Talang Tuwo inscription
Talang Tuwo inscription is a 7th-century Srivijaya inscription discovered by Louis Constant Westenenk on 17 November 1920, on the foot of Bukit Seguntang near Palembang. This inscription tells about the establishment of the bountiful Śrīksetra park awarded by Sri Jayanasa the king of Srivijaya, for the well being of all creatures.
The inscription was discovered in good condition with clear inscribed scripts. Its size is 50 cm × 80 cm stone block and dated from 606 Saka (corresponds to 23 March 684), written Pallava script in Old Malay, consists of 14 lines. Van Ronkel and Bosch are the first scholars that translated th inscription, their works was published in Acta Orientalia.Since 1920 the inscription is stored in National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta, under inventory number D.145.
The writings on Talang Tuwo inscriptions:
- cri cakavarsatita 606 dim dvitiya cuklapaksa vulan caitra
- sana tatkalana parlak Criksetra ini
- niparvuat parvan dapunta hyang Cri Yayanaca (-ga) ini pranidhanan dapunta hyang savanakna yang nitanam di sini
- niyur pinang hanau rumviya dngan samicrana yang kayu nimakan vuahna
- tathapi haur vuluh pattung ityevamadi
- punarapi yang varlak verkan dngan savad tlaga savanakna yang vualtku sucarita paravis prayojanakan punyana sarvvasatva sacaracara
- varopayana tmu sukha di asannakala di antara margga lai
- tmu muah ya ahara dngan air niminumna
- savanakna vuatna huma parlak mancak muah ya manghidupi pacu prakara
- marhulun tuvi vrddhi muah ya jangam ya niknai savanakna yang upasargga
- pidana svapnavighna
- varang vuatana kathamapi
- anukula yang graha naksatra pravis diya
- Nirvyadhi ajara kavuatanana
- tathapi savanakna yam khrtyana satyarjjava drdhabhakti muah ya dya
- yang mitrana tuvi janan ya kapata yang vivina mulang anukala bharyya muah ya
- varamsthanana lagi curi ucca vadhana paradara di sana punarapi tmu ya kalyanamitra
- marvvangun vodhicitta dngan maitridhari di dang hyang ratnaraya jangan marsarak dngan dang hyang ratnaraya.
- tathapi nityakala tyaga marcila ksanti marvvangun viryya rajin tahu di samicrana cilpakala paravis
- tmu ya prajna smrti medhavi
- punarapi dhairyyamani mahasattva vajracarira
- jaya tathapi jatismara
- mancak rupa
- subjaga hasin halap
- ade yavakya vrahmasvara
- jadi laki
- puna (ra) pi tmu ya cintamaninidhana tmu janmavacita. karmmavacita clecavacita
- avasana tmu ya anuttarabhisamyaksam vodhi
The translation according to George Cœdès.
|“||On 23 March 684, on that day the park named Śrīksetra was created under the order of Sri Baginda Śrī Jayanāśa. his majesty intention is: May all (plants) planted here, coconut tree, Areca catechu, Arenga pinnata, sagoo, and all kinds of trees, the fruits are edible, as well as haur bamboo, waluh, and pattum, et cetera; and may all other plants with the dams and ponds, and all of good deed that I've gave (contributed) can be enjoyed for the benefit of all creatures; the one that can moved around and ones that can not, and may this would be the best path to achieve happiness. If they were hungry, or need a rest during their journey, may they find foods and drinks. May all the orchard that they have opened be abundance (the harvest). May all kinds of animals that they have kept were fertile, and also their slaves. May the misfortunes would not befell upon them, not being tortured because can not sleep. What ever they done, may all the planets and stars favour their fortunes, and may they be spared from sickness and old age during their efforts. And may all their subjects are loyal and devoted, also may all their friend would not betrayed them, and may their wive are faithful. Moreover, may wherever they were, there will be no thieves, or people that using violence, killers and adulterers. Next to all those (good wishes), may they have a (faithful) friends; may from themselves born the thought of Boddhi and friendship (...) from three Ratnas. And may they always (acted) generous, following the rules, and be patience; may from themselves grew strength, diligence, knowledge of all kinds of arts; may their attention be focused, have knowledge, good memory and intelligence. May they have tenacious thought, with diamond body just like the Mahāsattvas with incomparable power, glorious, and remembering their previous lives, with complete senses, fully (beautiful) formed, happy, smiling, calm, have pleasant voice, the voice of Brahmā. May they be (born as) man, with very existence were (a blessing) because of themselves; may they become the vessel of cintamani sacred stone, have power of (cycle of) births, power upon karma, power upon stains, and may they finally achieved the perfect and grand (spiritual) enlightenment.||”|
Old Malay vocabularies
The inscriptions is among the earliest evidence of written archaic Old Malay language. Many words are still recognizable and intelligible with modern Malay language and Indonesian language. The most significant differences are found in verbal affixes. While modern Malay language and Indonesian language use the prefix di- to mark passive, in Old Malay we find ni-. The same holds for the active prefix men- corresponding to Old Malay mar- or ma-. The modern possessive and object suffix -nya corresponds to the Old Malay -na. Old Malay words and their modern Malay and Indonesian counterparts are listed below, followed by their English gloss.