Taichung

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Taichung
臺中市
Special municipality
Clockwise from top: Taichung skyline, Taichung Railway Station, Sanmin Road, Taichung Intercontinental Baseball Stadium, Taichung's historic city hall, Wind farm in Taichung, Taichung Park
Clockwise from top: Taichung skyline, Taichung Railway Station, Sanmin Road, Taichung Intercontinental Baseball Stadium, Taichung's historic city hall, Wind farm in Taichung, Taichung Park
Flag of Taichung
Flag
Official seal of Taichung
Seal
Nickname(s): Cultural City (文化城)
Location of Taichung
Coordinates: 24°09′N 120°40′E / 24.150°N 120.667°E / 24.150; 120.667Coordinates: 24°09′N 120°40′E / 24.150°N 120.667°E / 24.150; 120.667
Country  Taiwan
Region Central Taiwan
Municipal seat Xitun District
Government
 • Mayor Jason Hu
 • Deputy Mayor Tsai Ping-kun[1]
Area(Ranked 6 of 22)
 • Total 2,214.8968 km2 (855.1764 sq mi)
Population (October 2014)[2]
 • Total 2,712,948
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
  Population ranked 3 of 22
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
Districts 29
Bird Little egret[3]
Flower Christmas Kalanchoe[4]
Tree Palimara Alstonia[5]
Website www.taichung.gov.tw
Taichung City
Chinese 臺中市 or 台中市

Taichung (臺中 or 台中; literally "Central Taiwan"), officially known as Taichung City, is a city located in western Taiwan, with a population of over 2.7 million people, making it the third largest city on the island after New Taipei City and Kaohsiung. On 25 December 2010, it merged with Taichung County to form a single special municipality.[6] The city's motto is "economic, cultural and international city."

History[edit]

Early History[edit]

Taiwanese aborigines, including the Babuza people, populated the plains that make up modern Taichung City. They were originally hunter gatherers who later lived by cultivating millet and taro. Several local names in central Taiwan, including Shalu Township and Lukang Township in Changhua County contain the word for “deer.”[7]

Lecheng Temple, built during the Qing Dynasty
Chishan Gate, built during the Qing Dynasty

Qing Dynasty[edit]

In 1682, the Qing Dynasty wrested control of western Taiwan from the Cheng family. Taichung was founded in 1705 as a part of Changhua County with the name of Dadun (ch: 大墩; p: Dàdūn; w: Ta-tun; lit. "large mound"). To strengthen Qing control, a garrison was established in 1721 near the site of present-day Taichung Park by Lan Ting-chen.[7]

All was not peaceful for Qing authorities in central Taiwan. North of the city, on the Dajia River, an aboriginal revolt broke out in 1731 after Chinese officials had moved in and compelled them to provide labor. The revolt spread as far south as the county seat of Changhua in May 1732 before the rebels were chased into the mountains by Qing forces.[8]

In 1786, another rebellion against the Qing authorities had its roots in the distriction of Dali. Led by Lin Shuang-wen, it began as an attempt to overthrow the Manchu government and restore the Ming Dynasty. Unfortunately, as the rebels moved northward, they turned to slaughter and looting. They were eventually defeated by a coalition of Qing forces, Hakka, Quanzhou Fujianese descendants, and Aboriginal volunteers.[9]

Taiwan became a province of Qing-dynasty China in 1885, and the city, named Dadun at the time, was designated as the capital of the Taiwan Prefecture, one of three prefectures in the newly created Taiwan Province.[10] Dadun was also initially designated as the provincial capital, and Qing official Liu Ming-chuan received the authority from the Guangxu Emperor to oversee development of the area. However, four years later, Liu was forced to “retire” by Empress Dowager Cixi, and the provincial capital was moved to what is now known as Taipei.

Japanese Colonial Rule[edit]

After China lost the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The Japanese changed the name of the city from Dadun to 台中 (Taichū in Japanese). Many rebels, who had accepted a Qing amnesty following a rebellion in 1895, now turned to anti-Japanese activities. On May 25, 1902, some 360 rebels and their families accepted invitations to surrender and receive amnesty and rewards. Instead they were trapped and murdered by the Japanese.[10]

The Japanese sought to develop the city to make it the first “modern” area of Taiwan.[11] The Japanese administration invested in roads, dams and levees. Taichū Park was completed in 1903. The old north gate, one of the few Liu-era structures to survive the Japanese reconstruction of the city, was moved to the new park.[citation needed] The first market in Taichū was built in 1908, along the JiGuang Road between the ZhongZheng and ChengGong Roads and it is still in use today.[10] The Japanese undertook a north-south island railway project. Taichung Train Station was completed and began operation in 1917,[10] and still operates today. Taichung was officially designated as Taichū City by Japanese Imperial authorities in 1920, and Taichū City Hall was completed in 1924 after eleven years of construction.[10] Ching Chuan Kang Airport was constructed during the Japanese rule and was named Kōkan Airport (公館空港).[12]

