Taipei 101

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Taipei 101
臺北101 / 台北101
Taipei101.portrait.altonthompson.jpg
Alternative names Taipei Financial Center
Record height
Tallest in the world from 2004 to 2010[I]
Preceded by Petronas Towers
Surpassed by Burj Khalifa
General information
Type Commercial offices
Location Xinyi District
Taipei, Taiwan
Coordinates 25°2′1″N 121°33′54″E / 25.03361°N 121.56500°E / 25.03361; 121.56500Coordinates: 25°2′1″N 121°33′54″E / 25.03361°N 121.56500°E / 25.03361; 121.56500
Construction started 1999[1]
Completed 2004[1]
Opening 31 December 2004
Cost NT$ 58 billion
(US$1.934 billion)
Owner Taipei Financial Center Corporation
Management Urban Retail Properties
Height
Architectural 509 m (1,669.9 ft)
Roof 449.2 m (1,473.8 ft)
Top floor 439 m (1,440.3 ft)
Observatory 391.8 m (1,285.4 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 101
5 below ground
Floor area 193,400 m2 (2,081,700 sq ft)
Lifts/elevators 61 Toshiba/KONE elevators, including double-deck shuttles and 2 high speed observatory elevators)
Design and construction
Architect C.Y. Lee & Partners
Structural engineer Thornton Tomasetti
Main contractor KTRT Joint Venture
Website
taipei-101.com.tw
References
[1][2][3][4]

Taipei 101 (Chinese: 臺北101 / 台北101), formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a landmark skyscraper located in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. The building ranked officially as the world's tallest from 2004 until the opening of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai in 2010. In July 2011, the building was awarded LEED Platinum certification, the highest award in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system and became the tallest and largest green building in the world.[5] Taipei 101 was designed by C.Y. Lee & partners and constructed primarily by KTRT Joint Venture.[6][7][8] The construction was finished in 2004. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening. Fireworks launched from Taipei 101 feature prominently in international New Year's Eve broadcasts and the structure appears frequently in travel literature and international media.

Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground and 5 floors underground. The building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition (see Symbolism). Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. The tower is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. A multi-level shopping mall adjoining the tower houses hundreds of stores, restaurants and clubs.

Taipei 101 is owned by the TFCC and managed by the International division of Urban Retail Properties Corporation based in Chicago. The name originally planned for the building, Taipei World Financial Center, until 2003, was derived from the name of the owner. The original name in Chinese was literally, Taipei International Financial Center (Chinese: 臺北國際金融中心).

Features[edit]

Height[edit]

The Taipei 101 tower has 101 floors above ground and five underground. Upon its completion Taipei 101 claimed the official records for:[2]

  • Ground to highest architectural structure (spire): 508 m (1,667 ft).[1] Previously held by the Petronas Towers 451.9 m (1,483 ft).
  • Ground to roof: 449.2 m (1,474 ft). Formerly held by the Willis Tower 442 m (1,450 ft).
  • Ground to highest occupied floor: 438 m (1,437 ft). Formerly held by the Willis Tower 412.4 m (1,353 ft).
  • Fastest ascending elevator speed: designed to be 1,010 meters per minute, which is 16.83 m/s (55.22 ft/s) (60.6 kilometres per hour (37.7 mph)).
  • Largest countdown clock: Displayed on New Year's Eve.
  • Tallest sundial. (See 'Symbolism' below.)

Taipei 101 was the first building in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height.[2] The record it claimed for greatest height from ground to pinnacle was surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai (UAE), which is 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in height. Taipei 101's records for roof height and highest occupied floor briefly passed to the Shanghai World Financial Center in 2009, which in turn yielded these records as well to the Burj.

