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Deleted sections[edit]

Are there any independent opinions on the content of the two sections ( "Creativity and affect" and "Historical significance" ) that User:Mark Matthew Dalton deleted a bit ago? Were there systematic problems with these sections or the information within? Georgewilliamherbert (talk) 08:14, 23 November 2013 (UTC)

I've copied the sections in question below: --Ronz (talk) 17:50, 2 December 2013 (UTC)

This is just so wrong! Sourced content was simply erased without any motivation given! It is respectless to all the editors who previously worked with this text. I put the erased sections back in. Lova Falk talk 19:27, 15 December 2013 (UTC)

It would have been good idea to move the sections to the talk page. I didn't know about that technique. Thank you for educating me (at my talk page), Ronz. And, indeed it would have been a good idea to provide an explanation. I was in a rush, and I guess I hoped someone else would explain why I'd done it. It seems I was wrong about that.

I deleted the sections because I thought they were boring, because they contained little actual information about creativity, and were mainly about research people did in order to have done research, ie academic waffle. I thought that was obvious and had concluded that probably the article had been forgotten about. I thought the article would be better without the sections I deleted, among many other similarly boring sections in that bloated article. Some sections were extremely interesting, and access to them was being hindered, imho, by the boring sections. I read the article out of interest in the subject. I am a very active creative thinker. The sections I deleted seemed really to be useless fat better trimmed off.

I guess it was a mistake to neglect to explain fully why I'd deleted the sections. On the other hand, I think it was a mistake to restore the sections that I deleted. You might have placed them in the talk section for debate and waited for some support from someone else before putting them back. Just speculating.Mark Matthew Dalton (talk) 04:27, 12 January 2014 (UTC)

Historical importance[edit]

James C. Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity; mini-c ("transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions and insights"), little-c (everyday problem solving and creative expression), Pro-C (exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent) and Big-C (creativity considered great in the given field). This model was intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed competence as an essential component and the historical transformation of a creatie domain as the highest mark of creativity. It also, the authors argued, made a useful framework for analysing creative processes in individuals.[1]

The contrast of terms "Big C" and "Little c" has been widely used. Kozbelt, Beghetto and Runco use a little-c/Big-C model to review major theories of creativity [2] Margaret Boden distinguishes between h-creativity (historical) and p-creativity (personal).[3]

Robinson[4] and Anna Craft[5] have focussed on creativity in a general population, particularly with respect to education. Craft makes a similar distinction between "high" and "little c" creativity.[5] and cites Ken Robinson as referring to "high" and "democratic" creativity. Mihály Csíkszentmihályi[6] has defined creativity in terms of those individuals judged to have made significant creative, perhaps domain-changing contributions. Simonton has analysed the career trajectories of eminent creative people in order to map patterns and predictors of creative productivity.[7]

Creativity and affect[edit]

Some theories suggest that creativity may be particularly susceptible to affective influence. As noted in voting behavior the term "affect" in this context can refer to liking or disliking key aspects of the subject in question. This work largely follows from findings in psychology regarding the ways in which affective states are involved in human judgment and decision-making.[8]

Creativity and positive affect relations[edit]

According to Alice Isen, positive affect has three primary effects on cognitive activity:

  1. Positive affect makes additional cognitive material available for processing, increasing the number of cognitive elements available for association;
  2. Positive affect leads to defocused attention and a more complex cognitive context, increasing the breadth of those elements that are treated as relevant to the problem;
  3. Positive affect increases cognitive flexibility, increasing the probability that diverse cognitive elements will in fact become associated. Together, these processes lead positive affect to have a positive influence on creativity.

Barbara Fredrickson in her broaden-and-build model suggests that positive emotions such as joy and love broaden a person's available repertoire of cognitions and actions, thus enhancing creativity.

According to these researchers, positive emotions increase the number of cognitive elements available for association (attention scope) and the number of elements that are relevant to the problem (cognitive scope).

Various meta-analyses, such as Baas et al. (2008) of 66 studies about creativity and affect support the link between creativity and positive affect[9][10]

Creativity and negative affect relations[edit]

On the other hand, some theorists have suggested that negative affect leads to greater creativity. A cornerstone of this perspective is empirical evidence of a relationship between affective illness and creativity. In a study of 1,005 prominent 20th century individuals from over 45 different professions, the University of Kentucky's Arnold Ludwig found a slight but significant correlation between depression and level of creative achievement. In addition, several systematic studies of highly creative individuals and their relatives have uncovered a higher incidence of affective disorders (primarily bipolar disorder and depression) than that found in the general population.

Creativity and affect at work[edit]

Three patterns may exist between affect and creativity at work: positive (or negative) mood, or change in mood, predictably precedes creativity; creativity predictably precedes mood; and whether affect and creativity occur simultaneously.

