Talk:Aisin Gioro

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In my browser, many mongolian characters display as blanks. It seems that the corresponding HTML entities are not Unicode but some other national code (Windows?). E.g. in "ài xīn jǘe lúo" the "ī" (ī) comes out as blank. Jorge Stolfi 17:01, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC)

It's because your browser doesn't recognize these characters or simply you don't have a font that covers them. They are Unicode characters and they are Chinese Pinyin, not Mongolian characters! --Nanshu 01:35, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Oops, that seems to be it. I am using an old version of Mozilla that apparently has trouble with the Pinyin segment, even though it handles Han.) Thanks. Jorge Stolfi 12:31, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC)

The Veritable Records[edit]

What were The Veritable Records referred to? -- Kaihsu 20:19, 2004 Sep 5 (UTC)

manju-i yargiyan kooli/滿洲實錄. Maybe "Manchu Veritable Records" is better. --Nanshu 03:58, 30 Sep 2004 (UTC)

Aisin Jiaoluo?[edit]

Hardouin, I've never cared about Chinese transcription of purely Manchu terms, but you add it. So I let you know an interesting note I found.

Quote from A dictionary of Manchu names : a name-index to the Manchu version of the "Complete genealogies of the Manchu clans and families of the Eight Banners", p.IX:

we may add, as a curiosity, that the Chinese transcription jue of the character 覺 is wrong: in Manchu the syllable jue is transcribed as giowei~jiyowei and, more rarely, as goi. Only the pronunciation "jiao" is transcribed as gio; therefore, the correct transcription is "Aixin Jiaoluo" and not "Aixin Jueluo."

How do you see this? --Nanshu 07:02, 1 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Well, as a matter of fact, the Chinese character 覺 can be pronounced either jue or jiao, but jue is by far the most common pronunciation, and the pronunciation jiao is found only in the word "to sleep" (睡觉) and all the derivatives of that verb. When we write the Manchu name, we should clearly spell it as close as possible from Manchu pronunciation. But when we write the Chinese version of the name, we should reflect how Chinese people would pronounce it. What I know, is that 99.9% of 1.3 billion Chinese people, when they will read the clan name 愛新覺羅, they will pronounce it Aixin Jueluo in putonghua, because that's just the first pronunciation that will come to their mind, irrelevant whether it is close or not from the way the Manchu actually pronounced it, as much as when we pronounce the word Chicago, we pronounce it Chicago, irrelevant how the native indian tribes actually pronounced it (they would have pronounced something like "Sheekagoo", for the records). Hardouin 12:32, 2 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Thanks. I confined the addition to a note. --Nanshu

Meaning of Aixin Jueluo[edit]

Aixin does mean gold, but not literally. Manchus are descendants of Jin(gold) Clan, so it really means the clan rather than gold.

Jueluo means surname(in Chinese Xingshi) or family(in Chinese Jiazhu). So it means Jin surname or Jin family.

My apologies as I could not cite the book that I came acrossed. I will check it out in the library again.

Marky


The word aisin does mean gold in Manchu. And gioro does not mean surname but is a surname. In fact, Gioro was a major Manchu clan name.

This common misunderstanding has its roots in Chinese descriptions of the clan. For example, the Chinese edition of the Veritable Record of Taizu Wu Huangdi (the oldest known version of the Veritable Record of Qing Taizu) says:

愛新華言金也,覺落姓也

We can hardly judge from these simple notes whether these words are concepts or their instances. --Nanshu 23:17, 29 September 2006 (UTC)

Aisin Gioro...[edit]

The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" means clan in the Manchu language. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, but the meaning of gioro is unknown, probably surname.