Taipei 101 displaced the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, as the tallest building in the world by 56.1 m (184 ft).[9] It also displaced the 85-story, 347.5 m (1,140 ft) Tuntex Sky Tower in Kaohsiung as the tallest building in Taiwan and the 51-story, 244.2 m (801 ft) Shin Kong Life Tower as the tallest building in Taipei.[10]

Various sources, including the building's owners, give the height of Taipei 101 as 508.0 m (1,667 ft), roof height and top floor height as 448.0 m (1,470 ft) and 438.0 m (1,437 ft). This lower figure is derived by measuring from the top of a 1.2 m (4 ft) platform at the base. CTBUH standards, though, include the height of the platform in calculating the overall height, as it represents part of the man-made structure and is above the level of the surrounding pavement.[11][12]

Structural design[edit]

The main tuned mass damper atop Taipei 101
Location of Taipei 101's largest tuned mass damper

Taipei 101 is designed to withstand the typhoon winds and earthquake tremors common in its area of the Asia-Pacific. Planners aimed for a structure that could withstand gale winds of 60 m/s (197 ft/s, 216 km/h or 134 mph) and the strongest earthquakes likely to occur in a 2,500 year cycle.[13]

Skyscrapers must be flexible in strong winds yet remain rigid enough to prevent large sideways movement. Flexibility prevents structural damage while resistance ensures comfort for the occupants and protection of glass, curtain walls and other features. Most designs achieve the necessary strength by enlarging critical structural elements such as bracing. The height of Taipei 101 combined with the demands of its environment called for additional innovations. The design achieves both strength and flexibility for the tower through the use of high-performance steel construction. Thirty-six columns support Taipei 101, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000 psi (69 MPa) concrete.[14] Every eight floors, outrigger trusses connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior.

These features combine with the solidity of its foundation to make Taipei 101 one of the most stable buildings ever constructed. The foundation is reinforced by 380 piles driven 80 m (262 ft) into the ground, extending as far as 30 m (98 ft) into the bedrock. Each pile is 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter and can bear a load of 1,000–1,320 tonnes (1,100–1,460 short tons).[14] The stability of the design became evident during construction when, on 31 March 2002, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake rocked Taipei. The tremor was strong enough to topple two construction cranes from the 56th floor, the highest floor at the time. Five people died in the accident, but an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction soon resumed.

Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers along with Evergreen Consulting Engineering designed a 660-tonne (728-short-ton)[15] steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass damper, at a cost of NT$132 million (US$4 million).[16] Suspended from the 92nd to the 87th floor, the pendulum sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong gusts. Its sphere, the largest damper sphere in the world, consists of 41 circular steel plates of varying diameters, each 125 mm (4.92 in) thick, welded together to form a 5.5 m (18 ft) diameter sphere.[17] Two additional tuned mass dampers, each weighing 6 tonnes (7 short tons), are installed at the tip of the spire which help prevent damage to the structure due to strong wind loads.[16]

Structural facade[edit]

Taipei 101 endures a typhoon.

Taipei 101's characteristic blue-green glass curtain walls are double paned and glazed, offer heat and UV protection sufficient to block external heat by 50 percent, and can sustain impacts of 7 tonnes (8 short tons).[13] The façade system of glass and aluminum panels installed into an inclined moment-resisting lattices contributes to overall lateral rigidity by tying back to the mega-columns with one-story high trusses at every eighth floor. This façade system is therefore able to withstand up to 95mm of seismic lateral displacements without damage.[18]

The original corners of the façade were tested at RWDI in Guelph, Ontario, Canada and revealed an alarming vortex that formed during a 3s 105 mph wind at a height of 10 meters (a 100-year-storm) simulation. This was equivalent to the lateral tower sway rate causing large crosswind oscillations. A double champfered step design was found to dramatically reduce this crosswind oscillation resulting in Taipei 101’s unique "double stairstep" corner façade. Architect C.Y. Lee also used extensive façade elements to represent the symbolic identity he pursued. These façade elements included the green tinted glass for the indigenous slender bamboo look, eight upper outwards inclined tiers of pagoda each with eight floors, A Ruyi and a money box symbol between the two façade sections among others.[19]

