Talk:Anthocyanin

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Antioxidants[edit]

While anthocyanins are antioxidants the importance of dietary antioxidants is contentious. For the statement anthocyanins are "why fruits and vegetables with red skins and tissues are a nutritious food source." either properly cite or remove.

Miscellaneous[edit]

I am confused as to why the heading of the article reads:

"Not to be confused with anthocyanidins, the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins," and then a few lines underneath, the text reads: "Anthocyanins are derivatives of anthocyanidins, which include pendant sugars." Which is correct? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 209.212.5.226 (talk) 18:54, 14 April 2013 (UTC)

The way its worded is is bit confusing, but both do, in fact, say the same thing. Anthocyanidins do not have an attached sugar moiety. Anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding a sugar molecule. (Skoot13 (talk) 01:11, 15 April 2013 (UTC))


--91.198.180.76 (talk) 16:38, 21 August 2012 (UTC)I propose adding: However, products in a jar or can sold as "Natural Black Olives" are not naturally ripened and therefore do not contain anthocyanins. The are, in fact, unripe green olives which have been treated in a brine and lye solution to turn them black.--91.198.180.76 (talk) 16:38, 21 August 2012 (UTC)

What color is Anthocyanin in plants? Save page


In which December was the study performed?

All the pigments listed (e.g. malvidine, delphinidine, etc) are spelled, if I'm not mistaken, accoding to the French not the English norms -- they should be malvadin, delphinidin, etc. Comparative Google searches bear this out. Someone who knows for certain regarding spelling should make the change.

I found complete information in german wiki: Anthocyane--Quer 00:37, 25 October 2005 (UTC)

I noticed that the leaves inside of copper beeches are less purple that the leaves outside. The article mentions that anthocyanin acumulation depends on light (all other things being equal). I suppose this explains that? Should this be so, maybe worthwhile to explain this and the mechanism by which light exposure enhances anthocyanin production? --Harol2 08:18, 6 August 2006 (UTC)

Biosynthesis section should move[edit]

I think the biosynthesis section should be moved to flavonoids. --Kupirijo 02:38, 31 January 2007 (UTC)

Create anthocyanidin article[edit]

What do people think about making an anthocyanidin article out of this article? --Kupirijo 02:40, 31 January 2007 (UTC)

There's something wrong with this table[edit]

I've learned at school that the darker coloured a fruit is, the more anhocyanins it contains. Why red currants and raspberries are higher than blackcurrants then??? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 83.16.132.162 (talk) 14:45, 30 May 2008 (UTC)

WikiProject Food and drink Tagging[edit]

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Anthocyans: obsolete term and/or alternative spelling or misspelling?[edit]

Because I stumbled on the entry anthocyans, which is being redirected to this entry since then, I did some research on the two terms/spelling variants. I include the results here purely for future reference. I found 67 English books that contain the word "anthocyans" on amazon.de with the „Search Inside“ function, compared to 1512 English books containing „anthocyanins“. I then excluded all books with author names that did not make the impression of the author being a native English speaker. Next, I excluded all books looking non-scientific, possibly dubious or with a topic suggesting that the author was no expert for plant ingredients (for instance books on wine tasting, cosmetics, or cancer therapy). I ended up with only eight books, which I have grouped as follows:

1) From the 1920s, „anthocyans“ is used as umbrella term for anthocyanins and anthocyanidins:
-The Chemical Age - Chemical Dictionary - Chemical Terms, Hesperides (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/1406757586/ref=sib_rdr_dp)
-Chemistry in the Twentieth Century by E. F. Armstrong (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/1406758167/ref=sib_rdr_dp )
2) Books edited by native speaker(s), but article was written by non-native speaker(s):
-Advances in Food and Nutrition Research: 49 (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/0120164493/ref=sib_rdr_dp Contains more instances of „anthocyanins“ than of „anthocyans“, used apparently synonymous.)
-Food Flavors and Chemistry: Advances of the New Millennium by A. M. Spanier, F. Shahidi , T. H. Parliament (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/0854048758/ref=sib_rdr_dp Contains more instances of „anthocyanins“ than of „anthocyans“, used apparently synonymous.)
-Methods of Analysis for Functional Foods And Nutraceuticals (Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals) by W. Jeffrey Hurst (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/084937314X/ref=sib_rdr_dp Contains more instances of „anthocyanins“ than of „anthocyans“, used apparently synonymous.)
3) Funny entry in encyclopedia:
-Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry by Mary Eagleson (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/3110114518/ref=sib_rdr_dp )
„Anthocyanidins: see Anthocyans
Anthocyanins: a group of [...]“
(No entry for Anthocyans.)
4) Genuine modern finds:
-The Applied Genetics of Humans, Animals, Plants and Fungi by Bernard C. Lamb (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/1860946100/ref=sib_vae_dp „In petunia, Petunia hybrida, the red and purple flower pigments are due to anthocyans, with the enzyme chalcone synthase being limiting in pigment product.“)
-Handbook of Food-Drug Interactions (Nutrition Assessment) by Beverly J. McCabe-Sellers, Eric H. Frankel, Jonathan J. Wolfe,( http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/084931531X/ref=sib_rdr_dp Mentioned in a table as an active substance of hibiscus, quote from a phytotherapy guide.)