Taichung's historic city hall
Shinto Shrine to Japan's WWII soldiers fighting overseas

Taichū Middle School (now known as Taichung First Senior High School) was founded in 1915 by elite members of local gentry, including Lin Hsien-tang (林獻堂) and his brother Lin Lie-tang (林烈堂), two wealthy Taiwanese intellectuals of the era. This was in an effort to teach children the Culture of Taiwan and to foster the spirit of the Taiwanese localization movement.[10] The Taiwanese Cultural Association, founded in 1921 in Taipei by Lin Hsien-tang, was moved to Taichū in 1927. Most of the members of this association were from Taichung and the surrounding area. The city became a center of Taiwanese culture and nationalism.[10]

By 1945, Taichū City, along with Shōka City (彰化市, modern Changhua), was under the administration of Taichū Prefecture. Its new-found prosperity was eventually squandered by the Japanese war effort (1937–45). When World War II ended in 1945, Taiwan’s economy, like Japan’s, was in a very poor state.

Post-War Era (1945–1996)[edit]

Shrine to the martyrs of the Republic of China

At the end of the war, Republic of China (ROC) forces crossed the Taiwan Strait on U.S. ships and accepted the Japanese surrender on behalf of the Allied Powers on 25 October 1945.

The early post-war era was one of transition and turmoil for Taiwan. Taiwanese nationalists had divided into three groups, one of which was known as the 'Taichung Clique'. These were men who had enjoyed relatively high social standing during the Japanese era, such as Lin Hsien-t’ang, Yang Chao-chia, Yeh Jung-chung, and others. They attempted to take what they believed to be their rightful place as the new political leaders of the island. However, the ROC administrator of the island, Chen Yi, opposed this group as it contained many people, especially merchants and landlords, who were opposed to ROC policies.[13]

The airport then expanded in 1954 according to the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, and later renamed Ching Chuan Kang Air Base (清泉崗空軍基地) in memory of General Qiu Qingquan on March 20, as deputy director of Suppression General Headquarter of Xuzhou Garrison and commander-in-chief of 2nd Army whose death on January 10, 1948 marked the nationalist defeat in the Huaihai Campaign.

In 1966 the American Air Force established a joint forces air-base here with the airport code CCK. It was the largest air force base in the Far East at the time, allowing B-52 Stratofortress to land. During the Vietnam War, Ching Chuan Kang became a depot for the US Air Force. The US Air Force had been garrisoning with two fighter squadrons until the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty came into force on March 3, 1955. The US Military used CCK air base and ShueiNan airbase to run many of its long-distance Vietnam, Cambodia and Laotian bombing, scouting and cargo transport runs during the Vietnam conflict era. This base was shut down and most American facilities were removed after Nixon established diplomatic relations with Deng Xiaopeng of the PRC in 1979, after former Chairman Mao's death allowed an diplomatic opening of relationships with today's China.[12]

In 1947 the first Mayor of the Taichung County (included Taichung City) was Lai Tien Shen. He was a very honorable man and well respected. His picture is still honored at the Taichung Municipal Building. The position was appointed by the government to rule during the interim period.

Upon losing the Chinese Civil War to the Communists, the Kuomintang (KMT), relocated the government of the Republic of China to Taiwan. Taichung was declared a special municipality in 1949 by the ROC government. Since then the city has grown as a center of higher education, commerce and culture, where 70% of employees worked in service industries. The surrounding county developed manufacturing, which employed 48% of the workforce, and focused so successfully on precision machinery, from machine tools to bicycles, that it was nicknamed the “Mechanical Kingdom.” In 2010 the city was merged with the surrounding county to create a municipality of 2.65 million people spread across 2,214 km2 (855 sq mi).[14]

Geography[edit]

Taichung's skyline on a clear day

Taichung City is located in the Taichung Basin[15] along the main western coastal plain that stretches along the west coast from northern Taiwan almost to the southern tip. The city is located just north of 24° north and about 120.5° east longitude. The city borders Changhua County, Nantou County, Hualien County, Yilan County, Hsinchu County and Miaoli County.

The Central Mountain Range lies just to the east of the city. Lower, rolling hills run to the north leading to Miaoli County. Flat coastal plains dominate the landscape to the south leading to Changhua County and the Taiwan Strait to the west.

Climate[edit]

Taichung has a warm humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering on a tropical monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) with the highest temperature of the year occur in July and August, while the lowest temperature occur in January and February.[16] Daytime temperatures maintains warm to hot year-round, though night time temperatures during the winter months are significantly cooler than those during the summer and the warm daytime temperature. The average annual rainfall is just above 1,700 millimetres (67 in).[17] The average humidity is 80%.

