Tajik language

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Tajik
тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی‎, toçikī
Tojikipic.png
Toçikī in the Tajik alphabet
Native to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
Native speakers
4.5 million  (ca. 1991)[1]
Cyrillic, Latin, Persian, Tajik Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Tajikistan
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1 tg
ISO 639-2 tgk
ISO 639-3 tgk
Glottolog taji1245[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Tajik, Tajik Persian, or Tajiki,[3] (sometimes written Tadjik or Tadzhik; тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی‎, toçikī [tɔːdʒɪˈkiː]) is a variety of modern Persian[4] spoken in Central Asia. Most speakers of Tajik live in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajik is the official language of Tajikistan. In Afghanistan, where Tajiks make up a large part of the population, the dialect is less influenced by Turkic languages and is called Dari.

The dialect has diverged from Persian as spoken in Afghanistan and Iran, as a result of political borders, geographical isolation, the standardization process, and the influence of Russian and neighboring Turkic languages. The standard language is based on the northwestern dialects of Tajik (region of old major city of Samarkand), which have been somewhat influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language as a result of geographical proximity. Tajik also retains numerous archaic elements in its vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar that have been lost elsewhere in the Persophone world, in part due to its relative isolation in the mountains of Central Asia.

Geographical distribution[edit]

The most important historically Tajik/Persian-speaking cities of Central Asia, Samarqand and Bukhara, are in present-day Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan Tajiks are the largest part of the population of the ancient cities of Bukhara and Samarqand, and are found in large numbers in the Surxondaryo Province in the south and along Uzbekistan's eastern border with Tajikistan. Tajik is still widely spoken in Samarqand and Bukhara today as Tajiks account for perhaps 70% of the total population of Samarqand and have been estimated to make up as much as 90% of Bukhara.[5][6]

Official statistics in Uzbekistan state that the Tajik community comprises 5% of the nation's total population.[7] However, these numbers do not include ethnic Tajiks who, for a variety of reasons, choose to identify themselves as Uzbeks in population census forms.[8] During the Soviet "Uzbekization", and was supervised by Sharof Rashidov, the head of the Uzbek Communist Party, Tajiks had to choose either to stay in Uzbekistan and get registered as Uzbek in their passports or leave the republic for the less developed agricultural and mountainous Tajikistan.[9] The "Uzbekization" movement ended in 1924.[10] Native Tajiks living in the nation of Uzbekistan have reportedly estimated that Tajiks make up 25-30% of the nation's population.[5]

Tajiks constitute 80% of Tajikistan's population, and Persian dominates in most parts of the country. Some Tajiks in Badakhshan in southeastern Tajikistan, where the Pamiri languages are the native languages of most residents, are bilingual-speakers. Tajiks are the dominant ethnic group in Northern Afghanistan as well, and are also the majority group in scattered pockets elsewhere in the country, particularly urban areas such as Kabul, Mazar, Kunduz, Ghazni and Herat. Tajiks constitute between 25% and 30% of the total population of the country. In Afghanistan, the dialects spoken by ethnic Tajiks are written using the Perso-Arabic script and referred to as Dari, along with the Persian dialects of other groups in Afghanistan such as the Hazara and Aimaq. 50% of Afghan citizens are native speakers of Dari. A large Tajik-speaking diaspora exists due to the instability that has plagued Central Asia in recent years, with significant numbers of Tajiks found in Russia, Kazakhstan, and beyond. This Tajik diaspora is also the result of the poor state of the economy of Tajikistan as each year approximately one million men leave Tajikistan in order to gain employment in Russia.[11]

Dialects[edit]

Tajik dialects can be approximately split into the following groups:

  1. Northern dialects (Northern Tajikistan, Bukhara, Samarkand, Derbend, Kyrgyzstan, and the Varzob valley region of Dushanbe).[12]
  2. Central dialects (dialects of the upper Zeravshan Valley).[12]
  3. Southern dialects (South and East of Dushanbe, Kulob, and the Kerategin region of Tajikistan ).[12]
  4. Southeastern dialects (dialects of the Darvoz region and the Oxus near Rushan ).[12]

