Talk:Antibiotic resistance

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Over prescription of Antibiotics[edit]

It could be beneficial to discuss the over prescribing of antibiotics to patients and how it has led to an increase in antibiotic resistant infections.

Suggested Updates[edit]

The article mentions the importance of the bacterial protein LexA in the accumulation of mutations that may confer antibiotic resistance, but it does not describe the mechanism by which this occurs. I would like to expand on this by pointing out that the common quinolone, ciprofloxacin, induces DNA damage by interfering with the two essential type II DNA topoisomerases in bacteria, gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The DNA damage caused by this interference induces the SOS gene repressor LexA to undergo autoproteolytic activity. This includes the transcription of genes encoding Pol II, Pol IV, and Pol V, which are three nonessential DNA polymerases that are required for mutation in response to DNA damage. [1]

The article does not explain the evolutionary origins of any antibiotic resistance genes. I would like to add information on the evolutionary origin of genes that incur resistance to aminocyclitol antibiotics. This type of antibiotic resistance is found widely among bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Enterobacteriacae, Pseudomonadiaceae, Bacillus circulans, and actinomycetes. Research suggests that an aminocyclitol-producing bacterium was the source of genes for aminocyclitol phosphotransferases, which allow for resistance to the antibiotic aminocyclitol. The close structural relationship among the five phosphotransferase genes found in several different bacterial species suggests that the genes are homologous but have undergone extensive divergence since their common ancestor. [2]

The article explains the advantages of adaptive antibiotic resistance in bacteria but does not mention the disadvantages it incurs. Research suggests that chromosomal mutations for resistance to antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents actually confers a cost to the fitness of the microorganisms that utilize them, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The cost of fitness is evident in the growth rate and mutation rate of antibiotic resistant bacterial colonies when compared to the drug-sensitive revertants. [3]

Pona.1 (talk) 02:29, 1 October 2014 (UTC)Pona.1

  1. ^ Cirz RT, Chin JK, Andes DR, de Crécy-Lagard V, Craig WA, et al. (2005) Inhibition of Mutation and Combating the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance. PLoS Biol 3(6): e176. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030176
  2. ^ GS Gray, WM Fitch. Evolution of antibiotic resistance genes: the DNA sequence of a kanamycin resistance gene from Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Biol Evol (1983) 1 (1): 57-66
  3. ^ BR Levin, V Perrot, Nina Walker. Compensatory Mutations, Antibiotic Resistance and the Population Genetics of Adaptive Evolution in Bacteria. Genetics March 1, 2000 vol. 154 no. 3 985-997.

India[edit]

This piece of news seems important to me. I didn't see the topic discussed in our article: Gardiner Harris for the New York Times. 3 December 2014. ‘Superbugs’ Kill India’s Babies and Pose an Overseas Threat Jytdog (talk) 03:14, 8 December 2014 (UTC)

Updates needed? Yes, near end of 2014[edit]

This is a big issue and will probably continue to be in the future for some time, so the page needs to be better, some consolidation, rewriting and updating. I've taken an interest in this and want to make some changes that I'll propose here before making. A better title might be "Antimicrobial resistance." By one definition, by the WHO, "antimicrobial" is a broader term covering all microbial organisms (viruses, fungi, parasites as well as bacteria), while antibiotics are "common bacteria that cause infections." (see WHO fact sheet 194) The CDC waffles, using both.

I've written a new introductory paragraph as follows:

Antimicrobial resistance occurs when pathogenic microbes continue to grow after exposure to one or more antimicrobial agents due to genetic modifications that impart resistance. Microbes that exhibit resistance can include viruses, fungi and parasites, but antimicrobial resistance (also called antibiotic or drug resistance) is mostly a problem in the treatment of infections caused by bacterial pathogens. In a recent report, the World Health Organization states that antibiotic resistance is "a growing public health threat of broad concern... [that] threatens the achievements of modern medicine."[1] Bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics are considered multidrug resistant (MDR) or, more colloquially, superbugs.[2] In September 2014, US president Obama issued an executive order forming a task force to tackle the threat and calling the issue one of national security.[3]

COMMENTS?

The existing intro paragraph doesn't much stress the importance of the issue I don't think.

Other issues:

- veterinary medicine is probably not the best subheading for this section. To me that would indicate that drug resistance is a problem in the treatment of animals with infections, which is not the issue here or course. It should be something like: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in animal husbandry IMHO

- maybe create a new subheading under Prevention, called Action. Include more about the executive order, the CDC threat report of 2013, this (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/PCAST/pcast_carb_report_sept2014.pdf) and then keep this updated (action plan to be submitted by 15 February 2015).

I'm making my way through, wordsmithing and looking for other possible changes/additions — Preceding unsigned comment added by Jtamad (talkcontribs) 04:13, 8 December 2014‎ UTC}

  1. ^ WHO. "Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014". World Heath Organization. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers". Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  3. ^ "Executive Order -- Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria". The White House. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
please focus on improving the body of the article. per WP:LEAD, the lead paragraph should summarize what is in the body of the article. when you do that well, you don't need any sources in the lead, as everything in the lead is already in the body, and of course well sourced there per WP:VERIFY. Jytdog (talk) 05:17, 8 December 2014 (UTC)