Due to the protection provided by the Central Mountain Range to the east and the Miaoli hills to the north, Taichung is rarely severely affected by typhoons. However, occasional typhoons emerging from the South China Sea can pose a threat to the city as evidenced by Typhoon Wayne in 1986, which struck the west coast of Taiwan near Taichung.[18]

Due to Taichung plain's strong radiative cooling effect, Taichung City is one of the few (or only) cities of Taiwan where the year round average daily low temperature falls below 20 degrees Celsius, with even most cities of northern Taiwan, such as Taipei and Keelung having an average low of over 20.5 degrees C.

Climate data for Taichung (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
22.4
(72.3)
24.6
(76.3)
27.6
(81.7)
30.2
(86.4)
31.9
(89.4)
33.0
(91.4)
32.6
(90.7)
31.8
(89.2)
30.1
(86.2)
27.0
(80.6)
23.6
(74.5)
28.07
(82.53)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.6
(61.9)
17.3
(63.1)
19.6
(67.3)
23.1
(73.6)
26.0
(78.8)
27.6
(81.7)
28.6
(83.5)
28.3
(82.9)
27.4
(81.3)
25.2
(77.4)
21.9
(71.4)
18.1
(64.6)
23.31
(73.96)
Average low °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.9
(57)
16.0
(60.8)
19.6
(67.3)
22.6
(72.7)
24.4
(75.9)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
24.1
(75.4)
21.8
(71.2)
18.2
(64.8)
14.2
(57.6)
19.83
(67.71)
Rainfall mm (inches) 36.3
(1.429)
87.8
(3.457)
94.0
(3.701)
134.5
(5.295)
225.3
(8.87)
342.5
(13.484)
245.8
(9.677)
317.1
(12.484)
98.1
(3.862)
16.2
(0.638)
18.6
(0.732)
25.7
(1.012)
1,641.9
(64.642)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.4 9.9 11.5 11.1 12.7 14.9 12.7 15.1 8.2 3.5 3.8 4.9 115.7
 % humidity 76.1 77.6 77.9 78.2 79.5 79.5 76.8 79.3 76.8 74.8 74.1 74.0 77.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 172.7 134.9 155.8 153.1 155.4 169.7 210.6 191.8 192.8 201.1 171.4 175.5 2,084.8
Source: [19]

Cityscape[edit]

West←Panoramic photography of Taichung City.→East

Demographics[edit]

Taichung’s population was an estimated 2,709,764 in July 2014.[20] There are slightly more females in the city (50.97%) than males. 24.32% of residents are children, while 16.63% are young people, 52.68% are middle-age, and 6.73% are elderly.[21] According to Ministry of Interior statistics, the fertility rate in Taichung City in 2007 was 1.165 for each woman.

Educational Attainment[edit]

According to the Ministry of Interior, there are 846,863 residents over the age of 15. Of these, educational attainment is as follows: graduate degrees - 33,371 (3.9%); university or college degrees - 136,076 (16.1%); junior college degrees - 122,442 (14.5%); senior high school - 55,432 (6.5%); vocational high school - 168,349 (19.9%); junior high school - 78,729 (9.3%); junior vocational school - 1,949 (0.2%); primary school - 80,004 (9,4%). The official literacy rate for the city is 99.04%.

Politics[edit]

Taichung City Council
Taichung City Government

Local Politics[edit]

Unlike Taipei in the north, which is solidly in the Pan-Blue political camp, and the southern cities of Kaohsiung and Tainan that are solidly Pan-Green, Taichung is far more balanced, with the urban city center area leaning Blue and the suburban and rural areas leaning Green. In fact, each of the two major political parties has won a mayoral election among the last three with at least 49 percent of the vote (Democratic Progressive Party in 1997 and the Kuomintang in 2001 and 2005). Similarly, the Kuomintang majority in the City Council is not as large as it is in other cities, and is only negligible when one excludes Beitun District, which is solidly pro-Kuomintang. As a result of the relative moderate stand of the city residents, political upheaval and violence are far rarer in Taichung than in other large cities of the country.

Government[edit]

Taichung City’s executive branch is headed by mayor Jason Hu of the Kuomintang. Mayor Hu won re-election in December 2005 with more than fifty-eight percent of the vote.[22] This makes him the first candidate to achieve more than fifty percent of the vote in the Democratic Era of Taiwan, and represents an improvement of more than nine percent over his 2001 showing[23] despite the fact that he was one of four candidates (as opposed to there being only three in 2001.) The 1997 election was won by Chang Wen-Ying of the Democratic Progressive Party[24]

Taichung’s legislative branch is a unicameral 46-member City Council. Each member is elected from one of six multiple member districts where each voter has only one vote. Thus, none of the elected council members has anywhere close to a majority of votes in their electoral district.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Taichung consists of 29 districts.

