Demographics of Tajikistan

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The Demographics of Tajikistan is about the demographic features of the population of Tajikistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

Tajikistan: Population and rural population 1958-2005 (millions). State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, yearbooks from various years.
Tajik man in traditional headgear (2005).
thumb
A group of boys from Tajikistan.

Demographic trends[edit]

Tajikistan's main ethnic group are the Tajiks, with minorities such as the Uzbeks and Kyrgyz, and a small Russian minority. Because not everyone in Tajikistan is an ethnic Tajik, the non-Tajik citizens of the country are referred to as Tajikistani. The official nationality of any person from Tajikistan is a Tajikistani, while the ethnic Tajik majority simply call themselves Tajik.

Contemporary Tajiks are an Iranian people. In particular, they are descended from ancient Eastern Iranian peoples of Central Asia, such as the Soghdians and the Bactrians, with an admixture of Western Iranian Persians as well as non-Iranian peoples.[1]

Until the 20th century, people in the region used two types of distinction to identify themselves: way of life - either nomadic or sedentary - and place of residence. By the late nineteenth century, the Tajik and Uzbek peoples, who had lived in proximity for centuries and often used each other's languages, did not perceive themselves as two distinct nationalities. The modern labels were imposed artificially when Central Asia was divided into five Soviet republics in the 1920s.[1] With the formation of five Central Asian republics under the USSR, many Tajiks were forced to sign themselves as Uzbek to avoid persecution in current Uzbekistan[citation needed].

Historically, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were also home to Bukharan Jews, who trace their ancestry to the Lost Tribes of Israel taken captive by the Babylonians in the 7th century BC, but almost no Bukharian Jews are left in Tajikistan.

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[2][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 74 000 20 000 54 000 44.7 12.2 32.5 6.00 160.0
1955-1960 89 000 26 000 63 000 46.1 13.4 32.7 6.20 151.1
1960-1965 111 000 30 000 81 000 48.5 13.1 35.3 6.30 142.3
1965-1970 110 000 30 000 80 000 40.5 11.1 29.4 6.72 133.4
1970-1975 127 000 30 000 97 000 39.7 9.4 30.3 6.83 124.6
1975-1980 138 000 33 000 105 000 37.2 8.9 28.4 5.90 115.7
1980-1985 164 000 34 000 130 000 38.6 8.0 30.6 5.54 106.9
1985-1990 198 000 34 000 164 000 40.2 7.0 33.2 5.41 98.0
1990-1995 206 000 52 000 154 000 37.2 9.4 27.7 4.88 88.2
1995-2000 195 000 49 000 146 000 32.7 8.2 24.5 4.29 79.6
2000-2005 185 000 45 000 140 000 29.4 7.1 22.2 3.81 63.0
2005-2010 187 000 43 000 144 000 28.1 6.4 21.6 3.45 56.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Official statistics[edit]

Births and deaths[3][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births in thousands Deaths in thousands Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1991 5505,6 215,3 33,6 181,7 39.1 6.1 33.0
1998 6001,3 185,7 29,3 156,5 31.3 5.0 26.3
1999 6126,7 180,9 25,4 155,5 29.8 4.2 25.6
2000 6250,0 167,2 29,4 137,9 27.0 4.7 22.3
2001 6375,5 171,6 32,0 139,6 27.2 5.1 22.1
2002 6506,5 175,6 31,1 144,5 27.3 4.9 22.4
2003 6640,0 177,9 33,2 144,8 27.1 5.1 22.0
2004 6780,4 179,6 29,7 149,8 26.8 4.5 22.3
2005 6920,3 180,8 31,5 149,3 26.4 4.6 21.8
2006 7063,8 186,5 32,0 154,5 26.7 4.6 22.1
2007 7215,7 200,0 33,7 166,3 28.0 4.7 23.3
2008 7373,8 203,3 32,0 171,3 27.9 4.4 23.5
2009 7529,6 199,8 32,3 167,5 26.8 4.3 22.5
2010 7616,4 239,8 33,3 206,5 31.4 4.4 27.0
2011 7807,4 224,1 33,8 190,3 28.7 4.3 24.4
2012 7987,4 219,3 34,0 185,3 27.8 4.3 23.5
2013 209,0
under working age employable olders
2012 35,2% 60% 4,8%

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[4]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2012 33,9 3,8 28,9 3,3 35,6 3,9

Ethnic groups[edit]

Demographic map of Tajikistan
Young Tajik women.
A religious scholar from Tajikistan (2005).

Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 16.5%, Russian 1.1% (declining because of emigration), Kyrgyz 1.1%, other (including Pashtuns, Bukharian Jews and Volga Germans) 2.6% (2000 population census).

Ethnic makeup according to the population censuses from 1926 to 2000 (in thousands)[5]
Note: The category Tajiks also includes approximately 135,000 ethnic Pamiris, of which 65% are Shughni speakers, 13% are Rushani speakers, 12% speak Wakhi, 5% are Bartangi speakers, 3% are Yazgulyami speakers, 1.5% speak Khufi, and 0.8% are Ishkashimi speakers. In addition there are 5,000 speakers of Yagnobi. According to the 2000 census, excluding the people whose native languages are Pamiri or Yagnobi, Tajiks account for 77.6% of the population.

Population of Tajikistan according to ethnic group 1926–2000
Ethnic
group
census 19261 census 19392 census 19593 census 19704 census 19795 census 19896 census 2000 census 20108
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Tajiks 617,125 74.6 883,966 59.5 1,051,164 53.1 1,629,920 56.2 2,237,048 58.8 3,172,420 62.3 4,898,400 79.9 6,373,834 84.3
Yagnobi 1,829 0.2
Uzbeks 175,627 21.2 353,478 23.8 454,433 23.0 665,662 23.0 873,199 22.9 1,197,841 23.5 1,012,5007 16.5 1,046,6479 13.8
Kyrgyz 11,410 1.4 27,968 1.9 25,635 1.3 35,485 1.2 48,376 1.3 63,832 1.3 65,500 1.1 60,715 0.8
Russians 5,638 0.7 134,916 9.1 262,610 13.3 344,109 11.9 395,089 10.4 388,481 7.6 68,200 1.1 34,838 0.5
Turkmen 4,148 0.5 4,040 0.3 7,115 0.4 11,043 0.4 13,991 0.4 20,487 0.4 20,300 0.3 15,171 0.2
Tatars 950 0.1 18,296 1.2 56,893 2.9 70,803 2.4 79,529 2.1 79,442 1.6 19,000 0.3 6,495 0.1
Arabs 3,260 0.4 2,290 0.2 1,297 0.1 248 0.0 176 0.0 276 0.0 14,500 0.2 4,184 0.1
Others 7,180 0.9 60,137 4.0 120,750 6.1 142,332 4.9 158,812 4.2 169,824 3.3 29,100 0.5 22,618 0.3
Total 827,167 1,485,091 1,979,897 2,899,602 3,806,220 5,092,603 6,127,500 7,564,502
1 Source: [1]. 2 Source: [2]. 3 Source: [3]. 4 Source: [4]. 5 Source: [5]. 6 Source: [6] 7 including 51,000 Lakai, 15,100 Kongrat, 4,900 Katagan, 3,700 Barlos and 1,100 Yuz. 8 Source: [7], p. 7. 9 including 65,555 Lakai, 38,078 Kongrat, 7,601 Katagan, 5,271 Barlos and 3,798 Yuz .

Languages[edit]

Several dialects of Tajik (a variety of the Persian) are spoken, and it is the official language.[6] Russian is widely used in both government and business. The different ethnic minorities speak different languages, for instance Uzbek, Kyrgyz and Pashto.[7] In the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, Shughni as well as other Pamir languages are spoken. In the northern Yaghnob valley, the Yaghnobi language is still spoken.

Religions[edit]

According to a 2009 U.S. State Department release, the population of Tajikistan is 90% Muslim, (approximately 85% Sunni and 5% Shia).[8] The remaining 10% of the population are followers of Russian Orthodoxy, or followers of other Christian churches (Roman Catholics, Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists). There also was a small Armenian minority, and a number of Zoroastrians. There are a small number of adherents to Bahá'í Faith and Judaism.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

For the latest statistics, see this country's entry in the CIA World Factbook

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook as of September 2009, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

7,349,145 (2009 est.)

Age structure[edit]

0–14 years: 34.3% (male 1,282,681/female 1,238,607)
15–64 years: 62.1% (male 2,260,552/female 2,303,034)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 112,334/female 151,937) (2009 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

1.88% (2009 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

-1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 65.33 years
male: 62.29 years
female: 68.52 years (2009 est.)

Education[edit]

Education is required through high school (12 years of schooling) but completion rate is under 90%;

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]