Taipei 101's own roof and façade recycled water system meets 20–30 percent of the building's water needs. These features culminated in Taipei 101 obtaining the honour of "the world's tallest green building" by LEED standards in July 2011.[20]

Symbolism[edit]

Ruyi figure over a Taipei 101 entrance
Shadow of Taipei 101 tower in the late afternoon. The adjoining park (circular feature, bottom) acts as the face of a sundial.
Feng shui fountain outside Taipei 101

The height of 101 floors commemorates the renewal of time: the new century that arrived as the tower was built (100+1) and all the new years that follow (1 January = 1-01). It symbolizes high ideals by going one better on 100, a traditional number of perfection. The number also evokes the binary numeral system used in digital technology.[14]

The main tower features a series of eight segments of eight floors each. In Chinese-speaking cultures the number eight is associated with abundance, prosperity and good fortune. In cultures that observe a seven-day week the number eight symbolizes a renewal of time (7+1). In digital technology the number eight is associated with the byte, being 8 bits. A bit is the basic (minimal) unit of information.

The repeated segments simultaneously recall the rhythms of an Asian pagoda (a tower linking earth and sky, also evoked in the Petronas Towers), a stalk of bamboo (an icon of learning and growth), and a stack of ancient Chinese ingots or money boxes (a symbol of abundance). Popular humor sometimes likens the building's shape to a stack of take-out boxes as used in Western-style Chinese food; of course, the stackable shape of such boxes is likewise derived from that of ancient money boxes.[21] The four discs mounted on each face of the building where the pedestal meets the tower represent coins. The emblem placed over entrances shows three gold coins of ancient design with central holes shaped to imply the Arabic numerals 1-0-1.[14]

Curled ruyi figures appear throughout the structure as a design motif. Though the shape of each ruyi at Taipei 101 is traditional, its rendering in industrial metal is plainly modern. The ruyi is a talisman of ancient origin associated in art with heavenly clouds. It connotes healing, protection and fulfillment. It appears in celebrations of the attainment of new career heights.[22] Each ruyi ornament on the exterior of the Taipei 101 tower stands at least 8 m (26 ft) tall. The sweeping curved roof of the adjoining mall culminates in a colossal ruyi that shades pedestrians.

At night the bright yellow gleam from its pinnacle casts Taipei 101 in the role of a candle or torch upholding the ideals of liberty and welcome. From 6:00 to 10:00 each evening[23] the tower's lights display one of seven colours in the spectrum. The colors coincide with the days of the week:

Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Colour red orange yellow green blue violet purple

The cycle through the spectrum connects the tower with the rich symbolism of rainbows in culture that associate the image with connection and new beginnings.

The adjoining Taipei 101 on the east side connects the landmark further with the symbolism of time. The design of the circular park doubles as the face of a giant sundial. The tower itself casts the shadow to mark afternoon hours for the building's occupants. The park's design is echoed in a clock that stands at its entrance. The clock runs on energy drawn from the building's wind shear.[24]

Taipei 101, like many of its neighbours, shows the influence of feng shui philosophy. An example appears in the form of a large granite fountain at the intersection of Songlian Road and Xinyi Road near the tower's east entrance.[25] A ball at the fountain's top spins toward the tower. As a work of public art the fountain offers a contrast to the tower in texture even as its design echoes the tower's rhythms. The fountain also serves a practical function in feng shui philosophy. A T intersection near the entrance of a building represents a potential drain of positive energy, or ch'i, from a structure and its occupants.[26][27][28] Placing flowing water at such spots is thought to help redirect the flow of ch'i.

Interior[edit]

Taipei 101 Mall

Taipei 101 is the first record-setting skyscraper to be constructed in the 21st century. It exhibits a number of technologically advanced features as it provides a center for business and recreation.