Conflict? Ytlow 16:07, 12 December 2006 (UTC)

Clan sounds more likely... "Gold clan" makes sense... "Gold surname" is a bit odd... I expect what has happened is that this Manchu word for clan was subsequently also used for surnames and someone's got confused? Furius 02:31, 17 December 2006 (UTC)

No. No. Again, Gioro is a Manchu clan name of unknown etymology. In other words, Gioro is not a word that means "surname" in Manchu but is an instance of surname. Gioro was a major clan name among Manchus and that's probably why the term aisin (gold) was appended. The imperial family members were distinguished by aisin from the rest of people with the clan name Gioro. --Nanshu 22:27, 2 March 2007 (UTC)

Add a new person[edit]

I think there should be another person in one of the heirs and descendants of the Aisin Gioro family: Ai Xin Jue Luo YuHuan, he's an artist who died on June 23, 2003, He was the great-great grandson of the Daoguang Emperor, that means the nephew of the last Emperor Puyi. Just thought you'd like to know. Eisenhower 21:55, 6 November 2007 (UTC)

bryna aisin gyoro?[edit]

who the heck is her? does she even exist? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 219.184.122.53 (talk) 14:43, 21 July 2008 (UTC)

Members of the imperial family who lost their rank[edit]

G. CARTER STENT

CHINESE EUNUCHS

[G. Carter Stent, "Chinese Eunuchs," in: Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, No. 11, Shanghai, 1877.]

1 Members of the collateral branches of the imperial family, each generation becoming a degree lower in rank, (and it may be added, poorer in pocket) till eventually they become mere members of the family, with no rank whatever, wearing however the "Yellow Girdle," and receiving a trifling allowance from government. These persons are known as "Yellow Girdles," and some of them may be found in the lowest walks in life--beggars and thieves, even.

http://www.well.com/~aquarius/stent-chineseeunuchs.htm

http://books.google.com/books?id=5kADAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA147&dq=Members+of+the+collateral+branches+of+the+imperial+family,+each+generation+becoming+a+degree+lower+in+rank,+(and+it+may+be+added,+poorer+in+pocket)+till+eventually+they+become+mere+members+of+the+family,+with+no+rank+whatever,+wearing+however+the+%22Yellow+Girdle,%22+and+receiving+a+trifling+allowance+from+government.+These+persons+are+known+as+%22Yellow+Girdles,%22+and+some+of+them+may+be+found+in+the+lowest+walks+in+life--beggars+and+thieves,+even.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=RYDPUMKiHK_W0gGrl4GQBA&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Members%20of%20the%20collateral%20branches%20of%20the%20imperial%20family%2C%20each%20generation%20becoming%20a%20degree%20lower%20in%20rank%2C%20(and%20it%20may%20be%20added%2C%20poorer%20in%20pocket)%20till%20eventually%20they%20become%20mere%20members%20of%20the%20family%2C%20with%20no%20rank%20whatever%2C%20wearing%20however%20the%20%22Yellow%20Girdle%2C%22%20and%20receiving%20a%20trifling%20allowance%20from%20government.%20These%20persons%20are%20known%20as%20%22Yellow%20Girdles%2C%22%20and%20some%20of%20them%20may%20be%20found%20in%20the%20lowest%20walks%20in%20life--beggars%20and%20thieves%2C%20even.&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=J35JAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA147&dq=Members+of+the+collateral+branches+of+the+imperial+family,+each+generation+becoming+a+degree+lower+in+rank,+(and+it+may+be+added,+poorer+in+pocket)+till+eventually+they+become+mere+members+of+the+family,+with+no+rank+whatever,+wearing+however+the+%22Yellow+Girdle,%22+and+receiving+a+trifling+allowance+from+government.+These+persons+are+known+as+%22Yellow+Girdles,%22+and+some+of+them+may+be+found+in+the+lowest+walks+in+life--beggars+and+thieves,+even.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=RYDPUMKiHK_W0gGrl4GQBA&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Members%20of%20the%20collateral%20branches%20of%20the%20imperial%20family%2C%20each%20generation%20becoming%20a%20degree%20lower%20in%20rank%2C%20(and%20it%20may%20be%20added%2C%20poorer%20in%20pocket)%20till%20eventually%20they%20become%20mere%20members%20of%20the%20family%2C%20with%20no%20rank%20whatever%2C%20wearing%20however%20the%20%22Yellow%20Girdle%2C%22%20and%20receiving%20a%20trifling%20allowance%20from%20government.%20These%20persons%20are%20known%20as%20%22Yellow%20Girdles%2C%22%20and%20some%20of%20them%20may%20be%20found%20in%20the%20lowest%20walks%20in%20life--beggars%20and%20thieves%2C%20even.&f=false

