Talk:Fula people

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Comments[edit]

"They are the only major migrating people of West Africa." The Tuaregs are sometine met very far in the south of West Africa. Ericd 13:39, 23 Aug 2003 (UTC)

The Toucouleur, who are a sedentary people, refer to themselves as Halpulaar ("Pulaar speakers") and to Peulh people (nomadic people who sometimes pass through Halpulaar towns) as Peulfulbey or Fulbey.

I don't find the photo very as there's nothing that identify these women as Fula. In many country they wear coins in the hair.

Pullo ref[edit]

What's the link to "pullo" intended to be in the intro? Can anyone clarify it? --Dvyost 16:25, 19 August 2005 (UTC)

Removed link pending clarification. --Dvyost 22:16, 21 August 2005 (UTC)

pullo is the singular word for fulɓe.

Slavery of Fulani Groups to America[edit]

I noticed that there is no mention of the enslavement of the Fulani groups to America. I left Niger last year to visit the ancestral home of my great-great-great grandfather. He was pure Fulani. He was captured and enslaved to America (Lousiana) by the French. My Mitochrondria DNA indicates a majority Fulani ancestry from many countries throughout Africa including Egypt and Kenya. There were millions of Fulani brought to the U.S. and enslaved. They were practicing Muslims from a pre-Mohammedan Islam developed by their ancestors. The history of their enslavement here in North America should be acknowledge.

Removed comment that habe refers to the Hausa people.[edit]

In Fulfulde, haaɓe means a non-Fulani African. What language group this refers to varies according to the place. In Nigeria and eastern Niger, this means a Hausa person, in western Niger this means a Zarma, in Burkina Faso a Mossi, in Mali a Dogon. There maybe some other variations in other places as well.

Population[edit]

An anonymous editor with a roving IP keeps trying to change the population info to 50 million. Until a source is cited, I will continue to revert this change. — Amcaja 14:58, 25 June 2006 (UTC)

Just an added note: Pat I. Ndukwe in Fulani (1996) says that their numbers are estimated at 10 million. Ethnologue reports 886,700 speakers of Adamawa Fulfulde (various years), 180,000 speakers of Bagirmi Fulfulde (1996), 328,200 speakers of Borgu Fulfulde (1993, 2002), 450,000 speakers of Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde, 919,700 speakers of Maasina Fulfulde (1991), 1,707,926 speakers of Nigerian Fulfulde (2000), 1,180,000 speakers of Western Niger Fulfulde (1998-9), 2,915,784 speakers of Pular (1991, 2002), and 3,244,020 speakers of Pulaar (1991, 1995, 2002). Adding these up, we get a total of 11,812,330 speakers of various versions of Fulfulde.
The page on Adamawa Fulfulde also says that there are "Possibly 13,000,000 speakers of all Fulfulde."
So, in the absence of any more authoritative population estimates, I'm going to change the population figure on the page to 10–13 million, citing Ndukwe and Ethnologue. — Amcaja 15:20, 25 June 2006 (UTC)
This article is about the ethnic group, not the language. Especially since the Fulani are a minority in the modern African countries they live in, taking the number of people who speak the language will undercut the true size of the population significantly. Brianski (talk) 23:16, 9 June 2009 (UTC)

Fellata[edit]

Fellata, a group in Darfur, currently redirects here. I've seen occasional mention of "Fula speakers" in the south of Darfur, but don't have any idea how they fit with the rest of the group. If someone could offer some context, it would be much appreciated. - BanyanTree 01:46, 31 October 2006 (UTC)

There are Fulani in Sudan according to Fulani by Pat I. Ndukwe, so it's quite possible. Unfortunately, Ndukwe gives no more information. — Amcaja 09:14, 31 October 2006 (UTC)


Origins and spread[edit]