It was found that not only might affect precede creativity, but creative outcomes might provoke affect as well. At its simplest level, the experience of creativity is itself a work event, and like other events in the organizational context, it could evoke emotion. Qualitative research and anecdotal accounts of creative achievement in the arts and sciences suggest that creative insight is often followed by feelings of elation. For example, Albert Einstein called his 1907 general theory of relativity "the happiest thought of my life." Empirical evidence on this matter is still very tentative.

In contrast to the possible incubation effects of affective state on subsequent creativity, the affective consequences of creativity are likely to be more direct and immediate. In general, affective events provoke immediate and relatively fleeting emotional reactions. Thus, if creative performance at work is an affective event for the individual doing the creative work, such an effect would likely be evident only in same-day data.

Another longitudinal research found several insights regarding the relations between creativity and emotion at work. Firstly, evidence shows a positive correlation between positive affect and creativity. The more positive a person's affect on a given day, the more creative thinking they evidenced that day and the next day—even controlling for that next day's mood. There was even some evidence of an effect two days later.

In addition, the researchers found no evidence that people were more creative when they experienced both positive and negative affect on the same day. The weight of evidence supports a purely linear form of the affect-creativity relationship, at least over the range of affect and creativity covered in our study: the more positive a person's affect, the higher their creativity in a work setting.

Finally, they found four patterns of affect and creativity: affect can operate as an antecedent to creativity; as a direct consequence of creativity; as an indirect consequence of creativity; and affect can occur simultaneously with creative activity. Thus, it appears that people's feelings and creative cognitions are interwoven in several distinct ways within the complex fabric of their daily work lives.

Moved to talk - expansion of Creative process introduction[edit]

While looking over the changes made above, I noticed that these recent changes seem undue, especially the journal article: --Ronz (talk) 17:47, 2 December 2013 (UTC)

It is a dialectical process apparent in cultural, psychological and even neurobiological research [11]. The dialectic of order and chaos seems to be a general concept that is conceived diffferently by the individual sciences. Neurobiology has shown that the creative process takes place in an interplay between the emergence of coherent neuronal patterns and their labilisation. Also in psychology and cultural studies this interplay between coherence - incoherence, stabilization - destabilization, construction - deconstruction is apparent [11]. Within the creative process, there are four elements: preparation (problem solver thinks about what the problem requires and keeps it in memory), incubation – solver’s mind engages in unconscious activation of critical elements and past solutions, although they may not be available for conscious thought, illumination or insight (unconscious processing bursts into conscious awareness), and verification (new awareness is applied to the problem). In order to make a creative solution, one must overcome functional fixedness, or the mode of thinking about something in an ordinary, unimaginative way. [12]

removal of subsection[edit]

I removed the subsection titled "Creativity and battlefield of philosophers". This section appeared to be supported by sources but it seemed to be badly written and unclear - in fact it was incomprehensible to me. Perhaps an expert on the subject can re-write the subsection in a clear, correct, reasonably easy to understand, encyclopedic fashion? IjonTichy (talk) 22:31, 26 January 2014 (UTC)


Flagged 2nd paragraph as needing cleanup due to unclear language making the para difficult to read and understand. Probably needs to be wholly rewritten or deleted. I'm no subject expert, so don't feel fit to rewrite it. Rjlx (talk) 19:44, 27 January 2014 (UTC)

Hence, creativity is an almost steady ability to generate a new concept with no time, age, kind, manner, way, technics, advantage, efficacy and subject limitation and restriction. But only precisely, is related to novelty and recency. So it only identified by "generating recent or new concept". Whether seems so floppy and ineffective or very serious and polestar. Whether established on an existent concept made before, or some is fundamentally made up recently. Whether created and made up by mind power or made by mind readymade material before (and assembled with a realizable bit difference) (Hamid Rajaei 2008)[5] (Albeit in battlefield of philosophers)
This paragraph is not only unclear, it is also confusing, and more importantly it also appears to be unnecessary - it does not appear to contribute the article. It should be removed. IjonTichy (talk) 20:10, 27 January 2014 (UTC)

Deleted Section[edit]

I am about to "park" a significant section from the main page onto the talk page here for the following reasons:

  • Tone is very different from the rest of the article (exclamation points, hyperbole). The tone is not encyclopedic.
  • Numerous errors in English. These need much work when/if this section is re-included.
  • If the English & tone were the only problems, I might try to edit it heavily. But unlike some things written by non-native English speakers, I cannot even guess at the meaning of many phrases. This really is the central problem.

