Talk:Angolan War of Independence
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The following content needs to be added in at some point Perspicacite 18:09, 10 August 2007 (UTC):
Upon hearing of the coup, Neto, who was in Montreal, Canada at the time, proclaimed, "Our victory." Neto had only 3,000 militants under his command when officers overthrew the Caetano government.
Daniel Chipenda, a member of the MPLA, established the Eastern Front, significantly expanding the MPLA's reach in Angola, in May 1966. When the EF collapsed Chipenda and Neto each blamed the other's factions. In 1972 the Soviet Union allied with Chipenda's faction, giving him aid. The Eastern Revolt also received aid from the governments of Zambia and South Africa. Chipenda left the MPLA in 1973, founding the Eastern Revolt with 1,500 former MPLA followers. He opposed the MPLA's mestizo-leadership and was wary of the Soviet Union, despite its support.
In 1973 the Soviet Union invited Neto to Moscow and told him Chipenda planned to assassinate him. Although Chipenda joined the FNLA in September 1974 the Eastern Revolt's existence continued and RDL forces fought against the MPLA in February 1975.
- Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja and Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein. The Crisis in Zaire, 1986. Pages 193-194.
- Kitchen, Helen A. Africa, from Mystery to Maze, 1976. Page 96.
- Westad, Odd Arne. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times, 2005. Page 217.
- Stewart Lloyd-Jones and António Costa Pinto. The Last Empire: Thirty Years of Portuguese Decolonisation, 2003. Pages 27-29.
- Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Workers' Party Country-data
- Bennett, Andrew. Condemned to Repetition?: The Rise, Fall, and Reprise of Soviet-Russian Military Interventionism, 1999. Page 152.
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Beginning and End
Beginning: the date of 4/2/61, given in official MPLA historiography, cann no longer be maintained. There was the uprising in the Baixa de Cassanje, there was the UPA uprising in the Northwest, and there was this still somewhat mysterious action in Luanda for which the MPLA claims paternity. Thus there were 3 beginnings, each one independent of the others. See John Marcum's vol I. - End: The colonial war (=war against the Portuguese) stopped immediately after the Carnation Revolution, because the Portuguese stoped fighting. After that it was infighting among the movements. See Franz-Wilhelm Heimer, The decolonization conflict in Angola. -- Aflis (talk) 23:03, 3 February 2012 (UTC)
Based on actua data provided by both MPLA and UNITA former members and Portuguese War Department, I'm hereby editing the result of the Angolan War of Independence. The reference is provided and may be provable through visualization of the documentary. PR.PT (talk) 13:04, 11 June 2012 (UTC)
- I propose a change in the result, claiming an unanimous agreement for the military victory of the Portuguese forces in Angola (by the end of 1974, there were only 400 active MPLA/UNITA/UPA guerrilla members, even though the war continued until the Alvor Agreements, so that the Portuguese military could secure the evacuation process of thousands of Portuguese civilians from the colony). Both MPLA and Portuguese former Intelligence members state that the war in Angola was "reduced to policing actions" in the main cities, such as New Lisbon (or Nova Lisboa, present day Huambo) and the region capital, Luanda.
Concluding, even though the Carnation Revolution coup was decisive in order to grant all colonies a decent independence status (or at least an attempt to grant independence, because Portugal did not gathered the conditions to execute a stable process of full autonomy powers, for obvious reasons), there was in fact a military victory by the Portuguese forces, mostly due to the close support from South Africa during the whole Colonial War (which indirectly explains the high difficulties the Portuguese had in the struggle for the control of the Guinean territory, closely supported by neighboring Guinea-Conakry). PR.PT (talk) 23:29, 15 June 2012 (UTC)
I reverted the dates indicated by user: Jmj713 because (a) Giving a precise date for the beginning of the war would mean a choice between two events, the UPA attacks in the North and the riots in Luanda (which the MPLA wrongly claims to have organized). As both events, though in different ways, triggered the war off, the only way out is to just indicate the year - 1961. (b) The war ended after the April 1974 coup d'état in Portugal, when the new Portuguese regime decided to stop all military actions in the (then) colonies. -- Aflis (talk) 21:34, 16 July 2012 (UTC)
- I'm sorry, I think I messed up the dates during my research and put the wrong ones in the infobox. The end would have to be November 11, 1975, as per the Alvor Agreement. The start would have to be February 3, 1961, as Baixa de Cassanje revolt is claimed to be "the first battle of the Angolan War of Independence". Jmj713 (talk) 04:41, 17 July 2012 (UTC)
The War of Independence ended in 1974, because the Portuguese stopped all military action and announced the would grant independence. The conflict in 1974/75 was not about conquering independence, but about which of the anti-colonial movements would conquer supremacy in independent Angola. We have thus to, carefully, distinguish the war of independence from the decolonization conflict! -- Aflis (talk) 13:21, 16 November 2012 (UTC)