Page 147

http://books.google.com/books?ei=RYDPUMKiHK_W0gGrl4GQBA&id=2VMxAQAAMAAJ&dq=Members+of+the+collateral+branches+of+the+imperial+family%2C+each+generation+becoming+a+degree+lower+in+rank%2C+%28and+it+may+be+added%2C+poorer+in+pocket%29+till+eventually+they+become+mere+members+of+the+family%2C+with+no+rank+whatever%2C+wearing+however+the+%22Yellow+Girdle%2C%22+and+receiving+a+trifling+allowance+from+government.+These+persons+are+known+as+%22Yellow+Girdles%2C%22+and+some+of+them+may+be+found+in+the+lowest+walks+in+life--beggars+and+thieves%2C+even.&q=Yellow+Girdle+trifling+allowance#search_anchor


Title Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volumes 11-12 Author Royal Asiatic Society Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai Published 1967

Page 147

http://books.google.com/books?ei=t4DPUJzXE8fT0wHZ94HgBg&id=sLY_AAAAYAAJ&dq=Members+of+the+collateral+branches+of+the+imperial+family%2C+each+generation+becoming+a+degree+lower+in+rank%2C+%28and+it+may+be+added%2C+poorer+in+pocket%29+till+eventually+they+become+mere+members+of+the+family%2C+with+no+rank+whatever%2C+wearing+however+the+%22Yellow+Girdle%2C%22&q=mere+Yellow+Girdle#search_anchor

Title Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volumes 11-12 Contributor Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North-China Branch Publisher Kraus Reprint, Limited, 1967 Original from the University of Virginia Digitized Feb 18, 2009

http://books.google.com/books?id=adE9AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA173#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=9DCrwVn_BeIC&pg=PA173#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=b5rSQtoe0LcC&pg=PA173#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=lHJRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA400#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=AjXWAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA400#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=xT84AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA400#v=onepage&q&f=false

Rajmaan (talk) 20:31, 17 December 2012 (UTC)

Christianity in China, Tartary and Thibet: From the establishment of the Mantchoo-Tartar dynasty to the commencement of the eighteenth century By Evariste Régis Huc

The members of the imperial family constitute the sole nobility, the sole aristocracy of the country, if the words aristocracy and nobility are admissible as applied to a body which neither by fortune nor position can exercise any influence on the state. The imperial princes, have some few insignificant privileges, as, for instance, that of wearing the yellow girdle, but those who wish to fill public offices, or acquire wealth, must study like others, and be admitted into the corporation of the lettered; otherwise they must vegetate, far from the throne, in the crowd of mere citizens, and conceal their yellow girdle when they cannot afford to keep up an appearance conformable to their birth. We were ourselves acquainted at Pekin with several of these Mantchoo princes, who had been ruined by Chinese usurers, and who were dragging on their existence as absolute beggars.

http://books.google.com/books?id=1DAMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA329#v=onepage&q&f=false

Title Christianity in China, Tartary and Thibet: From the establishment of the Mantchoo-Tartar dynasty to the commencement of the eighteenth century Volume 3 of Christianity in China, Tartary and Thibet, Evariste Régis Huc Author Evariste Régis Huc Publisher Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts, 1858 Subjects Missions

Rajmaan (talk) 03:38, 4 January 2013 (UTC)

http://books.google.com/books?id=HKgMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA653#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=3AIJAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA202#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=uiYAAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA397#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=TdoMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA239#v=onepage&q&f=false

Rajmaan (talk) 03:33, 7 January 2013 (UTC)

http://books.google.com/books?id=irEIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA236#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=188DAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA236#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=c12yylGsuWkC&pg=PA138#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=6wtbGO5mMLkC&pg=PA36#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=aSgPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA142#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=kOHLGPk7msoC&pg=PA396#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=j8kOEmIxyYYC&pg=PA396#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=uiYAAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA396#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=-LQTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA107#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=blfu2jHHtpwC&pg=PA69#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=L77chgc58X8C&pg=PA187#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=un08AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA212#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=P5lFAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA83#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=h3pCAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA83#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=ZbAPAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA184#v=onepage&q&f=false

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http://books.google.com/books?id=36tDAAAAYAAJ&q=fruit+magpie#search_anchor