I believe much of this was added by User:mahtabshadi and I intend to notify her on her talk page. --Officiallyover (talk) 06:21, 19 February 2014 (UTC)

I am now pasting in the text below. No changes except to equal signs in heading markup. --Officiallyover (talk) 06:24, 19 February 2014 (UTC)

‏Epistemological theory, the phases and contextual planning[edit]

‏ ‏There is other imparted theory, explaines epistemological interpretation, the phases and contextual planning of creativity (By Hamid Rajaei 2008).[13][14] This theory is based on an epistemological theory, with no serious disagreement with other creativity theories. In Rajaei’s theory, all of concepts are considered like galaxies (Galaxy-like and gradual correspondence theory) He believes if we were well-informed on this similarity (On situation and structure of concepts and human knowledge) we would found the flexibility and variability manners in thought realm, and could actualize our creativity power so better. In this theory, he criticizes Aristotle school (using only traditional process: step-by-step logic and line thinking) In traditional system, attaining a new concept and passing the process of understanding, is considered and exemplified by Rajaei, as entrapping a cat and our cognitive system considered like a bag! (Then comprehension=sacking the evasive cat) Then the hardness and dearth of understanding and exploring, is like entrapping the cat. Then the mind after entrapping stops. But in galaxy-like theory, the realty is made of many parts, in phenomenal and outward appearance and is consistent, alive and glory full in noumenon kind and its indipendent existence however, appears like infinite diamond parts spreated and hidden in a wide desert, we are gathering and organizing them for completing and perfecting our Knowledge Basket. The concepts are the galaxies of meaning and the parts that may be changed in many ways. Rajaei believes this theory is an epistemological amendment in human knowledge, especially in traditional societies(See:Tradition).(Hamid Rajaei 2008)[14] The explained phases maybe posed‏ as this: ‏

1.Excitation with a serious emotion to create something.

‏Contextual planning:

Being under a kind of shock or mystique, a kind serious need, hard pressed or poverty, a kind of lovelorn are necessary here: nothing brings nothing.

2.Prolixes phase: gathering Information.

Contextual planning:

Having wide study, being expert in the course, a good memory and soul- mind buffer is so good here.

3.High Prolixes phase: to analyze & get extract.

Contextual planning:

Having brainstorming & open mind, able to combine lateral thinking and the logic, watching the parallelism and differentiates.

4.The I.G.C phase. Including 3 sub phases‏:‏

‏4/1.Homogenizing the prolixes

4/2.Willy-nilly awaiting revelation

4/3.Achieving the I.G.Cs (immature and glossy concept) The IGCs are very torchbearer, snappy, troublemaker rumbustious & tricky.

‏Contextual planning:

Having solitude, private, purification, fervent prayer, God love, loving the solution, or having a kind of pure love, etc. is very facilitative here.

5.Achieving simplifies, letting the brain and mind have an interchange rest, & make or encounter the new simplifies.

6.Fertilizing the simplifies, with "Orbiting around the issue in 360 degrees, horizontally and vertically" & hunting between simplifies and prolixes.

‏Contextual planning:

Being aware of the kind and sorts of transition and interactions among the concepts is the cane and template for fertilizing and making the concepts couple or uncouple and how to do with each other‏.‏ ‏ ‏ 7.Achieving the elementary and sophomoric new concepts.

‏Contextual planning:

Endure and maturity, fixity and flexibility in a mix of stability, jocularity, are very facilitative and troubleshooter here.

8.Exposing sophomoric concepts to more prolixes. (In fact, a sub process)

‏Contextual planning:

Being disinterested, Having universal connections and work-group dictations, critical arguments and not to be in solitude and private etc… is so useful but imperative here.

9.Get the SH Concept (satisfactory harvest: till the next serious conflict.

‏Contextual planning:

Having an Idea of epistemology, psychology of epistemology, not being slack believe, sectarian, opinionated, especially to producing soft wares and pragmatic lookout for the hard wares made them, and avoiding credulous or incredulous too, are the main wardrobe of any one in the section.[15] ‏However creativity is an intercourse and interaction of the brain and soul. The brain parts function has basic impress maybe known through the case studies and study of the characters and turnover of right or left hemisphere of brain.[15][13]

Prolixes and Super simplifies[edit]

Hamid Rajaei believes, when we indagate, any creativity stages (for ex. as Graham Wallass' model: preparation, incubation intimation illumination & Verification) we can draw out (especially in terms 2, 3, 4 & 5) that we extract the information with super simplifies, as a natural process in our brain system and common habits. A super simplifier is an image of a concept, made by the brain and mind. It makes them:

1.To release itself from the inconvenience caused with bushiness & density of information, extra calculating, extra nerve activation and force.(with mental -spiritual context)

2.To achieve a paradigmatic concept, that is intact and spiritual. (With spiritual context) aiming to examine the unity, immaculacy & purity. In this position simplifiers go to play as a unifier.

