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The designation of Abinadab of Kirjath-jearim as a Levite is problematic. The Hebrew bible does not identify him as a Levite, and the territory of Kirjath-jearim was a settlment of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 2:50-53). Also, the writer of Chronicles explicitly states that the outbreak against Uzzah happened because the Levites were not involved in transporting the ark (1 Chr. 15:11-13), which if true would rule out Abinadab and his sons as Levites. Most Jewish and Christian commentators have deferred, however, to Josephus, who identifies this Abinadab as a Levite (Ant. 6:1:4). This appears to be an assumption based on the idea that Abinadab would not be entrusted with the ark (1 Sam. 7:1-2) unless he was Levite.
Abinadab may be Amminadab. Letters have been lost in Hebrew. There appears to have been an old sound "MB". Hence, "Nimrod" (Masoretic) vs. "Nebrod" (LXX) and "Omri" (M) vs. "Ambri" (LXX). Thus, Ambinadab (original) may have become Amminabad and Abinadab in various places.
what about the time that Samuel himself ruled?
the article states:
It has been argued that the ark stayed at Abinadab's home for much longer than 20 years. After the ark was placed in Abinadab's home, the Bible counts 20 years before Israel cried to God and Samuel, asking for a king. Saul was then installed as king. He ruled for 40 years, and several more years passed before David took the ark from Abinadab's house to bring it to Jerusalem