So, in total, I have found two modern instances of the word „anthocyans“ used by native experts in a published book. It’s the same with web finds. Hardly any google hits on .edu or .uk pages, and many of those hits were written by non-native speakers or are quotes of literature from the 1920s. I therefore assume that the use of „anthocyans“ as an umbrella term for anthocyanins and anthocyanidins is obsolete, maybe to avoid confusion, or because there is no need for such a term. (AFAIK, plants contain only the water-soluble glucoside form, anthocyanins.) Other uses of the word seem to be non-valid spellings by non-native speakers (the French and German terms for „anthocyanin” are “anthocyane” and “Anthocyan”, respectively) or by non-experts.--Biologos (talk) 09:23, 29 July 2008 (UTC)

Image needs replacement[edit]

Hello all...

An image used in the article, specifically Image:Juvenile anthocyanin.jpg, has a little bit of a licensing issue. The image was uploaded back when the rules around image uploading were less restrictive. It is presumed that the uploader was willing to license the picture under the GFDL license but was not clear in that regard. As such, the image, while not at risk of deletion, is likely not clearly licensed to allow for free use in any future use of this article. If anyone has an image that can replace this, or can go take one and upload it, it would be best.

You have your mission, take your camera and start clicking.--Jordan 1972 (talk) 01:12, 5 October 2008 (UTC)

Purple Carrots[edit]

Someone should add info on the old purple carrot varieties. They were eliminated from our diet around 17th century when Dutch breeders created orange ones. The varieties which appear to be richest in anthos are Purple Haze and Purple Dragon.. but I'm not totally sure there isn't a better variety. There is also a commercial Texas hybrid called BetaSweet. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 203.202.140.72 (talk) 15:05, 24 October 2008 (UTC)

Cyanide[edit]

Do they contain cyanide? Badagnani (talk) 23:27, 31 December 2008 (UTC)

No, they do not contain cyanide, despite the similar-sounding names. -- Ed (Edgar181) 15:47, 6 January 2009 (UTC)

Function section could be improved[edit]

[1] tells that "anthocyanin-related pigments serve as a UV screen and are produced in response to exposure of the plant to UV radiation, protecting the plant's DNA from damage by sunlight." This is not mentioned in the article where "In photosynthetic tissues (such as leaves and sometimes stems), anthocyanins have been shown to act as a "sunscreen", protecting cells from high-light damage by absorbing blue-green and UV light, thereby protecting the tissues from photoinhibition, or high-light stress." which doesn't mention the DNA damage that seems to be unrelated to the photoinhibition damage. The DNA damage contention is difficult to corroborate outside books which aren't open-access eg Fractions of anthocyanins in petals of Centaurea cyanus L. "in their secondly major role, anthocyanin-related pigments serve as a UV screen, protecting the plant's DNA from damage by sunlight ..." [2]

Someone involved in research could improve this methinks. DadaNeem 18:48, 6 October 2009


Errors, Mistakes[edit]

Animals blind to the red wavelength wouldn't miss the leaves because of that single fact, the leaves would merely be a different color, not invisibile, d'oh! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 74.15.66.133 (talk) 02:56, 15 January 2010 (UTC)



I found an important error in this fragment:

"On a molecular level, berry anthocyanins were shown to turn off genes involved with proliferation, apoptosis[dubious – discuss], inflammation and angiogenesis.[25][26][27]"

The apoptosis is switched on not off. The sentence is an unfortunate construct that put together things that are switched off (genes involved with cell proliferation, inflamation and angiogenesis) and that are switched on (apoptosis).