The dialects used among the native Bukharian Jews of Central Asia are known as Bukhori, and belong to the northern dialect grouping. They are chiefly distinguished by the inclusion of Hebrew terms, principally religious vocabulary, and a historical use of the Hebrew alphabet. Despite these differences, Bukhori is readily intelligible to other Tajik-speakers, particularly speakers of northern dialects.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The table below lists the six vowel phonemes in standard, literary Tajik. Letters from the Tajik Cyrillic alphabet are given first, followed by IPA transcription. Local dialects frequently have more than the six seen below. The Tajik Cyrillic alphabet also contains the letter Ӣ ӣ, which is a [iː].

Tajik vowels [13]
Front Central Back
Close и
/i/
у
/u/
Mid е
/eː/
ӯ
/ɵː/
о1
/ɔː/
Open а
/æ/
  1. The open back vowel has varyingly been described as mid-back,[14][15] [ɒ],[16] [ɔ],[17] and [ɔː].[18] It is analogous to standard Persian â/ﺁ (long a).

Consonants[edit]

The Tajik language contains 24 consonants and 16 of them are identical, except for their voicing, these contrastive pairs are: [б/п] [в/ф] [д/т] [з/с] [ж/ш] [ҷ/ч] [г/к] [ғ/х] [13] The table below lists the consonant phonemes in standard, literary Tajik. Letters from the Tajik Cyrillic alphabet are given first, followed by IPA transcription.

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal м
/m/
н
/n/
Stop п б
/p/ /b/
т д
/t/ /d/
ч ҷ
/tʃ/ /dʒ/
к г
/k/ /ɡ/
қ
/q/
ъ
/ʔ/
Fricative ф в
/f/ /v/
с з
/s/ /z/
ш ж
/ʃ/ /ʒ/
х ғ
/χ/ /ʁ/
ҳ
/h/
Trill р
/r/
Approximant л
/l/
й
/j/

Word stress[edit]

Word stress generally falls on the first syllable in finite verb forms and on the last syllable in nouns and noun-like words.[13] Examples of where stress does not fall on the last syllable are adverbs like: бале (bale, meaning "yes") and зеро (zero, meaning "because"). Stress also does not fall on enclitics, nor on the marker of the direct object.

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Tajik grammar

The word order of Tajiki Persian is subject–object–verb. Tajik Persian grammar is almost identical to the classical Persian grammar (and the grammar of modern varieties such as Iranian Persian), although there are notable differences.[19] The most notable difference between classical Persian grammar and Tajik Persian grammar is the construction of the present progressive tense in each language. In Tajik, the present progressive form consists of a present progressive participle, from the verb истодан istodan 'to stand', and a cliticized form of the verb =acт =ast 'to be'.[20]

Ман мактуб навишта истода-ам
man maktub navishta istoda=am
I letter write PRS.PROG=be.1sg
'I am writing a letter.'

In Classical Persian, the present progressive form consists of the verb دار dār 'to have' followed by a conjugated verb in either the simple present tense, the habitual past tense, or the habitual past perfect tense.[21]

من کنم کار دارم
man kon-am kār dār-am
I do-1sg.PRS work have-1sg.PRS
'I am working.'


Nouns[edit]

Nouns are not marked for grammatical gender, although they are marked for number.

Two forms of number exist in Tajik, singular and plural. The plural is marked by either the suffix -ҳо or -он (with contextual variants -ён and -гон), although Arabic loan words may use Arabic forms. There is no definite article, but the indefinite article exists in the form of number 'one' як (yak) and '-е' (-e), the first positioned before the noun and the second joining the noun as a suffix. When a noun is used as a direct object, it is marked by the suffix '-ро' (-ro), e.g. Рустамро задам (Rustam-ro zadam), 'I hit Rustam.' This direct object suffix is added to the word after any plural suffixes. The form '-ро' can be literary or formal. In older forms of the Persian language, '-ро' could indicate both direct and indirect objects and some phrases used in modern Persian and Tajik have maintained this suffix on indirect objects, as seen in the following example: (Худоро шукр - "Thank God"). Modern Persian does not use the direct object marker as a suffix on the noun, but this direct object marker is a stand-alone morpheme in the Modern Persian Farsi language.[13]