The ancient origins of the Fula people they are from a Semitic origin. According to the tradition, the ancestors of Fulani is Jacob son of Israel, son of Issac, son of Abraham When Jacob left Canaan and went to Egypt where who did not know about Joseph's fame in Egypt, came to power. He made the Israelites work hard at slave labor. The Pharaoh oppressed the people, including Fulanis who were rich in cattle. They emigrated from Egypt, some of them went back to Palestine and Syria under Moses guidance and the other crossed the Nile with their cattle and headed west. They took the name of fouth or foudh meaning those who left. A group from the latter moved along the edges of the Sahara to Touat-Air and then to West-Africa. Those who came to Masina (in present day Mali) spread to the neighboring regions where they were rejoined by Fulani groups from Morocco. It has established that about 700AD, Fulani groups from Morocco, moved southward, and invaded the regions of Tagout, Adrar, Mauritania, and Fuuta Tooro. The cradle of the Fulani group is situated in the Senegal River valley, where Fulanis established kingdoms. Until the beginning of the IX th Century..Around that period they continued their migration in the regions of Bundu, Bambouk, Diomboko, Kaarta, and Bagana Finally those who where concentrated in the Ferlo from the XI to the XIV century moved in various groups to the Fuuta Jalon, to the Volta river basin , to the Gurma, to the Haussa land, and to the Adamawa, Boghirme,Ouadai . But several centuries ago, right after their ultimate ethnogenesis they appear to have begun moving from the area of present-day Senegal eastward.

During the 16th century the Fula expanded through the Sahelian grasslands stretching from what is today Senegal to Sudan. Their military strength centered on powerful cavalry that could quickly move across the large empire and defeat rivals, but the Fulani could not expand southwards, as the horses could not withstand the diseases of those latitudes.

Note: the above seems to be [undocumented] content, not really "discussion".

The main article's treatment of the origin of the Fulani is scientifically dubious, referring to physical similarity with ancient Egyptians, which may or may not mean anything. We've had -- for twenty years-- genetic markers which allow one to say with precision "who's related to whom". The "origin of the Fulani" seems to evoke quite a lot of speculation and perhaps a bit of chauvinism, but this article (and indeed all articles on ethnic groups) ought to have data from (for example) Cavalli Sforza's "The History and Geography of Human Genes". Cavalli-Sforza's data does not suggest some close kinship. 22:20, 3 July 2011 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Crocodilian (talkcontribs)

Huge amount of work needed[edit]

I just tinkered with the opening and the discussion of the tradition and history - but a lot of work is needed:

  • More on the role of Fulas as herders (interactions with sedentary populations)
  • Sedentarization
  • Recent trends
  • Accuracy re history (they spread before the 16th century, and Islam was not a factor until later
  • The Jihad states section is one of the stronger, but needs some cleaning up
  • A lot more on culture
  • Language is another article and another issue

And that's just for starters... --A12n 01:31, 4 December 2006 (UTC)

Good work on the name issue. In my experience, the name Fulani is more common in English than Fula. Would you agree? I'd propose a page move, but I'm mostly familiar with Nigerian and Anglophone Cameroonian usage. -- Amcaja 05:41, 4 December 2006 (UTC)
Thanks. I agree that Fulani seems more familiar in most English language literature. On the other hand Fula (or Fulah, or I've even seen Fullah) are common in the west of West Africa. (I'll start another section to pursue the discussion.) --A12n 21:13, 6 December 2006 (UTC)

Name for the (people and the) section[edit]

The question (from above) about the term to use in English for the Fulɓe is somewhat complicated. Note a discussion re the name for the language at Wikipedia:WikiProject_Languages/Fula. The British scholar David Arnott suggested using Fula for the language and Fulani for the people. That might be a solution here, but I'd suggest not doing so at least at the moment until more info can be gathered and opinions sounded.