The original 2004 fiber-optic and satellite Internet connections permitted transfer speeds up to a gigabyte per second.

The double-deck elevators built by the Japanese Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation (TELC) set a new record in 2004 with top ascending speeds of 16.83 m (55.22 ft) per second (60.6 km/h, 37.7 mi/h). This speed is 34.7 percent faster than the previous record holders of the Yokohama Landmark Tower elevator, Yokohama, Japan, which reaches speeds of 12.5 m (41 ft) per second (45.0 km/h, 28.0 mi/h). Taipei 101's elevators sweep visitors from the fifth floor to the 89th-floor observatory in only 37 seconds.[29] Each elevator features an aerodynamic body, full pressurization, state-of-the art emergency braking systems, and the world's first triple-stage anti-overshooting system. The cost for each elevator is NT$80 million (US$2.4 million).[30][31][32][33]

A 660-metric-ton (728 short ton) tuned mass damper stabilizes the tower against movements caused by high winds. The damper can reduce up to 40% of the tower's movements (see "Construction").

The observatories are located in the 91st and 89th floors. (See "Observatories" below.)

Two restaurants have opened on the 85th floor: Diamond Tony's, which offers European-style seafood and steak, and Shin Yeh 101 (欣葉), which offers Taiwanese-style cuisine. Occupying all of the 86th floor is Taiwanese restaurant Ding Xian 101.[34]

The multi-story retail mall adjoining the tower is home to hundreds of fashionable stores, restaurants, clubs and other attractions. The mall's interior is modern in design even as it makes use of traditional elements. The curled ruyi symbol is a recurring motif inside the mall. Many features of the interior also observe feng shui traditions.

Floor directory[edit]

The 101st floor is home to a private VIP club named Summit 101, according to the observatory brochure. No information about this club has ever generally been made public, [35] although sources state that there has been TV coverage about the club, which apparently is used for foreign dignitaries and high spenders in the Taipei 101 Mall.[36]

The 101st floor is also divided into three levels: 101F (lower), 101MF (mezzanine) and 101RF (roof). It is not known what is actually on these levels, or whether the VIP club actually exists, except that 101RF provides access to the 60-metre tall spire, which has 24 levels (numbered R1 through R24) that can only be accessed via ladder.

The 92nd through 100th floors are officially designated as communication floors, although it's unknown if there are any radio or TV stations currently broadcasting from the top of Taipei 101. The 91st floor observatory is the highest floor that is open to the public, but unlike the leased/private floors from 7~90F, there is no sign of even a visible access point to the topmost floors on Level 91. The top 10 floors are to have stated on their website to contain a radio and television relay station, Emergency system receiving/signaling relay station, telecommunications stations, and an outdoor antenna frame on 96F, which offers power, fire protection, telecom systems, and security related systems, according to their website.

4 is considered an unlucky number in Chinese culture, so what would have been the 44th floor has been replaced by Level 43, with 42A replacing the actual 43 to compensate for the skipped floor number.

There is a freight elevator that facilitates access to every level from B5 to 91, with a button for every floor.

A tenant directory is posted in the first floor lobby (from the Xinyi entrance.) As of 1 January 2011, the highest occupied office floor (excluding the observatory and restaurants) is 75. The building appears to be at least 70% occupied at this point. All publicly accessible floors have Handicapped/disabled access accessibility support.

101st floor Summit 101 (Private VIP Club)
92nd – 100th floor Communication Floors
91st floor Outdoor Observatory Deck
88th – 89th floor Indoor Observatory Deck
85th – 86th floor Observatory Restaurant
59th – 84th floor High Zone Office Floor
59th – 60th floor Sky lobbies Floors
35th – 58th floor Mid Zone Office Floor
36th floor Taipei 101 Conference Center
35th – 36th floor Sky lobbies Floors
35th floor Amenities Floor
9th – 34th floor Low Zone Office Center
B1st – 5th floor Taipei 101 Mall
B5th - B2nd floor Parking Levels

Observatories[edit]

Taipei 101 features an Indoor Observation deck (89th floor) and an Outdoor Observation deck (91st floor).[37] Both offer 360-degree views and attract visitors from around the world.

