published by the E.W. Scripps Company. Radio Cincinnati also purchased WKXP-TV in Lexington, Kentucky, from local interests and changed its call letters to WKYT-TV.
In 1959, the company acquired the remaining 70 percent of WBIR-AM-FM-TV in Knoxville. Also in 1959, the Taft family merged its broadcasting subsidiaries into one, using the Taft Broadcasting Company name.
In 1960 Taft launched WTVN-FM in Columbus (it is now WLVQ). A year later the company sold the WBIR stations in Knoxville to WMRC, Inc. (later to become Multimedia Inc.) of Greenville, South Carolina.
In 1963, Taft purchased several stations from Transcontinent Television Corporation: WDAF-AM-FM-TV in Kansas City, Missouri, WGR-AM-FM-TV in Buffalo, New York, and WNEP-TV in Scranton, Pennsylvania.
In 1967, Taft purchased the Hanna-Barbera cartoon studio from its founders, Joseph Barbera, William Hanna and George Sidney. Several months later in April 1967, the firm sold WKYT-TV to a subsidiary of Kentucky Central Life Insurance Company.
In 1969, Taft purchased WIBF-TV in Philadelphia and changed its call letters to WTAF-TV. The FCC initially granted Taft a waiver to keep both WTAF-TV and WNEP-TV, but later reversed itself in 1973 (four years later), and Taft sold the Scranton outlet to the station's management, who formed NEP Communications.
In 1970, Taft formed Rhodes Productions, a television syndication arm for various independent TV programs, including those of Hanna-Barbera.
In 1972, Taft opened its first theme park, Kings Island, outside of Cincinnati. Taft owned five other theme parks through is KECO Entertainment division. WBRC radio and WBRC-FM in Birmingham are sold to Mooney Broadcasting.
In 1975, Rhodes Productions was sold to Filmways. Taft, H-B Program Sales and Taft, H-B International were established as the new domestic and overseas television distribution arms.
In 1979, Taft purchased WDCA-TV in Washington, D.C. from the Superior Tube Company. Around this same period, Taft also acquired independent distributor Worldvision Enterprises (formerly a division of ABC) and production company QM Productions.
In 1980, Taft acquired Sunn Classic Pictures and two additional Schick divisions. Sunn Classic was reincorporated as Taft International Pictures as well as QM Productions reincorporated into Taft Entertainment Television, although the QM name and logo continued to be used on-screen and for copyright purposes until 1983.
In 1981, Taft acquired Ruby-Spears Productions from Filmways. Around this time, Taft split its operation into two "subdivisions": the "Taft Entertainment Company" (which included Hanna-Barbera, Ruby-Spears, Worldvision, the theme parks, Taft International Pictures, and Taft Entertainment Television). The other was the "Taft Television & Radio Co, Inc.".
In 1985 Taft purchased Gulf Broadcasting, which includes KTXA in Fort Worth; KTXH in Houston; WTSP in St. Petersburg, Florida; KTSP-TV (now KSAZ-TV) in Phoenix; KESQ-TV in Palm Springs, California; and WGHP in High Point, North Carolina. As a result, Taft sold several radio stations to CBS to comply with FCC rules. KESQ-TV was spun off to former Gulf Broadcasting executive E. Grant Fitts.
In October 1986, WTAF-TV in Philadelphia and WCIX in Miami became charter affiliates of the Fox Broadcasting Company. One month later, Taft announced the sale of both of those stations along with its three independent stations (WDCA-TV, KTXA, and KTXH) to the TVX Broadcast Group; the sale was completed in April 1987. Taft also sold WGR radio and WRLT-FM (the former WGR-FM) in Buffalo to Rich Communications, a subsidiary of Buffalo-based Rich Products.
Later in 1987 Cincinnati-based billionaire Carl Lindner, Jr., became Taft's majority stockholder in a hostile takeover and renamed the company Great American Broadcasting (also known as Great American Communications) following a major restructuring of its operations. The new name came from Linder's insurance company, Great American Insurance. The FCC considered this restructuring to be an ownership change, and told Lindner he could not keep both WTVN-TV and WKRC-TV. As a result, Great American spun off WTVN-TV to Anchor Media, a new firm composed of former Taft Broadcasting board members led by Texas millionaire Robert Bass. (The two stations have since been reunited under the Sinclair Broadcast Group, with cross-ownership rules having since been relaxed.) Another new company, led by former Taft Broadcasting president Dudley S. Taft Sr. (son of Hulbert Taft Jr.), took the Taft Broadcasting name. This new company retained WGHP and later purchases another Philadelphia station, WPHL-TV.
In 1988, Great American Broadcasting sold Worldvision to Aaron Spelling Productions. Included with Worldvision were outright ownership of all of Great American's programming assets (including the remnants of Taft International Pictures and Taft Entertainment Television), except for the Hanna-Barbera and Ruby-Spears libraries, which remained owned by Great American for the time being. However, Worldvision continued to hold syndication rights until the two animation studios found new owners.
