Taganrog

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Taganrog (English)
Таганрог (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Port of Taganrog.jpg
Aerial view of the port of Taganrog (2006)
Map of Russia - Rostov Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Rostov Oblast in Russia
Taganrog is located in Rostov Oblast
Taganrog
Taganrog
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Taganrog in Rostov Oblast
Coordinates: 47°13′N 38°55′E / 47.217°N 38.917°E / 47.217; 38.917Coordinates: 47°13′N 38°55′E / 47.217°N 38.917°E / 47.217; 38.917
Coat of Arms of Taganrog (Rostov oblast) (1808).png
Flag of Taganrog (Rostov oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day September 12[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of May 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Rostov Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Taganrog Urban Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Taganrog Urban Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2004)
Urban okrug Taganrog Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Taganrog Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[4] Vladimir Prasolov[3]
Representative body City Duma[5]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 257,681 inhabitants[6]
Rank in 2010 72nd
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Founded September 12, 1698[8]
Previous names Saint Trinity Fortress on Tagan-Rog (until 1784)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[9] 347900
Dialing code(s) +7 8634[citation needed]
Official website
Taganrog on WikiCommons

Taganrog (Russian: Таганрог; IPA: [təɡɐnˈrok]) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay (Sea of Azov), several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River. Population: 257,681 (2010 Census);[6] 281,947 (2002 Census);[10] 291,622 (1989 Census).[11]

History of Taganrog[edit]

Main article: History of Taganrog

The history of the city goes back to late Bronze Age–early Iron Age (between the 20th and 10th centuries BCE). It was the earliest Greek settlement in the Northern-Western Black Sea Region, and was mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus as Emporion Kremnoi.[12]

The first Russian Navy base, Taganrog was officially founded by Peter the Great on September 12, 1698[8] and hosted the Azov Flotilla of Catherine the Great (1770–1783). This flotilla subsequently became the Russian Black Sea Fleet.

By the end of the 18th century, Taganrog lost its primacy as a military base after Crimea and the Sea of Azov were absorbed into the Russian Empire. In 1802, Alexander I granted the city special status, which lasted until 1887. In 1825, the Alexander I Palace in Taganrog was used as the Tsar's summer residence, where he died in November 1825.

Taganrog was important as a commercial port. By the end of the 19th century-early 20th century it was used for the import and export of grain. Belgian and German investors founded a boiler factory, an iron and steel foundry, a leather factory and an oil press factory. By 1911, fifteen foreign consulates had opened in the city.[13]

During May–August 1918, the city was occupied by the German troops of the Kaiser Wilhelm II. In 1919, General Anton Denikin established his headquarters at the Avgerino mansion in Taganrog. When Soviet power was established on December 25, 1919, Denikin's remaining troops and the British Consulate were evacuated by HMS Montrose. Full power was granted to the Executive Committee of The City Soviet Workers' council on December 17, 1920 and the city joined the Ukrainian SSR as the administrative center of Taganrog Okrug. However, it was transferred to the Russian SFSR along with Shakhty Okrug on October 1, 1924.

During World War II, Taganrog was occupied by the Germans from 1941–1943. Two SS divisions entered the city on October 17, 1941 followed by other military divisions and the city suffered extensive damage. The local government system was replaced by Bürgermeisteramt or "New Russian local government". Taganrog was liberated on August 30, 1943.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Taganrog Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.[2]

Climate[edit]

The climate of Taganrog is temperate (Köppen climate classification Dfa).

Climate data for Taganrog
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
0.3
(32.5)
5.9
(42.6)
15.4
(59.7)
22.1
(71.8)
25.8
(78.4)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82)
21.8
(71.2)
14.6
(58.3)
5.5
(41.9)
0.6
(33.1)
14.1
(57.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
2.7
(36.9)
11.1
(52)
17.6
(63.7)
21.4
(70.5)
24.6
(76.3)
23.8
(74.8)
18.1
(64.6)
11.1
(52)
2.8
(37)
−2.1
(28.2)
10.49
(50.88)
Average low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
6.3
(43.3)
12.4
(54.3)
16.5
(61.7)
19.7
(67.5)
19.0
(66.2)
13.8
(56.8)
7.4
(45.3)
0.3
(32.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
6.6
(43.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 43
(1.69)
40
(1.57)
34
(1.34)
38
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
58
(2.28)
61
(2.4)
39
(1.54)
33
(1.3)
34
(1.34)
42
(1.65)
50
(1.97)
510
(20.08)
Source: Rostov-meteo.ru[14]

Economy[edit]

Taganrog is the leading industrial center of Rostov Oblast. Local industry is presented by aerospace, machine-building, automobile, military, iron and steel industry, engineering, metal traders and processors, timber, woodwork, pulp and paper, food, light, chemical and industry of construction materials, and one of the major ports of the Sea of Azov.

The biggest company currently operating in Taganrog is Taganrog Metallurgical Plant, (publicly traded company Tagmet). The plant manufactures steel, steel pipe for oil and gas industry and consumer goods. The other major employer is Taganrog Auto Factory (TagAZ Ltd.) which originated from Taganrog Combine Harvester Factory. The plant manufactures automobiles licensed by Hyundai. The production line includes Hyundai Accent compact sedan, mid-size Hyundai Sonata, sport utility vehicle Santa Fe and Hyundai Porter pickup truck.

Taganrog is also home to the aircraft design bureau Beriev.

The area around Taganrog has a large industrial potential, a diversified agricultural industry, production plants and a modern infrastructure. The location of Taganrog on the intersection of traffic routes and the seaport facilitate access to the emerging CIS markets.