Therefore, prolixes (verbal meaning: too many words and therefore boring) in his euphemism are complicated means or a galaxy of meaning (In accordance with his epistemological theory: The galaxies theory) entangles the cognitive system, so, considered "too many & boring ", by appropriately of the stage: being compacted therefore simplified)[16]

End of parked section --Officiallyover (talk) 06:24, 19 February 2014 (UTC)

Deleted text is largely back[edit]

I reviewed the text that User:mahtabshadi has added back to the article in this edit. It is not exactly the same as in a previous string of edits that created the section I deleted.

My previous objections to this passage are the same (very difficult to understand, not encyclopedic tone, errors in English). I hope it will help if I give some direct examples of problem phrases. These are only examples. There are many, many more than just these:

  1. But only precisely, is related to novelty and recency.
  2. Whether seems so floppy and ineffective or very serious and polestar.
  3. High Prolixes phase: to do analyse & get extracts.
  4. Achieving the I.G.Cs (immature and glossy concept) The IGCs are very torchbearer, snappy, troublemaker rumbustious & tricky.
  5. Getting the SH Concept (satisfactory harvest: till the next serious conflict)
  6. To release itself from the inconvenience caused with bushiness & density of information, extra calculating, extra nerve activation and force.

I hope it is obvious why those don't make sense. However, the user re-added this text, so I will assume that I didn't communicate well. Therefore, here is my explanation of why these don't make sense:

  1. Why is it "only" precisely? How is it related to novelty & recency? What are we even talking about?
  2. This is not a sentence at all. Even if I pretend it's connected to the prior one, how can an idea be floppy? Polestar is not an adjective or even close to a metaphor.
  3. Extracts of what??
  4. "Immature and glossy concept" seems like jargon but there is no definition at all. How can a concept be "torchbearer, snappy, troublemaker rumbustious & tricky"?? Many of those are not adjectives. Even if I stretch my imagination, many do not make sense. "Tricky" is at least grammatical, but in what way is the Concept tricky?
  5. Again, "satisfactory harvest" is jargon at best.
  6. This is not a sentence. True, I could force it to be grammatical: "A super simplifier makes concepts release themselves from the inconvenience caused by bushiness of information." This does very little to help me understand anything, though.

This article has many problems. This section "The prolixes and the simplifiers, Creativity theory," is one of those problems. It makes very little sense. I don't believe it can remain in the article. I am going to notify the user on her talk page. --Officiallyover (talk) 23:29, 7 March 2014 (UTC)

Third insertion of text with problems[edit]

A lot of the text apparently based on the work of Hamid Rajaei is back. Example quote: "Achieving the I.G.Cs (immature and glossy concept) The IGCs are very torchbearer, snappy, troublemaker rumbustious & tricky." String of edits that reinstated the text.

I had asked User:mahtabshadi "please do not put this section back unless you do a lot of work to improve it." I do not see evidence of significant work to improve this passage. My main objections are completely unchanged:

  1. very difficult to understand; difficult to make much sense at all out of the passage
  2. not encyclopedic tone
  3. errors in English

I really want other editors to offer their assessments here. So far I am the only editor commenting on this re-appearing passage. --Officiallyover (talk) 13:46, 22 April 2014 (UTC)

Simply put, the passage does not belong in Wikipedia article text because the reliable secondary sources on creativity don't mention this fringe theory. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 15:08, 22 April 2014 (UTC)
I've removed it, as almost unintelligible and as promoting what appears to be promoting theories unsupported by any third-party source. AndyTheGrump (talk) 21:18, 25 May 2014 (UTC)
Thank you. I agree that the removed text is not suitable. Johnuniq (talk) 01:16, 26 May 2014 (UTC)
I agree, and have removed additional material which is not only a very minor, obscure fringe theory but is also incoherent and meaningless. IjonTichy (talk) 02:34, 26 May 2014 (UTC)
Dear User:mahtabshadi, please don't think we are ganging up on you. The only reason we have removed the material is because of the problems listed above. Furthermore, please note that over the last several years I've read books on creativity written by professors at major universities and by successful business people, I've read peer-reviewed papers on innovation, and viewed many hours of videos of talks on creativity by successful technology entrepreneurs, and none of them mention the material that we have removed here. If sometime in the future the work of Hamid Rajaei would become more notable, then please bring the material here to the talk page before including it into this Wikipedia article, and I'm sure the community would be more open to discussing his work in more depth and breadth here on the talk page. Warm Regards, IjonTichy (talk) 16:55, 30 May 2014 (UTC)