Labelled map of Taichung
Name Hanzi Population (2014.10) Area (km2)
Inner Taichung
Beitun District 北屯區 258,948 62.7034
Central District 中區 19,376 0.8803
East District 東區 74,799 9.2855
Nantun District 南屯區 161,635 31.2578
North District 北區 147,324 6.9376
South District 南區 119,732 6.8101
West District 西區 115,623 5.7042
Xitun District 西屯區 217,820 39.8467
Greater Tuen Mun
Dali District 大里區 205,835 28.8758
Taiping District 太平區 180,848 120.7473
Wufeng District 霧峰區 64,432 98.0779
Wuri District 烏日區 71,340 43.4032
Greater Shanxian
Fengyuan District 豐原區 166,409 41.1845
Dongshi District 東勢區 51,561 117.4065
Daya District 大雅區 92,466 32.4109
Heping District 和平區 10,817 1037.8192
Houli District 后里區 54,066 58.9439
Shengang District 神岡區 64,854 35.0445
Shigang District 石岡區 15,432 18.2105
Tanzi District 潭子區 104,884 25.8497
Xinshe District 新社區 25,251 68.8874
Greater Haixian
Dajia District 大甲區 77,619 58.5192
Qingshui District 清水區 85,936 64.1709
Shalu District 沙鹿區 87,449 40.4604
Wuqi District 梧棲區 56,484 18.4063
Da'an District 大安區 19,661 27.4045
Dadu District 大肚區 56,309 37.0024
Longjing District 龍井區 75,945 38.0377
Waipu District 外埔區 31,787 42.4099
  1. Beitun District (北屯區): Geographically, this is the largest district in the city, spreading from the north to the northeastern-most reaches of the city. It includes the comparatively rural area of Dakeng. It also includes the Taichung Folklore Park and Morrison Academy.
  2. Central District (中區): This is the smallest and most densely populated district in the city. It is home to the Taichung Train Station, Taichung Park, and a large number of traditional businesses in the downtown area. This district is home to the original suncake shop on Ziyou Road (自由路) and is where most of Taichung's major businesses used to be located.
  3. East District (東區): Literally on the other side of the tracks from the main part of the downtown area. The Taichung Central Department Store is located here.
  4. Nantun District (南屯區): Occupies the southwestern-most portions of the city. There is still considerable farmland in this area, but since the High Speed Rail has opened in the adjacent Wuri District there is a growing number of residents. Currently, Nantun is most well known for high property values and expensive, luxurious cottages, which have in turn attracted many large department stores into adjacent areas of Xitun District.
  5. North District (北區): Nestled between Central and Beitun Districts, it is home to the National Taichung First Senior High School and Yizhong Street, one of the best known shopping belt in the city. It is also home to the National Museum of Natural Science, Chungyou Department Store, and Zhongshan Hall.
  6. Xitun District (西屯區): This district spreads out to the western edge of the city and is home to Feng Chia and Tunghai Universities. It is also the location of many of the new, fashionable shopping areas in the city and is the area of greatest growth. The Taichung Industrial Park, World Trade Center, and the Chaoma Bus Station, a major embarkation point from the city. Major department stores include Idee, Shinkong Mitsukoshi, and Tiger City. The new City Hall is located near the eastern edge of this district on the major Taichung Port (Taizhonggang) Road.
  7. South District (南區): Occupying the southernmost part of the city, it is home to National Chung Hsing University and the Taichung Industrial High School.
  8. West District (西區): West District is home to the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts as well as the Municipal Cultural Center. A lot of cultural activities were held here. This area is also known for its restaurants, which have attracted many people come with their reputation for exotic cuisine. Taichung's old City Hall is here, as is National Taichung University. Sogo Department store is in the northern part of the district.

Economy[edit]

Taichung's Central Business District

Taichung has a vibrant, diverse economy that incorporates traditional businesses, small family-run shops and factories, large industrial areas, and a thriving commercial sector.

The heart of Taichung’s economy has long been the small business. The small business sector still thrives in the city and is in most evidence in the downtown area with small eateries, traditional markets, and other family businesses. Taichung's Chun Shui Tang teahouse (春水堂) is where bubble tea was invented, by a teahouse owner, Liu Han Chie (劉漢介).[25] Taichung is most famous for its suncakes (taiyang bing).[26]

Taichung is an important center for a number of key industries. The city is a major manufacturer of bicycles and sporting goods. Small metalworking, mold and die enterprises abound. During the heyday of the Taiwanese Miracle, the city hosted the famous "Shoes Nest," with hundreds of small firms involved in the shoe industry, which has since moved to China. Nike's Asian design center is located in Taichung.

Xitun District is the home of Taichung’s Industrial Zone. Taichung’s World Trade Center Building is the symbolic heart of the zone, where various trade shows and exhibitions are held throughout the year. Most of Taichung’s traditional manufacturing base is in this area, which is the area of Taichung City that is nearest the port. In the northeast part of Xitun District, along the border with neighboring Taichung County, there is a science-based Industrial Park.

