Tai Jia

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Tai Jia 太甲
King of Shang dynasty
Full name
Posthumous name
Tai Jia (太甲)
Temple name
Tai Zong (太宗)

Tai Jia (Chinese: 太甲) or Da Jia, personal name Zhi (), was the son of Prince Da Ding (son of King Tang) and a king of the ancient Chinese Shang dynasty.

Biography[edit]

In the Records of the Grand Historian he was listed by Sima Qian as the fourth Shang king, succeeding his uncles Wai Bing and Zhong Ren. He was enthroned in BCE 1535 with Huang Yin as his prime minister and Bo () as his capital.

He was an autocratic ruler who treated his people badly and broke his own laws. A few years into his reign saw internal disorder among the court. Prime Minister Huang Yin advised him to change his ways but the headstrong emperor ignored the advice of the elder statesman. Eventually Huang Yin had no other choice but to exile the emperor to the Tong Palace (桐宫), in present day Southwest Yanshi county, Henan province near the tomb of the first Shang king Tang, to repent and contemplate his misdeeds.

Sima Qian says that following the exile Huang Yin ruled the country of the Shang Dynasty as an Emperor for three years until he felt that the Tai Jia had sufficiently changed and invited him back to the capital to reclaim his throne. Huang Yin then gave up his powers as Emperor and from that point on the reformed emperor Tai Jia took care of his people and managed the government well. So that in the 10th year of his reign Huang Yin resigned from his post and retired, honoring the emperor Tai Jia, after his death, as Zhong Zong (中宗).

The Bamboo Annals however tell a very different story; claiming that after the exile Huang Yin seized the throne and ruled as king for seven years later until Tai Jia secretly returned to the palace and killed his former Prime Minister. Afterwards the king assigned Huang Yin's land and castle to his sons, Yi She (伊陟) and Yi Fen (伊奋).

Since archaeological evidence shows that Huang Yin was still worshipped by the Shang people several hundred years after his death the former account is widely considered the more reliable. According to both sources the Emperor ruled for 12 years before death. He was given the posthumous name Tai Jia (太甲) and was succeeded by his son Wo Ding (沃丁).[1][2][3]

Oracle script inscriptions on bones unearthed at Yinxu alternatively record that he was the third Shang king, succeeding his father Da Ding (大丁), given the posthumous name Da Jia (大甲), and succeeded by his brother Bu Bing (卜丙).[2][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bai, Shouyi (2002). An Outline History of China. Beijing: Foreign Language Press. ISBN 7-119-02347-0. 
  2. ^ a b "The Shang Dynasty Rulers". China Knowledge. Retrieved August 7, 2007. 
  3. ^ a b "Shang Kingship and Shang Kinship" (PDF). Indiana University. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2007. 
Tai Jia
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Da Ding
King of China Succeeded by
Bu Bing