Taiwanese Mandarin

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Taiwanese Mandarin
國語 Guóyǔ/Kuo-yü
臺灣華語 Táiwān Huáyǔ
Native to Taiwan
Traditional Chinese characters
Official status
Official language in
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Regulated by National Languages Committee (Ministry of Education, ROC).
Language codes
ISO 639-3
ISO 639-6 goyu (Guoyu)
Glottolog taib1240[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Taiwanese Mandarin is a variant of Mandarin derived from the Standard Mandarin spoken in Taiwan. The latter's standard lect is known in Taiwan as 國語 (Guóyǔ, Kuo-yü), based on the phonology of the Beijing dialect together with the grammar of vernacular Chinese.

The official Guoyu is almost identical except for the writing systems with Standard Mandarin used in the People's Republic of China, which is called Pǔtōnghuà (普通话). However, Mandarin as spoken informally in Taiwan has some notable differences in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation with Standard Mandarin, differences which have arisen mainly under influence from Taiwanese Hokkien (臺灣閩南語, first language/lect of about 70% of the population of Taiwan), other mother tongues of Taiwan as Hakka (客家話, spoken natively by about 15% of the Taiwanese) and Formosan languages, additionally English, and Japanese from the prior Japanese period.

Usage[edit]

In 1945 when Republic of China took over Taiwan and surrounding islands from Japan, Mandarin was introduced as the official language and made compulsory in schools. A Mandarin Promotion Council (now called National Languages Committee) was established in 1946 by Taiwan Chief Executive Chen Yi (陳儀) to standardize and popularize the usage of Standard Mandarin in Taiwan. The Council was led by 21 Chinese Scholars such as Wei Jiangong (魏建功), He Rong (何容), Qi Tiehen (齊鐵恨), Wang Yuchuan (王玉川), Fang Shiduo (方師鐸), Zhu Zhaoxiang (朱兆祥), Wu Shouli (吳守禮) etc. (From 1895 to 1945, Japanese was the official language and taught in schools.) Since then, Mandarin has been established as a lingua franca among the various groups in Taiwan: the majority Han ethnic Hoklo, the Hakka who have their own spoken language, Mainlanders whose native tongue may be any Chinese variant from mainland China, and the Indigenous Taiwanese who speak Indigenous languages.

Until the 1980s the Kuomintang administration heavily promoted the use of Standard Mandarin and discouraged the use of Taiwanese and other vernaculars, even portraying them as inferior. Mandarin was the only sanctioned language for use in the media. This produced a backlash in the 1990s. Although some supporters of Taiwan independence tend to be opposed to standard Mandarin in favor of Taiwanese, efforts to replace standard Mandarin either with Taiwanese or with a multi-lingual standard have not been successful. Today, Mandarin is taught by immersion starting in elementary school. After the second grade, the entire educational system is in Mandarin, except for local language classes that have been taught for a few hours each week starting in the mid-1990s.

Taiwanese Mandarin (as with Singlish and many other situations of a creole speech community) is spoken at different levels according to the social class and situation of the speakers. Formal occasions call for the acrolectal level of Guoyu (Standard Mandarin). Less formal situations often result in the basilect form, which has more uniquely Taiwanese features. Bilingual speakers often code-switch between Mandarin and Taiwanese, sometimes in the same sentence.

Mandarin is spoken fluently by almost the entire Taiwanese population, except for some elderly people who were educated under Japanese rule. In the capital Taipei, where there is a high concentration of Mainlanders whose native language is not Taiwanese, Mandarin is used in greater frequency and fluency than other parts of Taiwan.

Differences from Mainland Mandarin[edit]

Further information: Standard Mandarin

Script[edit]

Taiwanese Mandarin uses traditional Chinese characters, as opposed to the simplified Chinese characters on the mainland. Taiwanese braille is based on different letter assignments than Mainland Chinese braille. Romanization had once been distinct, but now the pinyin system can be seen in both countries, though pinyin is mainly used in Mainland China while the Wade-Giles system is more prominent in Taiwan.

Pronunciation[edit]

There are two categories of pronunciation differences. The first is of characters that have an official pronunciation that differs from Putonghua (普通话 Pǔtōnghuà), primarily in the form of differences in tone, rather than in vowels or consonants. The second is more general, with differences being unofficial and arising through Taiwanese Hokkien influence on Guoyu (國語 Guóyǔ).