The growing prosperity of Taichung residents has resulted in the explosive growth of the upscale retail sector, with the opening of massive up-market department stores, as well as the construction of several luxurious condo complexes in the rapidly developing areas near a newly constructed government complex, as well as the growth of up-market neighborhoods in Beitun District.

Transportation[edit]

TRA Taichung Station.
THSR Taichung Station.

Railway[edit]

In Taichung, there are two parallel railways, one is Mountain Line which passes through the urban areas in the interior, and the other is Coast line which passes through rural areas closer to the shore.

Taichung Station is located on Jianguo Road (建國路). There is a small square in the front of the station, and numerous bus companies have stations within a three-minute walk of the station. They provide comprehensive local bus service along with long-distance bus services, many of which are to towns not served by trains.

Taichung Station lies on the Taiwan Railway Administration Mountain Line, which splits from the coastal line from Changhua City to the south of Taichung, to Jhunan, near Hsinchu, to the north.

The first southbound train departs for Pingtung at 6:05 in the morning while the first northbound train departs for Taipei at 6:10 am. The last trains in the early morning depart at 2:37 am and 2:46 for Pingtong and Taipei respectively.

There are two other local train stations within the city limits of Taichung. They are Taiyuan Station located in Beitun District and Daqing Station in South District. Both are only serviced by local trains.

The new Taiwan High Speed Rail was recently completed, allowing travel to Taipei and Kaohsiung in 90 minutes. The THSR Taichung Station is located in Wuri and is served both by local trains as well as free shuttle buses into the city.

Sea Port[edit]

Taichung Port.

Taichung Port, located on the coast in Taichung City, is the second largest cargo facility on the island capable of handling container shipping.

Despite being the second largest port on the island of Taiwan, there are no passenger ferry services available and the port is closed to unauthorized personnel.

Inner City Traffic[edit]

Unlike other major cities, Taichung has no expressway crossing the city. The heaviest traffic congestion is on Taiwan Boulevard (臺灣大道), which can come to a stand still not only during rush hour, but also on weekends or late evenings as many of the most popular shopping centers and movie theaters are on that stretch of road. Other busy stretches of road include Sanmin Road near Chungyou Department Store and Yizhong Street, especially during late evening, when local cram schools and baseball games typically let out.

The downtown area is roughly a grid pattern with Ziyou Road (自由路) and Sanmin Road (三民路) running southwest to northeast while Zhongzheng Road (中正路) and Linsen Road (林森路) run northwest from the center of the city, in addition to the more narrow one-way roads that follow the grid pattern as well.

A large number of multi-lane roads lead out of the downtown area in all directions. Some of these roads are divided by a physical barrier or median to enhance safety. These roads include Taiwan Boulevard (臺灣大道), Wuquan West Road (五權西路), Beitun Road (北屯路), Taiyuan Road (太原路), Hanxi Road (旱溪路), Guoguang Road (國光路), Zhongqing Road (中清路), Wuquan South Road (五權南路) and Wenxin South Road (文心南路).

Stop lights and lane indicators are generally observed on major streets, but are often viewed more as suggestions rather than legally enforced traffic rules unless traffic police officers are present. Speed limits are often not enforced, except where specifically designated speed detection cameras are present and marked with signs, making traffic conditions some of the most dangerous on the island. Most major intersections have traffic signs with Romanized names. However, despite the fact that Taichung City has recently declared Hanyu Pinyin the official romanization system for the city, there are numerous signs leftover from previous romanizations while the a large number of minor intersections have no romanization of any kind. Navigation in Taichung City is extremely difficult for those who are unable to read Chinese characters.

Mass Rapid Transit[edit]

The Taichung Downtown Bus Plaza, one block from the Taichung Train Station
Taichung BRT - Providence University station

The city currently does not have any type of rapid transit system, though construction on the first line of the municipal MRT system is scheduled to begin in October 2009 with completion of the Wuri-Beitun line schedule for completion in 2015 or 2016.[27] Due to the financial problem of Taichung city and the estimate of the central government, the budget of the metro’s second line, known as the MRT blue line, did not pass under the Parliament in 2009. Taichung city government soon planned another program, Taichung Bus Rapid Transportation (Taichung BRT), to replace the withdrawal of the metro’s second line.

Taichung BRT is now under construction and it will be finished in the end of 2013. Beside the blue line, Taichung city government plans to build seven BRT line in the entire city and the budget is passed.

In order to make the BRT system works more like the metro system, it will have a dedicated BRT line to allow it operating separately and it will have the exclusive and closed stations along the BRT line. Passengers also need to buy the ticket before get in the bus.