Prepositions[edit]

Simple prepositions
Tajik English
аз from, through, across
бо with
бар on, upon, onto
ба to
бе without
дар at, in
чун like, as
то up to, as far as, until

Vocabulary[edit]

Tajiki is conservative in its vocabulary, retaining numerous terms that have long since fallen into disuse in Iran and Afghanistan, such as арзиз (arziz), meaning 'thin,' and фарбеҳ (farbeh), meaning 'fat.' Most modern loan words in Tajik come from Russian as a result of the position of Tajikistan within the Soviet Union. The vast majority of these Russian loanwords which have entered the Tajik language through the fields of socioeconomics, technology, and government, where most of the concepts and vocabulary of these fields have been borrowed from the Russian language. The introduction of Russian loanwords into the Tajik language was largely justified under the Soviet policy of modernization and the necessary subordination of all languages to Russian for the achievement of a Communist state.[22] Vocabulary also comes from the geographically close Uzbek language and, as is usual in Islamic countries, from Arabic. Since the late 1980s, an effort has been made to replace loanwords with native equivalents, using either old terms that had fallen out of use, or coined terminology. Many of the coined terms for modern items such as гармкунак (garmkunak), meaning 'heater' and чангкашак (changkashak), meaning 'vacuum cleaner' differ from their Afghan and Iranian equivalents, adding to the difficulty in intelligibility between Tajiki and other forms of Persian.

In the table below, Persian refers to the standard language of Iran, which differs somewhat from the Dari Persian of Afghanistan. Another Iranian language, Pashto, has also been included for comparative purposes.

Tajik моҳ
(mōh)
нав
(naw)
модар
(mōdar)
хоҳар
(xͮōhar)
шаб
(šab)
бинӣ
(bīnī)
се
(se)
сиёҳ
(siyōh)
сурх
(surx)
зард
(zard)
сабз
(sabz)
гург
(gurg)
Other Iranian languages
Persian ماه
māh
نو
now
مادر
mādar
خواهر
xāhar
شب
šab
بینی
bīnī
سه
se
سياه
siyāh
سرخ/قرمز
qermez/sorx
زرد
zard
سبز
sabz
گرگ
gorg
Pashto myāsht nəwai mōr khōr shpa pōza dre tōr sur zyarr shin, zarghun lewə
Other Indo-European languages
English month new mother sister night nose three black red yellow green wolf
Armenian ամիս
amis
նոր
nor
մայր
mayr
քույր
k'uyr
գիշեր
gišer
քիթ
k'it'
երեք
yerek'
սև
sev
կարմիր
karmir
դեղին
deġin
կանաչ
kanač
գայլ
gayl
Urdu مہینہ
məhīna
نئے
nəye
مادر
mādər
بہن
bêhn
شب
šəb
ناک
nāk
تین
tīn
سیاہ
syah
سرخ
surx
زرد
zərd
سبز
səbz
بھیڑیا
bheṛiyā
Latin mēnsis novus māter soror nox nasus trēs āter, Niger ruber flāvus, gilvus viridis lupus
Spanish mes nuevo madre hermana noche nariz tres negro rojo amarillo verde lobo
Greek μήνας
minas
νέος
neos
μητέρα
mitera
αδελφή
adhelfi
νύχτα
nihta
μύτη
miti
τρία
tria
μαύρος
mavros
κόκκινος
kokkinos
κίτρινος
kitrinos
πράσινος
prasinos
λύκος
likos
Russian месяц
mesyats
новый
noviy
мать
mat'
сестра
sestra
ночь
noch
нос
nos
три
tri
чёрный
chorniy
красный, рыжий
krasniy, ryzhiy
жёлтый
zholtiy
зелёный
zelyoniy
волк
volk
Serbo-Croatian language m(j)esec
nov
mater
sestra
noć
nos
tri
tri
crn
crven
žut
zelen
vuk
Lithuanian language mėnuo
naujas
motina
sesuo
naktis
nosis
trys
juoda
raudona
geltona
žalia
vilkas
Hindi महीना
mahīnā
नया
nayā
माँ
māṃ
बहन
bahan
रात
rāt
नाक
nāk
तीन
tīn
काला
kālā
लाल
lāl
पीला
pīlā
हरा
harā
भेड़िया
bheṛiyā