The Indoor Observatory stands 383.4 m (1,258 ft) above ground, offering a comfortable environment, large windows with UV protection, recorded voice tours in eight languages, and informative displays and special exhibits. Here one may view the skyscraper's main damper, which is the world's largest and heaviest visible damper, and buy food, drinks and gift items.

Two more flights of stairs take visitors up to the Outdoor Observatory. The Outdoor Observatory, at 391.8 m (1,285 ft)[1] above ground, is the second-highest observation deck ever provided in a skyscraper and the highest such platform in Taiwan.

The Indoor Observatory is open thirteen hours a day (9:00 am–10:00 pm) throughout the week as well as on special occasions; the Outdoor Observatory is open during the same hours as weather permits. Tickets may be purchased on site in the shopping mall (5th floor) or in advance through the Observatory's web site.[38] Tickets cost NT$500 (US$17, as of 9 September 2013) and allow access to the 88th through 91st floors via high-speed elevator.[39]

Art[edit]

Art work outside the mall at night

Many works of art appear in and around Taipei 101. These include:[14]

  • Rebecca Horn (Germany). Dialogue between Yin and Yang. 2002. Steel, iron.
  • Robert Indiana (USA). 1-0 (2002). Love (2003). Aluminum.
  • Ariel Moscovici (France). Between Earth and Sky. 2002. Rose de la claret granite.
  • Chung Pu (Taiwan). Global Circle. 2002. Black granite, white marble.
  • Jill Watson (Britain). City Composition. 2002. Bronze.
  • Kang Mu Hsiang (Taiwan). Infinite Life. 2013. Aluminum.

The Indoor Observatory hosts a regular series of exhibitions. The artists represented have included Wu Ching (gold sculpture), Ping-huang Chang (traditional painting) and Po-lin Chi (aerial photography).[40]

Tenants[edit]

A number of enterprises maintain offices in Taipei 101, and a number have been featured in public announcements:[40]

Restaurants in the tower include Ding Xian 101, Diamond Tony's and Shin Yeh 101 (欣葉).[34] Hundreds of international dining establishments and retail outlets also operate in the adjoining mall.

History[edit]

Construction[edit]

Taipei 101's east park as seen from the Indoor Observatory at noon
Taipei 101 near the end of construction during 2003, showing the concrete tower at the top still incomplete. The height of the building was still 449 meters at the time.

Planning for Taipei 101 began in 1997 during Chen Shui-bian's term as Taipei mayor. Talks between merchants and city government officials initially centered on a proposal for a 66-story tower to serve as an anchor for new development in Taipei's 101 business district. Planners were considering taking the new structure to a more ambitious height only after an expat suggested it, along with many of the other features used in the design of the building. It wasn't until the summer of 2001 that the city granted a license for the construction of a 101-story tower on the site. In the meantime, construction proceeded and the first tower column was erected in the summer of 2000.

A major earthquake took place in Taiwan during 31 March 2002 destroying a construction crane at the roof top, which was at floor number 47. The crane fell down onto the Xinyi Road beneath the tower, crushing several vehicles and causing five deaths – two crane operators and three workers who were not properly harnessed. However, an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction work was able to restart within a week.

Taipei 101's roof was completed three years later on 1 July 2003. Ma Ying-jeou, in his first term as Taipei mayor, fastened a golden bolt to signify the achievement.