Variant official pronunciations[edit]

There are a few differences in official pronunciations, mainly in tone, between Guoyu and Putonghua.

The following is a partial list of such differences:

Putonghua
(PRC)
Guoyu
(ROC)
Remarks
垃圾 (or 拉圾)
("garbage")
lājī lèsè The pronunciation of lèsè originates from the Wu dialect and was the common pronunciation in China before 1949.
液體 (液体)
("liquid")
yètǐ yìtǐ, yètǐ

("and")
hàn,
星期
("week")
xīngqī xīngqí
企業 (企业)
("enterprise")
qǐyè qìyè
危險 (危险)
("danger")
wēixiǎn wéixiǎn
包括 (包括)
("including")
bāokuò bāoguā, bāokuò
法國 (法国)
("France")
Fǎguó Fàguó
微波爐 (微波炉)
("microwave")
wēibōlú wéibōlú

Taiwanese-influenced[edit]

In acrolectal Taiwanese Mandarin:

  • the retroflex sounds (ch, zh, sh, r) from Putonghua are pronounced more like alveolo-palatal affricates and fricatives.
  • erhua is very rarely heard
  • the syllable written as pinyin: eng before b, f, m, p and w is pronounced as [ʊŋ] in all tones.
  • Isochrony is considerably more syllable-timed than in other Mandarin dialects (including Putonghua), which are stress-timed. Consequently, the "neutral tone" (輕聲) does not occur as often.

In basilectal Taiwanese Mandarin, sounds that do not occur in Taiwanese are replaced by sounds from that language. These variations from Standard Mandarin are similar to the variations of Mandarin spoken in southern China. Using the Hanyu Pinyin system, the following sound changes take place (going from Putonghua to Taiwanese Mandarin followed with an example):

  • f- becomes hu- (fan → huan 反 → 緩) (This applies to native Hoklo speakers - Hakka speakers maintain precisely the opposite: (e.g. hua → fa 花 → 發))
  • qi can become ki
  • -ie, ye becomes ei (tie → tei)
  • chi (stand-alone) becomes tu (chi → tu)
  • ch- becomes c- (chuan → cuan 傳 → 攢)
  • r- becomes l- (ren → len) or [z]
  • zh-, zhi becomes z-, zi (zhao → zao 照 → 造)
  • sh-, shi becomes s-, si (shuo → suo 說→縮)
  • yu becomes yi (yue → ye 月 → 夜)
  • the diphthongs ei and ou are monophthongized as [e] and [o] respectively

Grammar[edit]

The standard Mandarin construct 有…沒有 (have or not have) is not as commonly used in Taiwanese Mandarin as in standard Mandarin. For example, the sentence "Do you have a car?" is as follows:

Taiwanese Mandarin: 你有沒有汽車? (lit. "you have or not have a car?")
PRC Mandarin: 你有汽車沒有? (lit. "you have a car or not have?")

In some contexts, the construction involving is used where the sentence final particle would normally be applied to denote perfect. For instance, Taiwanese Mandarin more commonly uses "你有吃飯嗎?" to mean "Have you eaten?" whereas standard Mandarin uses "你吃飯了嗎?". This is due to the influence of Min Nan grammar, which uses ū in a similar fashion.

Vocabulary[edit]

Vocabulary differences can be divided into several categories – particles, different usage of the same term, loan words, technological words, idioms, and words specific to living in Taiwan. Because of the limited transfer of information between mainland China and Taiwan after the Chinese civil war, many items that were invented after this split have different names in Guoyu and Putonghua. Additionally, many terms were adopted from Japanese both as a result of its close proximity (Okinawa) as well as Taiwan's status as a Japanese territory in the first half of the 20th century.

Particles[edit]

Spoken Taiwanese Mandarin uses a number of Taiwan specific (but not exclusive) final particles, such as 囉 (luō), 嘛(ma), 喔 (ō), 耶 (yē), 咧 (lie), 齁 (hō), 咩 (mei), 唷 (yō), etc.

Same words, different meaning[edit]

Some terms have different meanings in Taiwan and mainland China, which can sometimes lead to misunderstandings between speakers of different sides of the Taiwan Strait. Often there are alternative, unambiguous terms which can be understood by both sides.