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http://books.google.com/books?id=zV0KAQAAIAAJ&q=appointed+Otoli#search_anchor

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http://books.google.com/books?id=xFNLAAAAMAAJ&q=miraculously+headquarters#search_anchor

Rajmaan (talk) 03:39, 7 January 2013 (UTC)

http://books.google.com/books?id=NUTE8V-WhwoC&pg=PA33#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=5iN5J9G76h0C&pg=PA66#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=OBEIq8kTQBcC&pg=PA188#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=Wn4iv_RJv8oC&pg=PA155#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=gAIcwz3V_JsC&pg=PA176#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=qgYdycfeJyAC&pg=PA378#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=ZSNMGosP0cAC&pg=PR7#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=_qtgoTIAiKUC&pg=PA398#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=NESwGW_5uLoC&pg=PA189#v=onepage&q&f=false

Pulun[edit]

Create a separate article on Prince Aisin Gioro Pulun with these sources.

http://books.google.com/books?id=fjoPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA383#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=sFFxAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA280&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=UssNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA280#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=NwJMn3ozD2kC&pg=PA289&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=1kgjAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA10-PA32&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=wCYPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA253&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=DafNAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA159&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mX0MUd6_GOqE0QHyl4CADw&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=wCYPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA253&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UH4MUeeuKsbo0gGh0oCwCQ&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBDge#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=EtcaAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA590&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UH4MUeeuKsbo0gGh0oCwCQ&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBTge#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=YGwAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA792&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UH4MUeeuKsbo0gGh0oCwCQ&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBjge#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=VTIAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA537&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UH4MUeeuKsbo0gGh0oCwCQ&ved=0CFMQ6AEwBzge#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=uFfuYYilWisC&pg=PA111&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UH4MUeeuKsbo0gGh0oCwCQ&ved=0CFgQ6AEwCDge#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=DafNAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA159&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UH4MUeeuKsbo0gGh0oCwCQ&ved=0CF0Q6AEwCTge#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=y_DGO9UeXCcC&pg=PA388&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wH4MUeD8Jo-x0QHv54GYDg&ved=0CC8Q6AEwADgo#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=fMIOAQAAIAAJ&pg=RA2-PA60&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=234MUZn1L8uz0QHRzYDIDA&ved=0CE8Q6AEwBzgy#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=1uRCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA36#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=_4BRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA364&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Dn8MUfDYBIy10AG-8IG4Dg&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAzg8#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=oHA9AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA259&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=S38MUfvGLtGK0QG6loHYCg&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAThQ#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false


http://books.google.com/books?id=YZA8tdO5-GsC&pg=PA56&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=tgq1miGno-4C&pg=PA233&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=xq51ko-eXlEC&pg=PA80&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=sNPFc7kkjwAC&pg=PA236&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CGIQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=_syDsa8rGsYC&pg=PA244&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=Q_ZTZWJa_o4C&pg=PA209&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-XoMUfHqKcfg0gHsj4C4Dg&ved=0CFwQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=RcdnrzTFHVEC&pg=PA109&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mX0MUd6_GOqE0QHyl4CADw&ved=0CC8Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=Cs9yOuCZ-ekC&pg=PA75&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mX0MUd6_GOqE0QHyl4CADw&ved=0CDQQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=4RzSp_wkvKoC&pg=PA75&dq=prince+pulun&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mX0MUd6_GOqE0QHyl4CADw&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=prince%20pulun&f=false

Rajmaan (talk) 20:39, 2 February 2013 (UTC)

Aisin Gioro Y chromosome DNA found in several ethnic minorities, but not found in Han Chinese[edit]

Aisin Gioro Y chomosome DNA was found in "Xibe, Outer Mongolians, Inner Mongolians, Ewenki, Oroqen, Manchu, and Hezhe" males and number around 1 million people. Their ancestor was Nurhaci's grandfather Giocangga, whose descendants made up the Qing dynasty nobility. But the Y chromosome was not found in the general Han Chinese population.

