Legend has it that the city is called "Tajura" because a long time ago, a beautiful queen used to rule Tajura and her name was Ura, and she had a jeweled crown, which was called a taj in Arabic. One day, this queen lost her taj, and she ordered her people to look for it. Her people started to look for her taj by saying where is taj Ura, and they never found it, but the city was named after the searchers' cry: "Tajura". A less whimsical suggestion of origin is that the city was called taj because it was like a crown on the bluff above the sea.
Tajura was the center of Libya's nuclear research, with a 10 megawatt reactor, built by the Soviet Union, which came online in 1981.