Writing system[edit]

Main article: Tajik alphabet
Tajik Republic coat of Arms with Tajik language in Perso-Arabic script جمهورية اجتماعي شوروى مختار تاجيكستان

In Tajikistan and other countries of the former Soviet Union, Tajik Persian is currently written in Cyrillic script, although it was written in the Latin script beginning in 1928, and the Arabic alphabet prior to 1928. In the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, the use of the Latin script was later replaced in 1939 by the Cyrillic script.[23] The Tajik alphabet added six additional letters to the Cyrillic script inventory and these additional letters are distinguished in the Tajik orthography by the use of diacritics.[24] In an interview to Iranian news media in May 2008, Tajikistan's deputy culture minister said Tajikistan would study the issue of switching its Tajik alphabet from Cyrillic to Perso-Arabic script used in Iran and Afghanistan when the government feels that "the Tajik people become familiar with the Persian alphabet".[25]

History[edit]

According to many scholars, the New Persian language (which subsequently evolved into the Persian forms spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan) developed in Transoxiana and Khorasan, in what are today parts of Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. While the New Persian language was descended primarily from Middle Persian, it also incorporated substantial elements of other Iranian languages of ancient Central Asia, such as Sogdian.

Following the Arab conquest of Iran and most of Central Asia in the 8th century AD, Arabic for a time became the court language, and Persian and other Iranian languages were relegated to the private sphere. In the 9th century AD, following the rise of the Samanids, whose state covered much of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and northeastern Iran and was centered around the cities of Bukhoro (Bukhara), Samarqand and Herat, New Persian emerged as the court language and swiftly displaced Arabic. Arabic influence continued to show itself in the form of the Perso-Arabic script used to write the language (replaced in Tajik by Latin and then Cyrillic in the 20th century) and a large number of Arabic loanwords.

New Persian became the lingua franca of Central Asia for centuries, although it eventually lost ground to the Chaghatai language in much of its former domains as a growing number of Turkic tribes moved into the region from the east. Since the 16th century AD, Tajik has come under increasing pressure from neighboring Turkic languages, particularly Uzbek, which has largely replaced it in most areas of what is now Uzbekistan. Once spoken in areas of Turkmenistan, such as Merv, Tajik is today virtually non-existent in that country. Nevertheless, Tajik persisted in pockets of what is now Uzbekistan, notably in Samarqand, Bukhoro and Surxondaryo Province, as well as in much of what is today Tajikistan.

The creation of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union in 1929 helped to safeguard the future of Tajik, as it became an official language of the republic alongside Russian. Still, substantial numbers of Tajik-speakers remained outside the borders of the republic, mostly in the neighboring Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, which created a source of tension between Tajiks and Uzbeks. Neither Samarqand nor Bukhoro was included in the nascent Tajik S.S.R., despite their immense historical importance in Tajik history. After the creation of the Tajik S.S.R., a large number of ethnic Tajiks from the Uzbek S.S.R. migrated there, particularly to the region of the capital, Dushanbe, exercising a substantial influence in the republic's political, cultural and economic life. The influence of this influx of ethnic Tajik immigrants from the Uzbek S.S.R. is most prominently manifested in the fact that literary Tajik is based on their northwestern dialects of the language, rather than the central dialects that are spoken by the natives in the Dushanbe region and adjacent areas.