The formal opening of the tower took place on New Year's Eve 2004. President Chen Shui-bian, Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou and Legislative Speaker Wang Jin-pyng cut the ribbon. Open-air concerts featured a number of popular performers, including singers A-Mei and Sun Yan Zi. Visitors rode the elevators to the Observatory for the first time. A few hours later the first fireworks show at Taipei 101 heralded the arrival of a new year.[citation needed]

Chronology[edit]

Important dates in the planning and construction of Taipei 101 include the following:[14]

Date Event
20 October 1997 Development and operation rights agreement signed with Taipei City government.
13 January 1999 Ground-breaking ceremony.
7 June 2000 First tower column erected.
13 April 2001 Design change to 509.2 m height approved by Taipei City government.
13 June 2001 Taipei 101 Mall topped out.
10 August 2001 Construction license awarded for 101 stories.
31 March 2002 Partially constructed building survives 6.8 magnitude earthquake undamaged.
13 May 2003 Taipei 101 Mall obtains occupancy permit.
1 July 2003 Taipei 101 Tower roof completed.
17 October 2003 Pinnacle placed.
14 November 2003 Taipei 101 Mall opens.
15 April 2004 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) certifies Taipei 101 as world's tallest building.
12 November 2004 Tower obtains occupancy permit.
31 December 2004 Tower opens to the public.
1 January 2005 First New Year fireworks show begins at midnight.

Events[edit]

Taipei 101 is the site of many special events. Art exhibits, as noted above, regularly take place in the Observatory. A few noteworthy dates since the tower's opening include these.

[check quotation syntax]* February 28, 2005 – Former President of the United States Bill Clinton visits and signs copies of his autobiography.[40]

  • 19 April 2005 – Tower displays the formula "E=mc2" in lights to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein's theory of relativity. The display, the largest of 65,000 such displays in 47 countries, is part of the international celebration Physics Enlightens the World.[40]
  • 20 November 2005 – First annual Taipei 101 Run Up features a race up the 2,046 steps from floors 1 to 91. Proceeds benefit Taiwan's Olympic teams. Men's race is won by Paul Crake of Australia (10 minutes, 29 seconds) and women's race by Andrea Mayr of Austria (12 minutes, 38 seconds).[40]
  • 20 October 2006 – Tower displays a pink ribbon in lights to promote breast cancer awareness. The ten-day campaign is sponsored by Taipei 101's ownership and Estée Lauder.[40]
  • 12 December 2007 – Austrian base jumper Felix Baumgartner survives an unauthorized parachute jump from Taipei 101's 91st floor.[43]
  • 15 June 2008 – Taipei 101 Run Up features 2,500 participants. Men's race is won by Thomas Dold of Germany (10 minutes, 53 seconds); 2007 champion Marco De Gasperi of Italy finishes second and Chen Fu-tsai of Taiwan finishes third. Women's race is won by Lee Hsiao-yu of Taiwan (14 minutes, 53 seconds).[44][45]

New Year's Eve fireworks displays[edit]

2008 New Year fireworks at Taipei 101

The New Year's Eve show in Taipei is hosted at the Taipei City Hall, which also provides a view of Taipei 101 which is lit up with fireworks. Another popular location for crowds to gather to see the fireworks display is the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall. For the first three years (2004–2006), the annual fireworks show at Taipei 101 was preceded by the sequential display of numerals in lights on each section to count down the last eight seconds to midnight. Since 2007 the building has been completely darkened, then fireworks begin to launch sequentially from the lower to upper sections.