There is a fashion to use the "autonym" for language and people, and that on the one hand seems reasonable, but on the other also seems very impractical to implement across languages for various reasons (sound systems, familiarity and ease of existing terms, etc.). In the case of the Fulɓe one notes increased use of Fulbe in academic literature in English. This could be a third option for Wikipedia. Personally I am not at all fond of it as it takes what in the Fula language is a nominal plural in the class for people (ɓe - one of the 26 or so noun classes) and generalizes it to all positions (noun, adjective; singular, plural; people, objects/animals). For example "a Fulbe mother" (from a Google search) is nonsense to me because Fulɓe is plural and mother (inna or nene [depends on dialect]) is singular. And when you get to inanimate objects ("a Fulbe manuscript") that's another problem. And so on. You start by wanting to be authentic by using "Fulbe" in English, but end up using it in ways that the original term "Fulɓe" would never be used in.

In some ways Arnott's solution of Fula and Fulani would work for broader education about the people in the context of African studies outreach. Fulani especially exists already in English much as, say, German or Chinese do (although historically more recent) and no one suggests we should start saying Deutsch or Zhongguo de.../Han.... For the moment I think Fula (which also exists in English) as it is in Wikipedia is workable and shouldn't be changed without some consideration.

Not sure how this will play out, but I post this anticipating that the question will come up and there will be a discussion about it. In the meantime there is plenty to do on the content. --A12n 21:14, 6 December 2006 (UTC)

The one source I have that discusses all Fulani (rather than just those of Cameroon) is Fulani by Pat I. Ndukwe. He seems to agree with your assessment and suggests that Fulani is the most widespread name, and that Peul is preferred in French. Felaata is Kanuri, and Fulbe (singular Pulo) is German. Ndukwe says that Fulbe is the Fulani's own name for themselves. He gives the names Bororo and Toroobe for the "cattle" and "town" Fulani respectively but offers the alternatives of Fulani siire and Fulanin gida for the "town Fulani". Note that Wikipedia's article on the Bororo is currently at Wodaabe. I agree with you that more opinions would be good. But my vote at the moment is for Fulani, second choice Fulbe. — Amcaja 08:29, 7 December 2006 (UTC)
One further note: The earliest version of the article was created by an anonymous editor, so we won't be stepping on any toes if we move the article. — Amcaja 08:32, 7 December 2006 (UTC)
Let me put the question to H-West-Africa (perhaps this weekend) to see what kind of echoes come back. Ultimately I'm a little leery of getting into a debate on the name in Wikipedia, as there can be different positions and never a perfect solution - and whatever is done with this article will have repercussions for the Fula language article, about which there is another discussion. One solution is to stay with the tatus quo; another is to pick the solution of a recognized scholar (like Arnott); another is to refer to what bibliographers use, etc. H-W-A at least will give us some expert opinions we probably wouldn't hear right here. --A12n 18:00, 8 December 2006 (UTC)
Albert Adu Boahen gives these distinctions as Fulanin Bororo and Fulanin gida (caps intended), a split begining in the 15th century CE. The Torodbe or Toronkawa was a clan of town Fula who became the source of the Qadiriyya relgious leaders who led the first Fulani Jihad States.
This from Section 1, Chapt 6 in Topics in West African History by Adu Boahen, Jacob F. Ade Ajayi, Michael Tidy (1987). :T L Miles 14:24, 5 July 2007 (UTC)

Everyone always writes that Fulani comes to English from Hausa without much verification or sourcing. However, Fulani is also the Bambara/Mande diminutive of Fula, the Mande word for Peuls (Fulani = Little Peul). This diminutive is slightly offensive (although sometimes just a joke) to Peuls in Mali. Could it be that English gets the term Fulani from the Mande languages instead? I propose (and always myself use) Peul, as it certainly doesn't derive from a Mande diminutive, but from the Peul language via French, and avoids the singular/plural problem of Fulbe.Hempcamp 06:21, 22 October 2007 (UTC)

Interesting point re Fula-ni, thanks for bringing it up. Actually one will encounter Fulan- (or Filan-) constructions in Hausa, and the British of course ruled much of Hausaland that the Fulas ruled before colonization. Re "Peul," I think that is confusing for English speakers since Fula/Fulani is already in the language. Among other things, it leads to a misunderstanding that there is some basic difference between "Peul" and "Fula(ni)" (or for that matter "Fulbe").--A12n 14:56, 2 December 2007 (UTC)

Spinning off Fulani Jihad States?[edit]

I was trying to clean up Massina Empire and took a look at Sokoto Caliphate, which is a bit of a mess (and redirects to "Fulani Empire". To quote Nelson Muntz, "I can think of two things wrong with that title").