After the fall of the Soviet Union and Tajikistan's independence in 1991, the government of Tajikistan has made substantial efforts to promote the use of Tajik in all spheres of public and private life. Tajik is gaining ground among the once-Russified upper classes, and continues its role as the vernacular of the majority of the country's population. There has been a rise in the number of Tajik publications. Increasing contact with media from Iran and Afghanistan, after decades of isolation under the Soviets, is also having an effect on the development of the language. In 2009, Tajikistan adopted a law that removes Russian as the "language for interethnic communication."[26]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tajik at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tajik". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tgk
  4. ^ Lazard, G. 1989
  5. ^ a b Richard Foltz, "The Tajiks of Uzbekistan", Central Asian Survey, 15(2), 213-216 (1996).
  6. ^ http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/1999/369.htm
  7. ^ Uzbekistan. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (December 13, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-26.
  8. ^ See for example the Country report on Uzbekistan, released by the United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor here.
  9. ^ Rahim Masov, The History of the Clumsy Delimitation, Irfon Publ. House, Dushanbe, 1991 (Russian). English translation: The History of a National Catastrophe, transl. Iraj Bashiri, 1996.
  10. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/Masov/MasovHistoryNationalCatastrophe.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/101east/2013/07/201372393525174524.html
  12. ^ a b c d Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. 421
  13. ^ a b c d Khojayori, Nasrullo, and Mikael Thompson. Tajiki Reference Grammar for Beginners. Washington, DC: Georgetown UP, 2009.
  14. ^ Lazard, G. 1956
  15. ^ Perry, J. R. (2005)
  16. ^ Nakanishi, Akira, Writing Systems of the World
  17. ^ Ido, S. (2005)
  18. ^ Korotkow, M. (2004)
  19. ^ Perry, J. R. 2005
  20. ^ Ido, Shinji. Tajik. Muenchen: Lincom Europa, 2005.
  21. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. Persian Grammar: History and State of Its Study. De Gruyter, 1979. Trends in Linguistics. State-Of-The-Art Reports.
  22. ^ Marashi, Mehdi, and Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Bethesda, MD: Iran, 1994.
  23. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. 420.
  24. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. 423.
  25. ^ "Tajikistan may consider using Persian script when the conditions are met", interview of Tajikistan's Deputy Culture Minister with Iranian News Agency, 2 May 2008.
  26. ^ Tajikistan Drops Russian As Official Language

References[edit]

  • Ido, S. (2005) Tajik ISBN 3-89586-316-5
  • Korotow, M. (2004) Tadschikisch Wort für Wort. Kauderwelsch ISBN 3-89416-347-X
  • Lazard, G. (1956) "Caractères distinctifs de la langue tadjik". Bulletin de la Société Linguistique de Paris. 52. pp. 117–186
  • Lazard, G. "Le Persan". Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden. 1989.
  • Windfuhr, G. (1987) in Comrie, B. (ed.) "Persian". The World's Major Languages. pp. 523–546
  • Perry, J. R. (2005) A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar (Boston : Brill) ISBN 90-04-14323-8
  • Rastorgueva, V. (1963) A Short Sketch of Tajik Grammar (Netherlands : Mouton) ISBN 0-933070-28-4
  • Назарзода, С. – Сангинов, А. – Каримов, С. – Султон, М. Ҳ. (2008) Фарҳанги тафсирии забони тоҷикӣ (иборат аз ду ҷилд). Ҷилди I. А – Н. Ҷилди II. О – Я. (Душанбе).
  • Khojayori, Nasrullo, and Mikael Thompson. Tajiki Reference Grammar for Beginners. Washington, DC: Georgetown UP, 2009. ISBN 978-1-58901-269-1
  • Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7007-1131-4
  • Windfuhr, Gernot. Persian Grammar: History and State of Its Study. De Gruyter, 1979. Trends in Linguistics. State-Of-The-Art Reports. ISBN 978-9027977748
  • Marashi, Mehdi, and Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Bethesda, MD: Iran, 1994. ISBN 978-0936347356

External links[edit]

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