Term Meaning in Taiwan Meaning in mainland China Remarks
土豆
tǔ dòu
peanut potato Unambiguous terms:
  • 花生 (peanut)
  • 馬鈴薯/马铃薯 (potato).

gǎo
to carry out something insidious, to screw/fuck (vulgar) to do, to perform a task As such, it is a verb that is rarely seen in any official or formal setting in Taiwan, whereas it is widely used in mainland China even by its top officials in official settings.
窩心 (T)
窝心 (S)
wō xīn
a kind of warm feeling having an uneased mind
出租車 (T)
出租车 (S)
chū zū chē
rental car taxi In Taiwan, taxis are called 計程車 / 计程车 (jì chéng chē), which is used less frequently in mainland China. However, many taxis in Taiwan have 個人出租汽車 written on them.
研究所
yán jiū suǒ (mainland China)
yán jiù suǒ (Taiwan)
graduate school research institute
愛人 (T)
爱人 (S)
ài rén
lover (unmarried)/mistress spouse this term in the sense of "spouse" is falling out of use in mainland China

Different preferred usage[edit]

Some terms can be understood by both sides to mean the same thing; however, their preferred usage differs.

Term Taiwan mainland China
tomato 番茄
fān qié
literally,
"barbarian/foreign eggplant"
西红柿 (S)
xī hóng shì
literally,
"western red persimmon"


西紅柿 (T)

box lunch 便當 (T)
biàn dāng
(loanword from Japanese bentō 弁当)


便当 (S)

盒饭 (S)
hé fàn


盒飯 (T)

bicycle 腳踏車 (T)
jiǎotàchē
literally, "pedaling/foot-stamp vehicle"


脚踏车 (S)

自行车 (S)
zìxíngchē
literally, "oneself-propelled vehicle"


自行車 (T)

kindergarten 幼稚園 (T)
yòuzhìyuán
(loanword from Japanese yōchien 幼稚園)


幼稚园 (S)

幼儿园 (S)
yòu'éryuán


幼兒園 (T)

pineapple 鳳梨 (T)
fènglí


凤梨 (S)

菠萝 (S)
bōluó


菠蘿 (T)

Loan words[edit]

Loan words may differ largely between Putonghua and Taiwanese Mandarin, as different characters or methods may be chosen for transliteration (phonetical or semantical), even the number of characters may different. For example, American President Obama's surname is called 奥巴馬 Àobāmǎ in Putonghua and 歐巴馬 or 歐巴瑪 Ōubāmǎ in Guoyu. Also, in Taiwanese Mandarin, rhotacization (Erhua) is generally avoided.

From English[edit]

The term "machi" (麻吉 májí) borrowed from the English term "match", is used to describe items or people which complement each other well. Note that this term has become popular in mainland China as well.

The English term "hamburger" has been adopted in many Chinese speaking communities. In Taiwan, the preferred form is 漢堡 (hànbǎo) rather than the Mainland Chinese 漢堡包 (hànbǎobāo).

The Guoyu term "fensi 粉絲," borrowed from the English term "fans", is used to describe fans or people who idolize a superstar,it's now also prevalent in Mainland china since talent show boom heated in 2000s.

From Taiwanese Hoklo[edit]

The terms "阿公 agōng" and "阿嬤 amà" are more commonly heard than the standard Mandarin terms 爺爺 yéye (paternal grandfather), 外公 wàigōng (maternal grandfather), 奶奶 nǎinai (paternal grandmother) and 外婆 wàipó (maternal grandmother).