The Y chromosome cluster is specifically C3c, part of the General Haplogroup C-M217, which Genghis Khan's lineage is a part of, although the Manchu Aisin Gioro Y chromosome is part of a different cluster than Genghis Khan's

The reason it spread among these specific minority groups, but not among the Han Chinese population, is because the Qing Manchu nobility was concentrated specifically in the ethnically Manchu Eight Banners and not in the Mongolian and Han Eight Banners, and the specific ethnic groups which made up the Manchu Eight banners were "Manchu, Mongolian, Daur, Oroqen, Ewenki, Xibe".

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1285168/

http://www.cell.com/ajhg/pdf/S0002-9297(07)63394-1.pdf

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707633941

http://www.genebase.com/learning/article/23

Rajmaan (talk) 21:27, 10 April 2014 (UTC)

Titles[edit]

http://books.google.com/books?id=lSsMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA3

http://books.google.com/books?id=oEE2AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA4

Marriage ties[edit]

http://books.google.com/books?id=gAIcwz3V_JsC&pg=PA180#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=QXHbhsfaJAYC&pg=PA148&dq=To+win+the+support+and+cooperation+of+Ming+generals+in+Liaodong,+Nurhaci+gave+them+Aisin+Gioro+women+as+wives.+In+1618,+before+he+attacked+Fushun+city,+he+promised+the+Ming+general+defending+the+city+a+woman+from+the+Aisin+Gioro+clan&hl=en&ei=O-ChToi7Jsn20gHW4ayvCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=To%20win%20the%20support%20and%20cooperation%20of%20Ming%20generals%20in%20Liaodong%2C%20Nurhaci%20gave%20them%20Aisin%20Gioro%20women%20as%20wives.%20In%201618%2C%20before%20he%20attacked%20Fushun%20city%2C%20he%20promised%20the%20Ming%20general%20defending%20the%20city%20a%20woman%20from%20the%20Aisin%20Gioro%20clan&f=false http://books.google.com/books?id=QXHbhsfaJAYC&pg=PA148&dq=To+win+the+support+and+cooperation+of+Ming+generals+in+Liaodong,+Nurhaci+gave+them+Aisin+Gioro+women+as+wives.+In+1618,+before+he+attacked+Fushun+city,+he+promised+the+Ming+general+defending+the+city+a+woman+from+the+Aisin+Gioro+clan&hl=en&ei=O-ChToi7Jsn20gHW4ayvCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwA#v=onepage&q=To%20win%20the%20support%20and%20cooperation%20of%20Ming%20generals%20in%20Liaodong%2C%20Nurhaci%20gave%20them%20Aisin%20Gioro%20women%20as%20wives.%20In%201618%2C%20before%20he%20attacked%20Fushun%20city%2C%20he%20promised%20the%20Ming%20general%20defending%20the%20city%20a%20woman%20from%20the%20Aisin%20Gioro%20clan&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=ORBmFSFcJKoC&pg=PA79&dq=Li+was+made+a+banner+general,+was+given+gifts+of+slaves+and+serfs,+and+was+betrothed+to+a+young+woman+of+the+Aisin+Gioro+clan.+Although+Li's+surrender+at+the+time+was+exceptional,+his+integration+into+the+Manchu+elite+was+only+the+first&hl=en&ei=WuGhTtyJO6Lx0gHC16WfBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Li%20was%20made%20a%20banner%20general%2C%20was%20given%20gifts%20of%20slaves%20and%20serfs%2C%20and%20was%20betrothed%20to%20a%20young%20woman%20of%20the%20Aisin%20Gioro%20clan.%20Although%20Li's%20surrender%20at%20the%20time%20was%20exceptional%2C%20his%20integration%20into%20the%20Manchu%20elite%20was%20only%20the%20first&f=false http://books.google.com/books?id=ORBmFSFcJKoC&pg=PA79&dq=Li+was+made+a+banner+general,+was+given+gifts+of+slaves+and+serfs,+and+was+betrothed+to+a+young+woman+of+the+Aisin+Gioro+clan.+Although+Li#v=onepage&q=Li%20was%20made%20a%20banner%20general%2C%20was%20given%20gifts%20of%20slaves%20and%20serfs%2C%20and%20was%20betrothed%20to%20a%20young%20woman%20of%20the%20Aisin%20Gioro%20clan.%20Although%20Li&f=false

Rajmaan (talk) 14:29, 15 October 2014 (UTC)