So that leads me here. I'd like to spin off Fulani Jihad States to an article of its own, taking in some of the distinctions of town/pastoral and the growth of the Toroobe clan (which is not short for town dwelling, but a specific clan that became source of sufi religious leaders). Objections, concers, offers of help?  :T L Miles 14:14, 5 July 2007 (UTC)

Just catching up with this. I think that it might make sense to have separate articles for historical details on various parts of the territories lived in and and in some cases once ruled by Fulani. This article probably would then have discussion of general trends and very short introductory subsections with "Main article" links out. For an example of this approach see History of Mali. It also seems like it would be appropriate to have a category like "Fula history" - the only problem with that is that might be the need to reconcile with other history categories for the region. --A12n (talk) 00:44, 26 November 2007 (UTC)
I just set up a stub article as Fula jihads in which I moved the section on jihad states. See discussion there.--A12n 17:19, 2 December 2007 (UTC)

What's in a name?[edit]

I just did some revisions of the presentation of the names of the people in the beginning of the article. This is a somewhat complex subject in itself, but it all derives from the root ful- which whatever its original meaning is linked to the people and their culture. So here is what we have:

  • Fula - derived from Manding languages; linguist David Arnott suggested using this name in English for the language, but in Wikipedia it is used for both the people and the language for consistency
    • Fulah or Foulah are variants of this
  • Fulani - derived from Hausa language; David Arnott suggested using this name in English for the people; this is also used in this article and as an adjective in other WP articles
  • Fulɓe - the name of the people in Fula language; a noe on etymology as I think this is important to proposed use of derivations in English: it is a plural noun in the "ɓe" class, which is for plurals of people (hence for instance Woɗaaɓe is the plural of Boɗeejo, etc.)
  • Fulbhe - same as the above, but in the orthography used in Guinea until the mid-1980s
  • Fulbe - an adaptation of the latter to English, but without the implosive ɓ sound; personally I don't like this because it (1) sounds wrong and (2) does not fit well in the range of uses it would be applied to in English (Fulbe woman? no, really Pullo woman etc.)
  • Peul - in French, derived from the Wolof language, but sometimes also used in English
    • Peuhl or Peulh are variants of this

All of this could get confusing. I would suggest staying with the main term used for headers and main articles so as not to disorient readers, but being clear about alternate uses and flexible about other references. It all revolves around ful- anyway. --A12n (talk) 01:15, 26 November 2007 (UTC)

Other languages spoken[edit]

The Fula people#Culture & Language section has a list of other languages that Fulas might speak by country. I'm wondering if this is at all necessary. People in the region generally are polyglots. It might make more sense to have a short sentence on multilingualism among Fulas and others in the countries they live in. (The section originally mentioned just the official languages but some time ago others were added.) I'm not aware that any other page on an ethnic group spends as much space itemizing other possible languages. Anyway, I'd be interested in other thoughts before making that change. --A12n (talk) 04:16, 5 February 2008 (UTC)

Correction to subject heading[edit]

Should not the first subject heading entitled "one person, many names" be changed to "one people, many names"? The former implies that Fulani in a single person, the latter implies that the Fulani are a people.