Some local foods usually are referred to using their Hoklo names. These include:

Taiwanese POJ IPA English
剉冰[3] chhoah-peng [tsʰuaʔ˥˧piŋ˥] Shaved ice with sliced fresh fruit on top (usually strawberry, kiwi or mango)
麻糬 môa-chî [mua˧tɕi˧˥] glutinous rice cakes (see Mochi)
蚵仔煎 ô-á-chian [o˧a˥tɕiɛn˥] oyster omelette

List of Taiwanese Hoklo words commonly found in local Mandarin language newspapers and periodicals

As seen in two popular newspapers[4] Taiwanese (POJ) Mandarin Equivalent (Pinyin) English
鴨霸
China Times
Liberty Times
壓霸
(ah-pà)
[aʔ˥˧pa˨˩]
惡霸
(èbà)
a local tyrant; a bully
肉腳
China Times
Liberty Times
(滷)肉腳
( (lo) -bà-khā)
[lopa˨˩ka]
無能
(wúnéng)
incompetent; foolish person; a person whose ability is unmatched with those around him. (compare to baka)
ㄍㄧㄥ
China Times
Liberty Times
(gēng)
[ɡiŋ˧]
(yìng)
obstinate(ly), tense (as of fe sing/performing)
甲意
China Times
Liberty Times
合意
(kah-ì)
[kaʔ˥˧i˨˩]
喜歡
(xǐhuān)
to like
見笑[5]
China Times
Liberty Times
見笑
(kiàn-siàu)
[kiɛn˥˧ɕiau˨˩]
害羞
(hàixiū)
shy; bashful; sense of shame
摃龜
China Times
Liberty Times
摃龜
(kòng-ku)
[kɔŋ˥˧ku˥]
落空
(luòkōng)
to end up with nothing
龜毛[6]
China Times
Liberty Times
龜毛
(ku-mo·)
[ku˧mɔ˥]
不乾脆
(bù gāncuì)
picky; high-maintenance
Q
(khiū)
[kʰiu˧]
軟潤有彈性 (ruǎn rùn yǒu tánxìng)
description for food—soft and pliable (like mochi cakes)
LKK
China Times
Liberty Times
老柝柝
(lāu-khok-khok)
[lau˨˩ kʰɔk˥kʰɔk˩]
老態龍鍾
(lǎotàilóngzhōng)
old and senile
趴趴走
China Times
Liberty Times
拋拋走
(pha-pha-cháu)
[pʰa˧pʰa˧tsau˥˧]
東奔西跑
(dōngbēnxīpǎo)
to muck around
歹勢
China Times
Liberty Times
歹勢
(pháiⁿ-sè)
[pʰãi˥se˨˩]
不好意思
(bù hǎo yìsi)
I beg your pardon; I am sorry; Excuse me.
速配
China Times
Liberty Times
四配
(sù-phòe)
[su˥˧pʰue˨˩]
相配
(xiāngpèi)
to be well suited to each other
代誌
China Times
Liberty Times
代誌
(tāi-chì)
[tai˨˩tɕi˨˩]
事情
(shìqing)
an event; a matter; an affair
凍未條
China Times
Liberty Times
擋未住
(tòng-bē-tiâu)
[tɔŋ˥˧be˨˩tiau˧˥]
1受不了
(shòu bù liǎo)
²擋不住
(dǎng bù zhù)
1can not bear something
²compelled to do something
凍蒜
China Times
Liberty Times
當選
(tòng-soán)
[tɔŋ˥˧suan˥˧]
當選
(dāngxuǎn)
to win an election[7]
頭殼壞去
China Times
Liberty Times
頭殼歹去
(thâu-khak pháiⁿ-khì)
[tʰau˧kʰak˥pʰãi˥˧kʰi˨˩]
腦筋有問題
(nǎojīn yǒu wèntí)
(you have/he has) lost (your/his) mind!
凸槌
China Times
Liberty Times
脫箠
(thut-chhôe)
[tʰut˥tsʰue˧˥]
出軌
(chūguǐ)
to go off the rails; to go wrong
運將
China Times
Liberty Times
運將
(ūn-chiàng)
[un˨˩tɕiaŋ˨˩]
司機
(sījī)
driver (of automotive vehicles; from Japanese 運ちゃん unchan, slang for 運転士 untenshi)
鬱卒
China Times
Liberty Times
鬱卒
(ut-chut)
[ut˥tsut˩]
悶悶不樂
(mènmènbùlè)
depressed; sulky; unhappy; moody
From Japanese[edit]

Japanese loanwords based on kanji, now pronounced using Mandarin.