In 1991, Hanna-Barbera, along with much of the original Ruby-Spears library, was acquired by Turner Broadcasting, which became part of Time Warner in 1996. As part of this deal, syndication rights to the libraries were passed to Turner Program Services (via Turner Entertainment Co.) prior to Time Warner's purchase of Turner. Eventually, TPS was folded into Warner Bros. Television Distribution. The Ruby-Spears studio was spun off and bought back by Joe Ruby and Ken Spears, and operated as an independent operation from then forward.
In 1992, KECO Entertainment, Great American's theme park division, was sold to Paramount Communications (the parent of Paramount Pictures; the parent company was formerly known as Gulf+Western) and became Paramount Parks, later to be acquired by Viacom. (These parks were sold to Cedar Fair Entertainment Co. by CBS in 2006.) Great American also reacquired WGHP from Dudley Taft.
In 1993, Great American filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and renamed to Citicasters Communications. It also sold WKRC radio to Jacor Communications and shut down Electra, a teletext service operated as a joint venture between Taft, Zenith, and Turner Broadcasting's WTBS (now WPCH-TV) in Atlanta.
In 1994, Citicasters sold most of its TV stations, including WDAF-TV and KSAZ-TV to New World Communications, and WBRC and WGHP to the News Corporation's Fox Television Stations unit, which would later acquire the New World chain.
In 1996, Citicasters, by then the owner of two television stations, five AM radio stations and 14 FM radio stations, merged with Jacor, which became a subsidiary of Citicasters. Three months after the merger was completed, Jacor exchanged WTSP to Gannett in return for Gannett's radio stations in Los Angeles, San Diego and Tampa. In 1997, as a condition of the merger, Jacor sold WKRQ and the original WDAF-FM (by then KYYS, now KCKC) to American Radio Systems, which would become acquired by Infinity Broadcasting (now CBS Radio) in 1998. Also in 1997, Jacor sold WDAF-AM (now KCSP) to Entercom Communications.
In 1997, the Worldvision properties that had previously been under Taft and Great American (with the exception of the Hanna-Barbera and most of the Ruby-Spears material) were incorporated into Republic Pictures (today part of CBS Television Studios).
Stations formerly owned by Taft Broadcasting and its successors
Stations are arranged in alphabetical order by state and city of license.
- Two boldface asterisks appearing following a station's call letters (**) indicate a station that was built and signed-on by Taft.
|City of license / Market||Station||Channel
|Years Owned||Current Ownership Status|
|Birmingham - Tuscaloosa - Anniston||WBRC-TV||6 (50)||1957–1995||Fox affiliate owned by Raycom Media|
|Phoenix||KTSP-TV||10 (10)||1985–1994||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O), KSAZ-TV|
|Washington, D.C.||WDCA-TV||20 (35)||1979–1987||MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated (O&O)|
|Miami - Fort Lauderdale||WCIX||6 (now 4 (22))||1983–1987||CBS owned-and-operated (O&O), WFOR-TV|
|St. Petersburg - Tampa||WTSP||10 (10)||1985–1996||CBS affiliate owned by Gannett Company|
|Lexington, Kentucky||WKYT-TV||27 (36)||1958–1967||CBS affiliate owned by Gray Television|
|Kansas City, Missouri||WDAF-TV||4 (34)||1964–1994||Fox affiliate owned by Tribune Broadcasting|
|Buffalo, New York||WGR-TV||2 (33)||1964–1983||NBC affiliate, WGRZ, owned by Gannett Company|
|High Point - Greensboro -
|WGHP||8 (35)||1985–1995||Fox affiliate owned by Tribune Broadcasting|
|Cincinnati||WKRC-TV **||12 (12)||1949–1996||CBS affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group|
|6 (48)||1953–1987||ABC affiliate, WSYX, owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group|
|Philadelphia||WTAF-TV||29 (42)||1969–1987||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O), WTXF-TV|
|WPHL-TV||17 (17)||1987–1992||MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Tribune Broadcasting|
|Scranton - Wilkes-Barre, PA||WNEP-TV||16 (50)||1964–1973||ABC affiliate owned by Dreamcatcher Broadcasting, LLC
(operated through a SSA by Tribune Broadcasting)
|Knoxville, Tennessee||WBIR-TV||10 (10)||1959–1961
(also held a 30% stake
from 1956 to 1959)
|NBC affiliate owned by Gannett Company|
|Fort Worth - Dallas||KTXA||21 (29)||1985–1987||Independent owned by CBS Corporation|
|Houston||KTXH||20 (19)||1985–1987||MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated (O&O)|
(a partial listing)
|AM Stations||FM Stations|
|City of license/Market||Station/frequency||Years owned||Current ownership|
|Kansas City, Missouri||WDAF–610
|Buffalo, New York||WGR–550||1964–1987||Entercom Communications|
|Columbus, Ohio||WTVN–610||1954–1987||IHeartMedia, Inc.|
(also held a 20% stake from 1951 to 1953,
increased to 30% from 1953 to 1959)
|Progressive Media, Inc.|
(also held a 20% stake from 1951 to 1953,
increased to 30% from 1953 to 1959)
- Other large owners of former Taft assets include National Amusements through CBS Corporation and Viacom (some TV and radio stations, as well as most of the programming assets once owned by Taft), 21st Century Fox (some TV stations), and Time Warner (most of Taft's animated library, including the Hanna-Barbera library).