  • 2003–2004: Building still under construction. Spinning lights on the Outdoor Observatory (floor 91) provided a display of sound and lights, but no fireworks were launched.
  • 2004–2005: Grand opening of Taipei 101 celebrated with the first fireworks display. The show lasted 35 seconds. Rockets were launched from section balconies. Festivities included all-day performances by popular entertainers and ceremonial visits by national dignitaries.
  • 2005–2006: Show extended to 128 seconds. Sony sponsored the show, which concluded with a display of the brand name in lights.
  • 2006–2007: Show extended to 188 seconds; 9,000 rockets were launched. This was Sony's last time sponsoring the event because the Burj Dubai overtook 101's height.
  • 2007–2008: Show same length but featuring 12,000 rockets. Civic and private sponsors ended the show with a display, in lights, of a heart over the word 'Taiwan.'
  • 2008–2009: A conspicuously more modest show than those which preceded it. The theme was "Love Taiwan With Your Heart In 2009". The show ended with the four sides of the building displaying lights in four colours (red, blue, green and yellow) to represent happiness, vision, sustainability and passion.
  • 2009–2010: The display regained some of the dazzle of 2005–2008 shows but remained more brief in duration. The theme was "Taiwan Up."
  • 2010–2011: Show extended to 288 seconds, and designed by Cai Guo-Qiang, the artist also responsible for Beijing Olympics and World Expo Shanghai's fireworks. The theme was "100 ROC" (100th anniversary of the Republic of China) which extended on the "Love Taiwan" theme.2010 was also the year the Floral Expo was held in Taipei, and at Dajia Riverside Park there was another New Year's Eve event. It was a VIP event, but was broadcast simultaneously with the City Hall event. The display on the building was accompanied by fireworks going off other buildings in the Xinyi financial district. One concept was for fireworks to spiral up and down the building like dragon crawling, but technical difficulties caused some disappointment with what was anticipated (reported by the media to be more like "a worm"). It also took 30 seconds for the host to realize the fireworks were over.
  • 2011-2012: The show was shortened to 202 seconds and was considered to be more conservative than that of the previous year, but featuring the largest number of rockets launched to date, totalling at 30,000. The theme coincided with the 101st anniversary of the ROC. It also gained attention on YouTube, where viewers noticed an apparent "UFO" in the seconds before the fireworks started, later determined to be a radio-controlled glider with flashing lights.
  • 2012-2013: The show was designed by the French pyrotechnics company Groupe F and was 188 seconds in length, featuring 22,000 rockets launched to an adaptation of Igor Stravinsky's The Firebird. The theme was "Swing for the Future." The words "Time for Taiwan" (both in English and Mandarin Chinese) were displayed in lights at the building to promote Taiwan Tourism Bureau's current advertising campaign.
  • 2013-2014: The show lasts 170 seconds.[46]

Developments[edit]