Japanese (Romaji) Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin) Mainland Chinese Mandarin (Pinyin) English Note
弁当 (bentō) 便當 (biàndāng) 盒饭 (héfàn) A boxed lunch. 弁当 in Japanese was borrowed from a Classical Chinese term using different characters but reintroduced to Taiwan via Mandarin as 便當 via different characters via 便 instead of 弁 because 便 means "convenient" which certainly is what a bento box is. In China, they used the semantic approach.
達人 (tatsujin) 達人 (dárén) 高手 (gāoshǒu) Someone who is very talented at doing something (a pro or expert) or adult. Also written 大人 達人 has the same meaning in classical Chinese, but not widely used in vernacular Chinese in mainland china.[8]
中古 (chūko) 中古 (zhōnggǔ) 二手 (èrshǒu) Used, second-hand.

Japanese loanwords based on phonetics, transliterated using Chinese characters with similar pronunciation in Mandarin or Taiwanese.

Japanese (Romaji) Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin) English
気持ち (kimochi) 奇蒙子 (qíméngzǐ)[9] Mood; Feeling.
お婆さん (obāsan) 歐巴桑 (ōubāsāng - most people in Taiwan will use the Taiwanese pronunciation (POJ: o·-bá-sáng, [ɔ˧ba˥saŋ˥˧])) Auntie.
おでん (oden) 黑輪 (hēilún)[10] A type of stewed flour-based snack/sidedish.
お爺さん (ojīsan) 歐吉桑 (ōujísāng)[11] Uncle.
オートバイ (ōtobai) 歐多拜 (ōuduōbài) An Autobike or motorcycle.

Technical terms[edit]

Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
Mainland Chinese Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
English
部落格 (bùluògé)
.tw: 3,240,000
.cn: 120,000
博客 (bókè)
.tw: 1,090,000
.cn: 8,470,000
Blog
光碟 (guāngdié)
.tw: 2,930,000
.cn: 735,000
光盘 (guāngpán)
.tw: 29,300
.cn: 7,310,000
Optical disc
滑鼠 (huáshǔ)
.tw: 1,320,000
.cn: 381,000
鼠标 (shǔbiāo)
.tw: 54,500
.cn: 10,200,000
mouse (computing)
計程車 (jìchéngchē)
.tw: 571,000
.cn: 141,000
出租车 (chūzūchē)
.tw: 5,630
.cn: 465,000
Taxicab
加護病房 (jiāhùbìngfáng)
.tw: 101,000
.cn 14,800
监护病房 (jiānhùbìngfáng)
.tw 704
.cn 41,600
Intensive Care Unit (ICU); Intensive Treatment Unit (ITU)
雷射 (léishè)
.tw: 811,000
.cn: 131,000
激光 (jīguāng)
.tw: 129,000
.cn: 4,540,000
Laser
錄影機 (lùyǐngjī)
.tw: 156,000
.cn: 42,700
录像机 (lùxiàngjī)
.tw: 2,950
.cn: 706,000
videocassette recorder
軟體 (ruǎntǐ)
.tw: 10,200,000
.cn: 983,000
软件 (ruǎnjiàn)
.tw: 569,000
.cn: 51,900,000
software
(網際)網路 ([wǎngjì] wǎnglù)
.tw: 438,000
.cn: 75,000
互联网 (hùliánwǎng), 網絡 (wǎngluo)
.tw: 75,900
.cn: 6,830,000
Internet
印表機 (yìnbiǎojī)
.tw: 522,000
.cn: 96,300
打印机 (dǎyìnjī)
.tw: 7,690
.cn: 4,940,000
computer printer
硬碟 (yìngdié)
.tw: 1,460,000
.cn: 550,000
硬盘 (yìngpán)
.tw: 37,800
.cn: 10,700,000
Hard disk
螢幕 (yíngmù)
.tw: 3,810,000
.cn: 339,000
显示器 (xiǎnshìqì)
.tw: 631,000
.cn: 8,480,000
computer monitor (螢幕 is the equivalent of "screen (noun)" in English, while 显示 means "to display" in English)
資料庫 (zīliàokù)
.tw: 5,050,000
.cn: 2,190,000
数据库 (shùjùkù)
.tw: 70,200
.cn: 13,800,000
database
資訊 (zīxùn)
.tw: 8,220,000
.cn: 9,460,000
信息 (xìnxī)
.tw: 317,000
.cn: 13,600,000
Information
作業系統 (zuòyè xìtǒng)
.tw: 1,830,000
.cn: 177,000
操作系统 (cāozuò xìtǒng)
.tw: 97,900
.cn: 6,930,000
operating system