In fact this fragment contradicts previous paragraph. A brief search on Pubmed for "anthocyanins apoptosis REVIEW" will support my view. I changed this fragment to: "On a molecular level, berry anthocyanins were shown to turn off genes involved with proliferation, inflammation and angiogenesis [25][26][27] while switching on the apoptosis [28][29]" —Preceding unsigned comment added by Crazypancake (talkcontribs) 07:18, 26 January 2010 (UTC)

I got in trouble once...[edit]

for posting the Environmental Working Group's findings on the fruits and vegetables most contaminated with pesticides, etc., for the relevant types of produce. But for some reason, (apparently) one contributor gets to blast, shotgun-style, one study on antioxidant effects on every type of produce imaginable. There are hundreds of studies that have determined the likely benefit of antioxidant consumption when it obtains from whole foods. And yet, we apparently need a disclaimer, from one or two studies, on every type of plant-related flavanoid, polyphenol, etc. I just don't get it. That's not NPOV, in my opinion. If we wanted to, we could follow the WHfoods.com approach of citing every single study that has determined likely health benefits from these foods. I'm not recommending that, but I'm saying the current approach is completely unbalanced. Skepticism is great, but if numerous cumulative studies have found a benefit, and a few a tangential (if not direct) benefit, whom is the evidence to favor? 173.21.106.137 (talk) 13:20, 27 July 2010 (UTC)

Potential references[edit]

--Ronz (talk) 19:29, 23 May 2012 (UTC)

Table of anthocyanin content misleading for red wine versus grape juice and blueberries.[edit]

The table gives the impression that red grapes contain much more anthocyanins than red wine made from them. This is not true. The very high value of 888 mg/100g is for the grape juice of one particular variety of USA non-Vitis vinifera grape called Foch. Two others were also measured in the same paper giving values of 258mg/100g(Norton) and 326mg/100g(Concord). They did not analyze wines made from any of these grapes. Another paper not quoted in the article shows that a selection of red Vitis vinifera wines and also wines made from blueberry juice have a very similar range for the amount of anthocyanins. A useful and comprehensive table of total antioxidant capacity in food and drink, rates red wines about half as powerful as blueberries and blackcurrants with chokeberries twice as high again. Of course antioxidant ability is not the same as anthocyanin content. Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page without content in them (see the help page). The Antioxidant Food Table, Carlsen et al. 2010. Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page without content in them (see the help page). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 52:22 2004 Nov 3 pg 6779-86. Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page without content in them (see the help page). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 48894896 4889.Ggaylmer (talk) 00:27, 19 January 2013 (UTC)

Ggaylmer (talk) 00:27, 19 January 2013 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Ggaylmer (talkcontribs) 00:06, 19 January 2013 (UTC)

I agree and have hidden grapes and wine in the table until accurate numbers can be found.(Skoot13 (talk) 03:24, 19 January 2013 (UTC))

Horses becoming sick after eating fallen Red Maple leaves in the fall[edit]

Not sure if Anthocyanin is involved, or the metabolites or breakdown chemicals from anthocyanin, but there are many reports of equine species getting sick, and dying, after eating the fallen leaves from Red Maple trees in the fall. Here are three of them:

The horses apparently do not get sick if they eat the leaves of the red maple a bit earlier, so chemical changes in the anthocyanin levels are of interest here. N2e (talk) 00:04, 5 November 2013 (UTC)

Nomenclature - is a mess[edit]

According to the IUPAC Gold Book: "anthocyanins [are] Plant pigments of the flavonoid class; they are glycosides that on hydrolysis yield coloured aglycons called anthocyanidins " However, I can cite a multitude of sources which consider anthocyanidins to be "anthocyanin pigments". Specific examples from REPUTABLE sources include:"The primary players in this group include the anthocyanins (eg, cyanidin, pelargonidin, petunidin)..." from the NIH (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1082894/). Please note that all three examples are anthrocyanidins! So, either we should consolidate the two articles anthocyanins and anthocyanidins OR we need to somehow make clear that anthocyanidins are included as anthocyanin pigments. IN EITHER CASE, they ARE to be confused, despite the text above the lede. Or, rather, they are conflated in general use. Worse, not a single example of a anthocyanin structure is provided in the article. (I understand the difficulty (vaguely) in ISOLATING a polysaccharide in order to determine its structure). So we have an obvious conflict between usage in general and chemical specificity. It is, IMHO, completely MEANINGLESS to make the claim, as is done in the article, that one is a "counterpart" of another. It should be obvious that the term "counterpart" must be in the context of some sort of differentiation. That it, it is a relative term, and the context needs to be clear - which it is NOT here. (Its used twice, differently). Why keep two articles? Why are the glucosides separate from the aglycons? I recommend merging them. If not, then we must distinguish them (structure of a specific glucoside and its aglycon would be great - anybody know of any well characterized anthocyanin?) and make clear that they are both considered "anthocyanin pigments".Abitslow (talk) 16:29, 23 November 2013 (UTC)