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Mussolini was effective LEADER of the PSI
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I was slightly shocked to discover that Mussolini's Leadership of the PSI (1912-1914) is not included in this biography. He was not just a member of the PSI, he was the leading member of the Party Directorate after being elected at the Congress of Reggio Emilia in 1912.
"Mussolini's efforts, as Party Leader and editor of Avanti!, brought considerable success for Italian Socialism." page 136. Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism By Anthony James Gregor, University of California Press, 1 Jan 1979
At the age of 29 Musssolini was an out and out Marxist and Revolutionary Socialist.
"In 1912, aged twenty-nine, and still young-looking, thin, stern, with large, dark, luminous eyes, he took over the Italian Socialist Party at the Congress of Reggio Emilia, by insisting that socialism must be Marxist, thoroughgoing, internationalist, uncompromising. Lenin, reporting the congress for Pravda (15 July 1912), rejoiced: 'The party of the Italian socialist proletariat has taken the right path.'" Paul Johnson. 1983. Modern Times. Harper Collins. p.57 http://archive.org/stream/ModernTimes_305/42024947-19032115-Johnson-Paul-Modern-Times-the-World-From-the-Twenties-to-the-Nineties-Revised-Edition-Harper-Collins-1991_djvu.txt
"On July 7, 1912, the Italian Socialist Party opened its thirteenth national congress in Reggio Emilia. Participating as an almost unknown delegate from the Forlì province, Mussolini emerged from the congress with a personal success and an appointment to the national leadership of the party."
Falasca-Zamponi, Simonetta. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1997 1997. http://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/religion.occult.new_age/occult.conspiracy.and.related/Falasca-Zamponi,%20Simonetta%20-%20Fascist%20Spectacle.pdf
How can you just say he was a mere member of the Italian Soialist Party? He was on the National Directorate and de facto leader!
You might be interested that Mussolini set up the Lugano Conference in 1914 that led to the re-invigoration of the Socialist International http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oUnkIgf2aH0C&pg=PA21&lpg=PA21&dq=lugano+conference+mussolini&source=bl&ots=R6spb5oKW3&sig=XB_Mks4uZAp_ae_NZUO865AtXtc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0cMEVKHtNc-58gW88YHgBQ&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=lugano%20conference%20mussolini&f=false
Mussolini changed his view as Italy entered the war but the child of Lugano was the Zimmerwald Conference and the rise in popularity of Lenin. Mussolini was pivotal to both Internationalist and National Socialism. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 19:20, 1 September 2014 (UTC)
Suggested text, replace:
Originally a member of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), Mussolini was expelled from the PSI due to his opposition to the party's stance on neutrality in World War I.
In 1912 Mussolini was the leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). Prior to 1914 he was a keen supporter of the Socialist International, starting the series of meetings in Switzerland that organised the communist revolutions and insurrections that swept through Europe from 1917. Mussolini was expelled from the PSI due to his opposition to the party's stance on neutrality in World War I.
- One of two: he was "Presidente del consiglio dei ministri" (Prime Minister) AND "Duce del Fascismo". Alex2006 (talk) 20:18, 6 February 2015 (UTC)
- Yes, but isn't "Duce of Fascism" simply the title of the head of the PNF?
- This is correct, the "Duce" was the head of the Fascist party. About the separateness you are also right. On 25 July 1943 Mussolini got a vote of no confidence, but remained the Duce, and on the same day was forced to resign as Prime Minister. Alex2006 (talk) 09:31, 7 February 2015 (UTC)
- Modified infobox and succession boxes:
- Separated head of government office and the 'Duce of Fascism' office. As far as I can gather, the latter is a title for the head of the National Fascist Party; M was Duce of Fascism before becoming PM.
- Removed duplication in the head-of-government office essentially being listed twice.
- Removed First Marshal as its a military rank, not a political office (it belongs below in the Military service part of the infobox).
- Added terms as minister of foreign affairs and minister of the interior.
- The succession boxes (down at the bottom) are now properly listed in chronological succession.
- Added party political and military offices down there as well, and shortened entries into actual titles.
- -- Director (talk) 15:34, 7 February 2015 (UTC)