Recent highly inflated figures[edit]

While I might assume whomever made these edits (and to Fula language) feels a very justified pride in his/her ethnic background, a quick look at the references already in the article show that the highly inflated figures inserted are entirely invented. The contention that Fula people make up the third largest ethnic group in Sierra Leone, when even that nation's government put the figure at no more than %2, is simply fictional. That Fula form a majority in Cameroon and Nigeria is simply not true. A worldwide figure of Fula people of 40 to 60 placed by one editor is AT LEAST three times the highest figure I can find from any source (17M, which is a contested figure, 10-12M is more common). Please do not repeat these edits. Apart from the CIA and UN demography figures (by nation) and the enthnologue language use figures (by language family and subgroup), see the slightly dated:

T L Miles (talk) 01:00, 6 June 2009 (UTC)

Any proof that they exist in North Africa??as it says Egypt up there[edit]

Any proof that they exist in North Africa??as it says Egypt up there ,Egypt only has nubians and some Sudanese minorities but Fula are not Known at all in here either remove Egypt or bring a proof —Preceding unsigned comment added by 41.232.120.119 (talk) 13:47, 19 July 2010 (UTC)

the resource said that they might be originated from north Africa and didn't say Egypt,[edit]

Sudan is considered as north African country (They are known to have heritage as far as North Africa such as Egypt where they most popularly originate from.) from where did u bring that????attach any proof —Preceding unsigned comment added by 41.232.120.119 (talk) 13:55, 19 July 2010 (UTC)

Deletion[edit]

I removed a list of second/additional languages that would be spoken by some or many Fulas (appended below). It is fairly obvious in multilingual Africa, that members of any minority will speak other languages of the societies in which they live.--A12n (talk) 16:42, 24 November 2010 (UTC)
..., for example:

population[edit]

did any one notice that there is no population section in the main page?!! i mean is it possible that no one noticed that there is no any estimated figure for their population in the main page as if its a secondary issue!! althought i noticed that some one talking about changing the figure from 50 million to (10 to 13) but neither which is found in the main page!!!! — Preceding unsigned comment added by Knightoflight25 (talkcontribs) 16:39, 17 July 2011 (UTC)

religion section[edit]

whene you mention christianity in the religion section beside the african religions this is bullshit for me i mean its well known that there are less than 1000 fulani christians in a nation exceeds the 10000000 person , so considering them as an element in the nation alongside with the several 1000s of those who follow the primitive african religions dosn't mean any thing except you 're biase against any thing related to islam for example in nubian section in wikepedia the editor said that their religion is islam and christianity althought there is no even a single christian among this nation and when talking about non muslim races which have muslim percentage even more than 10% of the nation you dont mention that islam is one of the religions practised by the people so what neutrality and what objectivity you are talking about in wikipedia?!! — Preceding unsigned comment added by Knightoflight25 (talkcontribs) 17:32, 17 July 2011 (UTC)

The Fulani are NOT berbers, arabs, and/or caucasoids![edit]

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F16900879&ei=oTeIUL_rBMPoigKxhoCQDA&usg=AFQjCNGFCPWVEyjeyvNjiJqD4T9TvxeZmQ They are only 8% north african. Plutocrackz (talk) 18:54, 24 October 2012 (UTC)


Yes, seriously. Someone should do something about that DNA section. It is ONE study, on ONE population, which is also very very small, and in an area remote from traditional Fula homelands. The generalization is ridiculous. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 84.97.251.145 (talk) 21:41, 11 December 2013 (UTC)

Yes, it is true the Fulani are only 8% Eurasian in mtDNA (maternal) but they are over 88% Eurasian in yDNA (paternal), which is fairly consistent with Fulani oral histories and sex-based patrilineal heritage of this historically nomadic group. Please see below and provide countervailing references before reverting again so we can reach consensus. It would be wildly misleading to only highlight the maternal DNA when we have studies pointing to the paternal. It would also be wildly misleading to remove the section in light of the numerous references to the migration histories of the Fulani from the north in the rest of the article. We have to honor the background of ethnic groups (especially in Africa in light of the imperialist, often condescending take of many people towards the age-long, carefully kept and honored oral histories of such groups historically) as they are in reality (especially when they coincide with what the groups say themselves!) and not impose our own assumptions or preferences from when DNA evidence supports the own group's claims! That would be very arrogant and imperialist and condescending (again this is only when the evidence -cultural, archeological, genetic supports these oral histories). It is simply a matter of respect for other people's identity that falls in line with respect for the scientific method. Thank you. See section below "genetics", and discuss before making any more changes. Regards. Andajara120000 (talk) 17:29, 12 December 2013 (UTC)