Idioms and proverbs[edit]

Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
Mainland Chinese Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
English
垂手可得 (chuí shǒu kě dé)
.tw: 31,100
.cn: 51,100
唾手可得 (tuò shǒu kě dé)
.tw: 16,300
.cn: 259,000
extremely easy to obtain
一蹴可幾 (yī cù kě jī)
.tw: 10,700
.cn: 1,320
一蹴而就 (yī cù ér jiù)
.tw: 3,680
.cn: 309,000
to reach a goal in one step
一覽無遺 (yī lǎn wú yí)
.tw: 75,800
.cn: 184,000
一览无余 (yī lǎn wú yú)
.tw: 2,530
.cn: 373,000
to take in everything at a glance
入境隨俗 (rù jìng suí sú)
.tw: 22,400
.cn: 7,940
入乡随俗 (rù xiāng suí sú)
.tw: 1,980
.cn 144,000
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
揠苗助長
.tw: 39,900
.cn: 18,100
拔苗助長
.tw: 49,300
.cn 579,000

Words specific to living in Taiwan[edit]

Mandarin
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
Pinyin English
安親班
.tw: 261,000
.cn: 4,330
ānqīnbān after school childcare (lit. happy parents class)
綁樁
.tw: 78,400
.cn: 992
bǎngzhuāng pork barrel (lit. bind stumps together)
便當
.tw: 918,000
.cn: 204,000
biàndāng a box meal (from Japanese, bento), word traditionally means "convenient"
閣揆[12]
.tw: 38,200
.cn: 8,620
gékuí the premier (surname + kui for short)
公車
.tw: 761,000
.cn: 827,000[13]
gōngchē public bus (in the PRC, 公车 also/mainly refers to government owned vehicles)
機車
.tw: 2,500,000
.cn: 692,000
jīchē motor scooter/(slang) someone or something extremely annoying or irritating (means "locomotive" in mainland China)[14]
腳踏車
.tw: 564,000
.cn: 133,000
jiǎotàchē bicycle
捷運
.tw: 1,320,000
.cn 65,600
jiéyùn rapid transit (e.g. Kaohsiung MRT, Taipei Metro)
統一編號[15]
.tw: 997,000
.cn: 133,000
tǒngyī biānhào the Government Uniform ID number of a corporation

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mandarin Chinese at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Taiwanese Mandarin". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Often written using the Mandarin equivalent 鉋冰, but pronounced using the Taiwanese Hoklo word.
  4. ^ Google hits from the China Times (中時電子報) and Liberty Times (自由時報) are included.
  5. ^ This can be a tricky one, because 見笑 means "to be laughed at" in Standard Mandarin. Context will tell you which meaning should be inferred.
  6. ^ Many people in Taiwan will use the Mandarin pronunciation (guīmáo).
  7. ^ the writing 凍蒜 (lit. freeze garlic) probably originated in 1997, when the price of garlic was overly raised, and people called for the government to gain control of the price.
  8. ^ 晋 葛洪 《抱朴子·行品》:“顺通塞而一情,任性命而不滞者,达人也。” 贾谊 《鵩鸟赋》:“小智自私兮,贱彼贵我;达人大观兮,物无不可。”
  9. ^ Derived from Taiwanese pronunciation (POJ: kî-bông-jí, [ki˧bɔŋ˧ʑi˥˧])
  10. ^ Derived from Taiwanese pronunciation (烏鰱, POJ: o·-liân, [ɔ˧liɛn˧˥])
  11. ^ Most people in Taiwan will use the Taiwanese pronunciation (POJ: o·-jí-sáng, [ɔ˧ʑi˥saŋ˥˧])
  12. ^ The first character is usually omitted when placed behind the surname. For example, the former premier was Su Tseng-chang (蘇貞昌). Since his surname is , he was referred to in the press as 蘇揆.
  13. ^ The numbers are a bit misleading in this case because in the PRC, 公车 also refers to government owned vehicles.
  14. ^ Young people in Taiwan also use this word to refer to someone or something extremely annoying or irritating.
  15. ^ Often abbreviated as 統編 (tǒngbiān).

References[edit]