Taganrog's main trading partners are the CIS countries, South Korea, Turkey, Italy, Greece, and Egypt.

Military[edit]

An airbase is located 3.6 miles (5.8 km) to the northwest of the city.

Religion[edit]

Jehovah's Witnesses[edit]

The repression of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Taganrog began in June 2008 when the Rostov Regional Prosecutor filed a claim to liquidate and ban the Taganrog Local Religious Organization of Jehovah’s Witnesses. He also alleged that religious literature published by Jehovah’s Witnesses contains extremist language. The trial court granted the prosecutor’s request, and the Russian Federation Supreme Court upheld the ruling on December 8, 2009.

After the Supreme Court ruling, the local authorities confiscated the Kingdom Hall (house of worship) of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Taganrog, forcing the Witnesses to meet for worship in private homes. The court also ordered the authorities to add 34 publications of Jehovah’s Witnesses to the Federal List of Extremist Materials. Jehovah’s Witnesses contested these rulings and sought justice from the European Court of Human Rights.

The Taganrog authorities have used these developments as a license to harass and terrorize the Witnesses. In 2011, law enforcement officers entered 19 homes of the Witnesses as early as 6:00 a.m., waking families, including the elderly and children, to conduct 8-to-11-hour searches for alleged extremist literature. The officers indiscriminately confiscated all religious publications and took personal items. Local authorities secretly videotaped religious services and individuals in attendance in an attempt to incriminate them. The events in Taganrog began a state-sponsored campaign of harassment and mistreatment of Jehovah’s Witnesses throughout Russia.[15]

Higher education[edit]

Taganrog in literature[edit]

The Assumption Cathedral in Taganrog, Russia (1818-1938), where Anton Chekhov was christened on February 10, 1860

The image of the city and its people is featured in numerous Anton Chekhov works, including Ionych, The House with an Attic, The Man in a Shell, Van'ka, Three Years, Mask, My Life and more. It is believed that Taganrog image may be used as Lukomorye (fairy tale land) in Alexander Pushkin's Ruslan and Lyudmila (1820). It also appeared in the novels of Ivan Vasilenko, Konstantin Paustovsky and in the poems of Nikolay Sherbina and Valentin Parnakh.

The conspiratorial legend of "Elder Fyodor Kuzmich" is cited in the book Roza Mira by Russian mystic Daniil Andreyev. According to this legend, the Russian tsar Alexander I did not die in Taganrog, but instead left his crown and the status of monarch to continue his life as a traveling hermit.

In foreign literature, the city was mentioned in the titles of the following novels: Der Tote von Taganrog by Eberhard von Cranach-Sichart, Taganrog (dedicated to death or disappearance of Alexander I) by Reinhold Schneider.

In 2004 Irish poet of German heritage Sabine Wichert published a collection of poems titled Taganrog.

Notable people[edit]

Birth house of Faina Ranevskaya

Numerous Russian and international aristocrats, politicians, artists, and scientists were born and/or have lived in Taganrog. Taganrog is the native city of Anton Chekhov, Faina Ranevskaya, Sophia Parnok, Alexandre Koyré, Isaac Yakovlevich Pavlovsky, and Dmitri Sinodi-Popov; names of Russian emperors Peter I of Russia and Alexander I of Russia; Cornelius Cruys, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Adolph Brodsky, Konstantin Paustovsky, Nestor Kukolnik, Achilles Alferaki, Ioannis Varvakis, Sergei Bondarchuk, Oleg Haslavsky and many other famous people are brought to mind when Taganrog is mentioned.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Taganrog is twinned with:[16]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #340-ZS
  2. ^ a b c Law #190-ZS
  3. ^ "Vladimir Prasolov Elected Mayor of Taganrog". Taganrog Municipality. March 7, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2012.  "Vladimir Prasolov Was Inaugurated as Taganrog's New Mayor". Taganrog Municipality. March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Welcome Message from the Office of the Mayor of Taganrog". Taganrog Municipality. December 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 
  5. ^ Taganrog City Duma
  6. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b History of Taganrog in 17-18th centuries
  9. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ Taganrog's Ancient History
  13. ^ Taganrog History in the 19th century
  14. ^ "Rostov-meteo.ru". Retrieved April 17, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Russian Citizens Face Criminal Prosecution for Their Faith". JW.org. 
  16. ^ Sister City relationships and Partnership City relationships of Taganrog
  17. ^ "The Home City of Chekhov and the Home City of Confucius Sign a Partnership Agreement". Taganrog Municipality. June 4, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Official visit to Belarus". Taganrog Municipality. June 29, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Taganrog signs Sister City agreement with Khartsyzsk, Ukraine". Taganrog Municipality. September 18, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  20. ^ "Sistercity relationship established with Antratsit City in Lugansk Oblast, Ukraine". Taganrog Municipality. December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №340-ЗС от 25 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №962-ЗС от 25 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области" и признании утратившим силу абзаца сорок первого пункта 5 статьи 1 областного Закона "О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #340-ZS of July 28, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast, as amended by the Law #962-ZS of October 25, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast" and on Abrogating Paragraph Forty-One of Item 5 of Article 1 of the Oblast Law "On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №190-ЗС от 19 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Таганрог"», в ред. Закона №980-ЗС от 25 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в областные Законы "Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Таганрог" и "Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования "Неклиновский район" и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Наше время", №293–295 (без приложений), 30 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #190-ZS of November 19, 2004 On Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Taganrog", as amended by the Law #980-ZS of October 25, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Laws "On Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Taganrog" and "On Establishing the Borders and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of "Neklinovsky District" and to the Municipal Formations It Comprises". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).

External links[edit]