While a normal bus system exists covering parts of the city, it is not reliable in all places. Among the bus companies providing local service are Taichung Bus Company (臺中客運), Fengyuan Bus Company (豐原客運), Changhua Bus Company (彰化客運), and Presidential Bus Company. While heavily congested areas have buses, other areas have intermittent to no service. While there is theoretically a schedule when buses are to arrive, they are often not reliable. Signs at bus stops are not bilingual, not complete and often, not current.

Freeways and Expressways[edit]

National Highway No. 1 (國道一號), also known as the Sun Yat-Sen Freeway, passes through the western part of downtown Taichung and has five interchanges. The northernmost is in Houli District (甲后路), the second in Fengyuan District (中山路), the next two are in Xitun District (中清路 and 臺灣大道), another in Nantun District (五權西路), and the southernmost is in Dadu District (沙田路). It also has one junction with National Highway No. 4 in Shengang District.

The second most important North-South freeway, the National Highway No. 3, passes through the city, it has four interchanges, the first in Dajia District (甲后路), the next in Shalu District (明德路), another in Longjing District (中興路), and the northernmost in Wuri District (環中路).

The only national highway completely within the city limits of Taichung is the National Highway No. 4, connecting (from East to West) the districts of Fengyuan, Shengang and Qingshui, and has two junctions, one with Highway No. 1 and the other with Highway No. 3.

Taichung-Changhua Expressway (中彰快速道路,) is the main stretch of Provincial Highway No. 74 that runs from northwestern Taichung City into the northern part of Changhua City just to the south of Taichung. At some points, it is just a few dozen meters east of the Sun Yat-Sen Freeway. While it does not connect directly to that highway, it does have an interchange with National Highway No. 3 (國道三號) in Wuri District, where one can then access it in a couple of minutes.

Taichung-Nantou Highway (中投公路,) also known as Provincial Highway No. 63, runs from Dali District to Nantou County. It can be accessed by driving on Wuquan South Road. While there is no direct interchange with National Highway No. 3, one can get off in Wufeng and, after about two minutes on surface roads, easily access the highway.

Taichung International Airport[edit]

Taichung Airport.
Main article: Taichung Airport

The Taichung International Airport is the third and newest international airport in Taiwan. The Taichung International Airport civilian terminal is located on the western corner of Ching Chuan Kang Air Base (CCK), about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from downtown Taichung City. The main road linking Taichung and the airport is Zhongqing Road (Provincial Route 10). The airport is located within a kilometer (1,100 yd) of the Shalu (沙鹿) Exit on National Highway Number 3.

In 2002, the Ministry of Transportation and Communications began working on a plan to move air traffic from Taichung's ShuiNan Airport to the CCK Air Force base as a first step to converting CCK into a new international airport to facilitate larger aircraft.

The airport opened in early 2004, and the expanded facility at CCK Air Force Base has a much longer runway capable of handling larger aircraft. International charter flight service from the city began the same day.

The opening of The Taichung International Airport did spark a spat of partisan controversies about being incomplete and safety concerns were raised.[28] The fact that Taiwan has more airports per capita than any other country in the region and prohibits private airplanes fell on deaf ears because the anticipated and protracted opening of direct links with the Chinese mainland are expected to require an increase in air traffic.

Taichung's airport currently handles daily scheduled flights between Taichung and the cities of Taipei and Hualian, as well as the offshore islands of Penghu (Pescadores) and Kinmen. Airlines operating out of Taichung include Mandarin and UNI. International air services are expected to continue growing to include charter flights between Taichung and South Korea, plus special charter flights to other destinations and possibly the Chinese mainland.

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Taichung

Taichung City offers a full range of educational opportunities for its residents. From kindergartens to national universities, Taichung has schools that fit nearly every need from bilingual kindergartens to world class public and private university education.

Romanization[edit]

Taichung City is in the process of implementing Hanyu Pinyin on road signs throughout the city. However, there are still signs displaying spellings from previously used romanization systems as well as Tongyong Pinyin and systems that do not conform to any standard system.[29] Unlike Taipei which uses a capital letter at the beginning of every syllable, Taichung City uses the standard form of Hanyu Pinyin on street signs erected in recent years. However, the municipal website uses the Taipei system. Most major intersections have at least one sign containing some form of romanization. Nearly every intersection in the downtown area has signs in Hanyu Pinyin. However, outside of the downtown area, while coverage by Hanyu Pinyin signs is improving, many intersections have signs in other romanization systems (especially Wade–Giles and MPS2) or no Romanized signs at all.