The Taipei Financial Center Corporation (TFCC) announced plans on 2009 November 2 to make Taipei 101 "the world's tallest green building" by summer of 2011 as measured by LEED standards. The structure is already designed to be energy-efficient, with double-pane windows blocking external heat by 50% and recycled water meeting 20–30% of the building's needs. (LEED) certification would entail inspections and upgrades in wiring, water and lighting equipment at a cost of NT$60 million (US$1.8 million). Estimates show the savings resulting from the modifications would pay for the cost of making them within three years.[20] The project was carried out under the guidance of an international team composed of Siemens Building Technologies, architect and interior designer Steven Leach Group and the LEED advisory firm EcoTech International.[47] The company applied for a platinum-degree certification with LEED in early 2011.[48] On 28 July 2011, Taipei 101 received LEED Platinum Certification under "Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance".[49] Although the project cost NT$60 million (US$2.08 million), it is expected to save US$1.2 million in energy costs each year.[49] In 2012, the shopping center at the base is expected to be remodeled.[50]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Taipei 101 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  2. ^ a b c Taipei 101 at Emporis
  3. ^ Taipei 101 at SkyscraperPage
  4. ^ Taipei 101 at Structurae
  5. ^ "World's Tallest Green Building". 10 August 2011. 
  6. ^ "亞洲新建築 New Asia Regionalism In Global Context", Taiwan Architect Magazine (Publisher), 2008, p.78, ISBN 9789579226196
  7. ^ Ingredient of High-Rise Design Structure Magazine, June 2006
  8. ^ Taipei 101 Project Review & Management Master Builders Journal, 4th Quarter, 2007, pp. 78-83
  9. ^ "Taiwan tops out tallest building". BBC News. 17 October 2003. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  10. ^ SkyscraperPage – List of skyscrapers in Taiwan
  11. ^ CTBUH – Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings
  12. ^ USAToday – Taipei skyscraper deemed tallest, Paragraph abstract: The council measures from the sidewalk level of the main entrance to the skyscraper's architectural top.
  13. ^ a b Observatory brochure, Floor 89, Taipei 101. 17 August 2007.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Publicly posted material, Floor 89, Taipei 101. 17 August 2007.
  15. ^ Taipei 101 Official Website – Observatory Servicing Facilities
  16. ^ a b Taipei 101 Official Website – Tuned Mass Damper
  17. ^ "Motioneering – Taipei 101" (PDF). Motioneering. 
  18. ^ "Taipei 101". All About Skyscrapers. 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  19. ^ structuremag.org, Taipei 101 the worlds tallest building, 6 June 2005
  20. ^ a b Etaiwannews.com
  21. ^ Holly Hughes, Sylvie Murphy, Alexis Lipsitz Flippin, Julie Duchaine (2010). "Frommer's 500 Extraordinary Islands". Frommer's. 
  22. ^ Feng Shui Bestbuy – Ru Yi
  23. ^ Taipei 101 Official Website – Lights Schedule
  24. ^ Public signage placed at Taipei 101 clock.
  25. ^ "Taipei 101, Bigger is not Better (台北101, 更大不等於更好)". Taiwan Design Center. 2004-09-15. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  26. ^ http://greenchidesigns.com/2011/10/t-for-two-two-feng-shui-tips-for-t-intersections/
  27. ^ http://mikufengshui.blogspot.tw/2012/12/dreaded-t-intersection-and-cul-de-sac.html
  28. ^ http://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20091120205212AAZCeL7
  29. ^ Taipei 101 Official Website – Observatory Floor Guide
  30. ^ Taipei 101 Official Website – Facts about Taipei 101
  31. ^ Popular Mechanics – World's Fastest Elevator
  32. ^ ArchitectureWeek – Taiwan On Top
  33. ^ Elevator World – Breaking the 1000MPM Barrier – High speed elevators in Taipei 101
  34. ^ a b Taipei 101 Official Website – 85F Restaurant
  35. ^ "Taipei: The End". Blade-edge.com. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  36. ^ "Mystery Solved". Ozsoapbox.com. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  37. ^ Taipei Times – Shin Kong Tower Observatory to close by year-end
  38. ^ Taipei 101 Official Website – Floor Guide
  39. ^ Taipei 101 Official Website – Observatory Visit Information
  40. ^ a b c d e f Taipei 101 Official Website −101季刊 eNewsletter
  41. ^ "Taiwan." L'Oréal. Retrieved on 14 July 2010.
  42. ^ BBC News – 'Spiderman' scales tallest tower", December 25, 2005.
  43. ^ "Base jumper survives leap off worlds tallest building". The Times (London). 13 December 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  44. ^ Afp – German wins race up world's tallest skyscraper
  45. ^ Inquirer – German wins race up world's tallest skyscraper
  46. ^ Taipei 101 2014 New Year's Celebration
  47. ^ LEED certified: The tallest "green" building in the world Siemens Building Technologies
  48. ^ "Taipei 101 to become world's tallest green building in Q3". Focus Taiwan News Channel. 15 January 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  49. ^ a b "Taipei 101 receives top certification from green rating council". Taipei Times. 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  50. ^ "Magazine digest – Chinese business helps Taipei 101 turn profit". Focus Taiwan News Channel. 18 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 

External links[edit]

Records
Preceded by
Willis Tower
World's tallest building rooftop
449.2 m (1473.75 ft)

2003–2008
Succeeded by
Shanghai World Financial Center
Preceded by
Petronas Towers
World's tallest building architectural element
509.2 m (1670.60 ft)

2003–2009
Succeeded by
Burj Khalifa