- Albiniak, Paige (November 25, 2001). "A Cloud Over Clear Channel; Petition says it controls stations through 'fronts,' including Ohio FM it seeks to buy". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Times-Star buys WKRC, Cincinnati." Broadcasting - Broadcast Advertising, September 1, 1939, pg. 34. 
- "WKRC's transfer approved by FCC." Broadcasting - Broadcast Advertising, December 1, 1939, pg. 36. 
- "Taft gets WBIR interest." Broadcasting - Telecasting, September 17, 1951, pg. 4. 
- "FCC okays ownership shifts for KTHT, WBIR." Broadcasting - Telecasting, April 13, 1953, pg. 52. 
- "TV station is purchased." The New York Times, January 13, 1953, pg. 32.
- "Taft buys WTVN for $1.5 million." Broadcasting, January 19, 1953, pg. 56. 
- "FCC approves WTVN (TV) sale from Lamb to Taft family." Broadcasting, March 2, 1953, pg. 54. 
- "WHKC bought by WTVN (TV), WKRC interests for $158,000." Broadcasting - Telecasting, April 19, 1954, pg. 7. 
- "This week's receipts: $26 million." Broadcasting - Telecasting, April 8, 1957, pp. 31-32. 
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, May 19, 1958, pp. 88, 90
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, October 12, 1959, pg. 54
- "Taft files with SEC to sell common stock." Broadcasting, June 15, 1959, pg. 66. 
- "For the record." Broadcasting, June 29, 1959, pg. 92: Subsidiaries WBRC, Inc. (WBRC-AM-FM-TV), WTVN, Inc. (WTVN-TV), Radio Cincinnati, Inc. (WKRC-AM-FM-TV and WKYT-TV), and Radio Columbus, Inc. (WTVN-AM-FM) were merged into Taft Broadcasting Co., announced June 23, 1959. 
- "For the record." Broadcasting, February 8, 1960, pg. 98: Subsidiary WBIR, Inc. (WBIR-AM-FM-TV) was merged into Taft Broadcasting Co., announced February 1, 1960. 
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, September 26, 1960, pg. 50
- "Principals complete WBIR-AM-TV transfer." Broadcasting, January 16, 1961, pg. 53. 
- "Transcontinent sale: Last of its kind?" Broadcasting, February 24, 1964, pp. 27-28. 
- "Radio-TV concern to sell stations." The New York Times, Aug. 3, 1963, pg. 21.
- "Yogi and friends going to Taft." Broadcasting, October 31, 1966, pg. 78. 
- "Station sales total $10.7 million." Broadcasting, May 1, 1967, pg. 58. 
- "$20 million in TV sales approved." Broadcasting, May 12, 1969, pg. 48. 
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, November 26, 1973, pg. 28
- "Taft's WBRC-AM-FM sold for $2 million." Broadcasting, January 24, 1972, pg. 29. 
- "Taft in, ABC out of Pittsburgh radio." Broadcasting, April 1, 1974, pg. 22. 
- "Taft's turn to buy WDCA-TV; price this time is $13.5 million." Broadcasting, May 1, 1978, pg. 50. 
- "FCC stays on course, just barely, with top-50 policy; grants waiver for Taft buy of WDCA-TV." Broadcasting, August 20, 1979, pp. 25-26.  
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, April 12, 1982, pg. 98
- "$110 million deal for Miami independent." Broadcasting, August 2, 1982, pg. 24. 
- "Taft buys Gulf." Broadcasting, February 4, 1985, pg. 38
- "In brief." Broadcasting, June 3, 1985, pg. 128
- "CBS's audio concentration." Broadcasting, May 6, 1985, pg. 40
- Broadcasting Yearbook, 1987, pg. 353
- "Fox network begins to take shape." Broadcasting, August 4, 1986, pg. 44. 
- "Taft's TV's go to TVX for $240 million." Broadcasting, November 24, 1986, pg. 41. 
- "McDonald paints a bright picture for TVX." Broadcasting, May 11, 1987, pg. 37. 
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, February 23, 1987, pg. 64
- "Taft Broadcasting now Taft-less." Broadcasting, February 2, 1987, pg. 43. 
- "Green light expected for Taft sale." Broadcasting, September 28, 1987, pp. 36-37. 
- Shostak, Stu (01-16-2013). "Interview with Joe Ruby and Ken Spears". Stu's Show. Retrieved 03-18-2013.
- Taft and Great American: Overview
- WTVN-TV History Page at the Early Television Foundation
- Taft Broadcasting Company LLC