Culture and Recreation[edit]

Museums and Cultural Centers[edit]

  • National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts: The National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts is located on the corner of Wuquan West Road and Meicun Road. It houses the world’s largest collection of Taiwanese art. There is a stream and an area outside of the museum that is very popular with families when there is good weather.
  • National Museum of Natural Science (NMNS): Located on Xitun Road, this is a popular local attraction with children. NMNS together with National Palace Museum in Taipei and the National Science and Technology Museum in Kaohsiung are called "the Museums of Taiwan". Across 22 acres (89,000 m2), the Museum is a six-venue complex housing the Space IMAX Theater, Science Center, Life Science Hall, Chinese Science Hall, Global Environment Hall and the Botanical Garden, excluding the Earthquake Museum in Wufong, which is dedicated to public education on seismology, located just 10 kilometers east of the main complex of NMNS. Over 30 permanent exhibit areas cover subjects on astronomy, space science, paleontology, ecology, gems and minerals, Taiwanese Aborigines, and tropical plants. Rotating special exhibits are a constant occurrence. It is also a place filled with hands-on exhibits that will delight children and adults of all ages.
  • Taichung Municipal Cultural Center: The Municipal Cultural Center is located on Yingcai Road on property adjacent to the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts.
  • Taichung Folklore Park: This park is dedicated to presenting a more traditional Taiwanese way of life. It includes a combination of authentic and recreated buildings and streets in an attempt to recreate a more rustic Taiwan.
  • Taichung Winery: Dating back to the Japanese-era, this still- operational winery also includes a Wine Museum, which has displays on wine-making and the history of the winery.
  • Stock 20: This converted railroad warehouse provides exhibition space for regular displays of modern art. Adjacent warehouses have been converted to provide studio space for local and foreign artists, and are frequently open to the public.
  • Wenying Hall: A frequent venue for local art exhibitions and events. It includes an art display area along with a folk art museum and Zhongzheng Hall.

Temples[edit]

Main article: Temples of Taichung
Lin Family Shrine. Originally built in Dali, Taichung County during the Qing Dynasty and later moved to Taichung City.
Wen Chang Temple in the northern part of Taichung City. Built during the Qing Dynasty
Wanhe Temple built during the Qing Dynasty

Temples can be found all over the city of Taichung. While many of them are of recent construction, others are considered historic and are indicative of the changing currents through Taichung’s history.

  • Confucius Temple
  • Martyr’s Shrine: Adjacent to the temple is the Martyr’s Shrine, dedicated to the hero’s of the Republic of China.
  • Pao Hueh Temple: This is a Buddhist temple which features the “Big Budda.” The gold, seven-floor Buddha is dedicated to Maitreya. The temple grounds also include a Japanese Shinto shrine.
  • ChengHuang Temple: This temple was established during the Qing Dynasty, and has since been renovated numerous times. Its main festival is the 15th day of the sixth lunar month.
  • WanChun Temple: Established during the height of the Qing Dynasty more than two hundred years ago, it is home to a couplet written by Emperor Kuangshu. It is also noted for its lifelike carvings.
  • Li Ancestral Shrine:
  • Wen Chang Temple: Built around 1825, this temple is dedicated to the “Scholar God.” Students frequently come to pray prior to exams to get good scores.
  • LeCheng Temple: Over two hundred years old, the Le Cheng temple is dedicated to the goddess Mazu, and is known locally as the “Hanxi Mazu.” It includes an ancient cauldron and other artifacts.
  • WanHe Temple: This temple was built during the Qing Dynasty in thanks to the goddess Mazu. It is noted for exquisitely designed carvings.

National and Municipal Historical Sites[edit]

National Category 2 Historical Site

National Category 3 Historical Sites

  • Chang-Liao Family Shrine
  • Wenchang Temples, Lin Family Shrine
  • Chang Family Ancestral Shrine
  • Wanhe Temple
  • Lecheng Temple

Municipal Historical Sites

  • Lake Pavilion in Taichung Park
  • Chishan Gate
  • Japanese-era Municipal Building

Others

  • Taichung City Hall

Night Markets[edit]

Taichung has several open-air night markets that feature local food and diversions:[30]

  • Fengjia Night Market - located adjacent to Feng Chia University
  • Zhong Hua Night Market - located in the heart of Central District, along ZhongHua (Jung Hua) Road.
  • Zhong Xiao Night Market - located south of the Taichung Railroad Station around the intersections of ZhongXiao, Taichung and GuoGuang roads.

Hot Springs[edit]

Taichung has a famous hot spring, Guguan, located in Heping District.

Mosque[edit]

Taichung has one mosque called the Taichung Mosque. Built in 1951, the mosque is Taiwan's 4th mosque and it is located in Nantun District.

Performance Venues[edit]

  • Zhongshan Hall: Zhongshan Hall is a popular venue for a variety of performances including musical, opera, ballet, dance, theatrical, and other performances. Seating capacity is 1,692.
  • Fulfillment Amphitheater: This recently completed outdoor venue is located in the Wenxin Forest Park and is suitable for a wide range of outdoor performances.*Zhongxing Hall at National Taichung Library

Other Annual Activities[edit]

  • The Taichung Jazz Festival takes place annually through the month of October. It features a variety of acts at numerous venues throughout the city.

