Taiwan Garrison Command
|Taiwan Garrison Command|
|Active||May 1958 - August 1, 1992|
|Country||Republic of China|
|Branch||Ministry of National Defense|
|Type||Secret police / state Security body|
|Role||Anti-government elements suppression|
|Part of||Ministry of National Defense|
|zh:彭孟緝, zh:陳守山, zh:周仲南|
|Logo of Taiwan Garrison Command|
The Taiwan Garrison Command (traditional Chinese: 台灣警備總司令部; simplified Chinese: 台湾警备总司令部; pinyin: Táiwān Jǐngbèi Zǒngsīlìngbù; Wade–Giles: Tai-wan Ching-pei Tsung-ssu-ling-pu) was a secret police/state security body which existed under the Republic of China military on Taiwan. The agency was established at the end of World War II, and operated throughout the Cold War. It was disbanded on August 1, 1992.
Taiwan Garrison Command was an equivalence to the unified command in the United States of America. It was commanded by a three-star general and consisted with officers or enlisted persons from Army, Military Police, Political Warfare, or Intelligence Bureau; and members from police forces, or civilian recruits from other colleges after special training. Because of security reasons, its military draftees were tagged and interviewed before usual military recruit trainings.
While operational, this military command was responsible for suppressing activities viewed as promoting democracy and Taiwan independence. The reputation of Taiwan Garrison Command is so infamous that its name symbolizes the authoritarian rule to which Taiwan was once subjected.
The Taiwan Provincial Garrison Command (台灣省警備總司令部) was established on September 1, 1945 at Chongqing, with Chen Yi as its first commanding general. On the same day, the Governor Office of Taiwan Province (zh:台灣省行政長官公署; 1945-09-01—1947-05-16) was formed and headed by Chen Yi as well.
This command's major responsibilities included the repatriation of all Japanese nationals in Taiwan, transfer of authority over Taiwan to the Republic of China government, and maintenance of law and order. The agency was renamed as the All-Taiwan Provincial Garrison Command (台灣全省警備總司令部) and relocated to Taipei, Taiwan in 1947 and commanded by Peng Meng-chi (zh:彭孟緝).
In the beginning of 1949, it was re-designated as "Taiwan Provincial Garrison Command" and headed by Chen Cheng (zh:陳誠). On May 20, 1949, Chen Cheng, then the Chair of Taiwan Provincial Government and the Commanding General of Taiwan Provincial Garrison Command, declared martial law in Taiwan. Immediately, the Taiwan Provincial Garrison Command was to enforce Martial Law within its area of responsibility, excluding Kinmen and Matsu of Fujian Province, which had been under Martial Law since December 10, 1948.
On August 15, 1949, it was further split into Southeast Military Governor Office (zh:東南軍政長官公署; 1949-08-15—1950-03-16) and Taiwan Provincial Security Command (台灣省保安司令部), which was again commanded by Peng Meng-chi. The Southeast Military Governor Office, headed by Chen Cheng, had control of four provinces: Jiangsu (江蘇), Chekiang (浙江), Fujian (福建) and Taiwan (臺灣); and was directly responsible for the systematic killing of thousands of Taiwanese social elites, as part of what became known as the 228 Incident.
In 1958, the Republic of China government underwent a series of restructuring, and Taiwan Provincial Security Command was merged with Taiwan Provincial Civil Defense Command (台灣省民防司令部), Taiwan Defense Command (台灣防衛總司令部), and Taipei Garrison Command (台北衛戌總司令部) and renamed Taiwan Garrison Command under the command of Huang Chen-chiu, the commander of the defunct Taipei Garrison Command.
Taiwan Garrison Command continued to enforce Martial Law until July 14, 1987, the lift of Martial Law over Taipei City, Kaohsiung City and Taiwan Province by a presidential order from Chiang Ching-Kuo. On April 30, 1991, President Lee Teng-hui declared the termination of the Period of Communist Rebellion and Taiwan Garrison Command again lost its other lawful justification.
This military organization was transformed and restructured into the "Coast Guard Command and Military Reserve District Command" on August 1, 1992. The move effectively disbanded the Taiwan Garrison Command, under quiet orders from then President Lee Teng-hui.
- Coastal patrol duties were assumed by the Coastal Guard Command; and were later passed to the newly reformed Coast Guard Administration.
- Subordinate units for military reserve mobilization were regrouped into Military Reserve District Command, and later, the Reserve Command.
- Electronic intelligence units for telephone-wire-tapping and radio surveillance were assigned to the Military Intelligence Bureau.
- Duties to suppress unauthorized radio broadcasting were then transferred to the Telecommunication Directorate of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications.
- Functions for imprisoning political and dissents activists and re-educating gangsters without trial were terminated. All prison facilities were transferred to either the Military Police Command, or to the Culture Establishment Commission for memorial purposes.
- Task of riot control were shared by the National Police Agency and the Military Police Command.
- The defense of Taipei City were taken over by the Military Police Command.
- The responsibility for censoring and confiscating questionable publications or newspapers went to the Government Information Office; such functions were later terminated after the abolishment of "the Law of Publications."
It has been recently argued that the declaration of Martial Law in Taiwan is unconstitutional, by Hsieh Chung-min (謝聰敏), a former political prisoner and a former legislator of Democratic Progressive Party. Hsieh is preparing such a constitutional appeal to the Constitutional Court on behalf of two fellow political prisoners, Hung Wu-hsiung(洪武雄)and Hu Xue-kuo(胡學古).
Although a division under the military, TGC actually functioned as a secret police organization. It was actively involved in suppression of members suspected by the government to be sympathetic to Communist causes and pro-Taiwan Independence activists, which included many pro-democracy activists as well. Here are several famous cases: Peng Ming-min, Taiyuan Incident, and Kaohsiung Incident. Also, it was rumored to have been involved in many politically motivated assassinations/murders, such as the murder of Lin Yi-hsiung's family and the murder of Dr. Chen Wen-chen (陳文成).
- 228 Incident
- Kaohsiung Incident
- Lin Yi-hsiung
- White Terror (Taiwan)
- Republic of China Armed Forces
- Military Police Command
- Taipei Broadcasting Station
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- Forum of Garrison, Military District, Coastal Patrol and Reserve(Chinese (Taiwan))
- Republic of China Military Police Forum(Chinese (Taiwan))