Sports[edit]

Professional Sports[edit]

The Sinon Bulls were a professional baseball team playing in the four-team Chinese Professional Baseball League. While they were identified with Taichung City, many of their “home games” were been played outside of the city due to the inadequacies of the old Taichung Baseball Field. The team was expected to move into the newly completed Taichung Intercontinental Baseball Stadium in 2008, but never did. At the end of the 2012 season, Sinon Corporation announced its intention to sell the team. By late December, an agreement was reached between Sinon Corporation and E-United Group, and the team was renamed EDA Rhinos and moved to Kaohsiung .

Other Sporting Activities[edit]

Taichung hosts two road races annually. The ING Marathon preparation 10K race is held every September in the Metropolitan Park. The Supau Cup Marathon is held on the city’s streets every autumn, either in October or November.

Hospitals[edit]

  • China Medical University Hospital (中國醫藥大學附設醫院)
  • Chung Shan Medical University Hospital (中山醫學大學附設醫院)
  • Taichung Veterans Hospital (臺中榮民總醫院)
  • Cheng Ching Hospital (澄清醫院)
  • Jen-Ai Hospital - Dali (大里仁愛醫院)
  • Jen-Ai Hospital - Taichung (臺中仁愛醫院)
  • Taichung Tzu Chi General Hospital (臺中慈濟醫院)
  • Taichung armed force general hospital(國軍台中總醫院)

International relations[edit]

Taichung has signed sister city agreements with nineteen cities in nine countries since 1965. They are listed below along with the dates that the agreements were signed.[31]

  1. ^ Former North Shore City merged with Auckland on November 1, 2010.

Relative location[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2014/02/14/2003583484
  2. ^ "Taichung's Population". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  3. ^ "Taichung's City Bird: Little Egret". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  4. ^ "Taichung's City Flower: Christmas Kalanchoe". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  5. ^ "Taichung's City Tree: Palimara Alstonia". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  6. ^ http://taiwanjournal.nat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xitem=53774&ctnode=413&mp=9
  7. ^ a b Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Cornell University. p. 27. 
  8. ^ Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Cornell University. p. 22. 
  9. ^ Gardella, Robert (1999). "From Treaty Ports to Provincial Status, 1860-1894". In Rubinstein, Murry A. Taiwan: A New History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 164. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "From Aboriginal Homeland to Modern City: A Look at Taichung's Rich History". Retrieved 2006-10-04. 
  11. ^ Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Cornell University. p. 36. 
  12. ^ a b Taichung Airport
  13. ^ Phillips, Steven (1999). "Between Assimilation and Independence: Taiwanese Political Aspirations Under Chinese Nationalist Rule, 1945-1948". In Rubinstein, Murry A. Taiwan: A New History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 286. 
  14. ^ http://www.intelligentcommunity.org/index.php?src=news&refno=714&prid=714
  15. ^ "Taichung Geography". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  16. ^ http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Taichung-weather-averages/Tai-Wan/TW.aspx
  17. ^ , relatively low compared to other major cities of Taiwan. "Districts & Landmarks". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  18. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Typhoon Wayne (12W)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  19. ^ "Statistics > Monthly Mean". Central Weather Bureau. 
  20. ^ http://eng.taichung.gov.tw/ct.aspx?xItem=5681&ctNode=843&mp=1
  21. ^ "Taichung's Population". Retrieved 2006-09-26. 
  22. ^ R.O.C. Central Election Commission. "R.O.C. 2005 County/City Magistrate/Mayoral election results". Retrieved 2006-10-10. 
  23. ^ R.O.C. Central Election Commission. "R.O.C. 2001 County/City Magistrate/Mayoral election results". Retrieved 2006-10-14. 
  24. ^ R.O.C. Central Election Commission. "R.O.C. 1997 County/City Magistrate/Mayoral election results". Retrieved 2006-10-14. 
  25. ^ "台式茶文化登陸──春水堂". Taiwan Panorama. December 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-11. 
  26. ^ "Let’s Go On a Backpacking! – The Must-buy Taichung Local Specialties". Tra News. Retrieved 2010-07-11. 
  27. ^ http://www.hsr.gov.tw/homepage.nsf/4c21fbf3077d91b048256923007e3ae1/5c911cfef91b2333482570ba00333204?OpenDocument
  28. ^ "New Taiwan airport sparks political squabble". March 4, 2004. Retrieved 2006-10-16. 
  29. ^ "Romanization of Taichung's top 50 Main Roads". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  30. ^ Chiu, Lisa (1998). "ABOUT TOWN: Hitting the Night Markets". Compass Magazine 5 (5) (Taichung, Taiwan). Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  31. ^ "Taichung City Diplomacy". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 

External links[edit]