Most studies of Fulani's in west africa show that over 70% of Fulani's carry the E1B1A E-V38 patrilineal marker. This is consistent with most west africans. Also the Fulani's northern origins do not suggest non african ancestry as many sub saharan african groups trace their ancestry to the central sahara only leaving as the area became drier. In fact their legends correspond with the actual evidence that many black african groups moved south as the sahara entered its last dry phase. Recent genetic evidence shows that most Fulani are related to the Wolof and Serer and even populations with so called non african features show high genetic affinity with other west africans. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rosa, Alexandra; Carolina Ornelas, Mark A Jobling, António Brehm, and Richard Villems (27 July 2007). "Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective". BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 124. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-124. PMC 1976131. PMID 17662131. ^ Jump up to: a b International Society of Genetic Genealogy (3 February 2010). "Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its Subclades - 2010". Retrieved 17 December 2010. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 76.19.195.149 (talk) 20:43, 22 December 2013 (UTC)

Fula surnames & "clan" names[edit]

There could be a useful article on Fula family names. The usual starting point would be the four main ones, which are sometimes referred to as "clans" (though the term is doesn't fit well): 1) Diallo, Jalloh, Jallow, and perhaps other spellings (French & English orgthographies make the difference among these); 2) Ba, Bâ, and Bah; 3) So, Sô, and Sow; and 4) Bari and Barry. In areas of Manding culture, Diakité, Sidibé, and Sangaré are the equivalents of Ba, So, and Bari, respectively. A full article could also discuss other names used among ethnically Fula and Fula-speaking peoples in various parts of West Africa and beyond.--A12n (talk) 15:32, 26 February 2013 (UTC)

Genetics Section- Please Do Not Revert YDNA (Paternal) and mtDNA (Maternal) Section Without Reaching Consensus[edit]

There seems to be a lot of vandalism on this section, with claims the studies are dubious. What are the arguments for this? If people can please refrain from reverting until consensus is met. Maybe this page needs to be locked because the history of this page includes a lot of reverting/deletions on this issue of genetics and origins. The studies below are very sound and closely support the oral histories, nomadic heritage, current demographic distribution in Africa and culture of the group.Andajara120000 (talk) 17:13, 12 December 2013 (UTC)

To the person who has a problem with this section please provide countervailing DNA evidence as to genetics--remember YDNA is paternal and mtDNA is maternal, so you would need sources showing BOTH as the Eurasian genes for the Fulani seem only to stem from the paternal side. Andajara120000 (talk) 17:19, 12 December 2013 (UTC)

Also added: Overall the Fulani are approximately 48% Eurasian (Afrasian) and 52% Sub-Saharan African (Niger-Congo) from genetic testing. With most of their Eurasian (Afrasian) heritage devolving paternally, this is consistent with the group's oral history of a (largely male) nomadic migratory population from North Africa then culturally integrating with, marrying women from, and taking the language of their Sub-Saharan African (Niger-Congo) neighbors over hundreds of years of cultural, demographic and genetic interaction (most probably in Senegal, where the closely linguistically related Serer and Wolof people predominate), leading to the ethnogenesis of the Fulani culture, language and people before subsequent expansion throughout much of West Africa. [1]

Genetics[edit]

YDNA (Paternal)[edit]

Paternally, the Fulani have been found to have over 88% paternal Eurasian or Afro-Asiatic lineages, largely consistent with Fulani oral migration histories of Eurasian or Afro-Asiatic affiliations, 53.8% R-M173 (Eurasian or Berber) and 34.62% E-M78 (with 27.2% E-V22) (Afro-Asiatic):[2]

"The Fulani, who possess the lowest population size in this study, have an interesting genetic structure, effectively consisting of two haplogroups or founding lineages. One of the lineages is R-M173 (53.8%), and its sheer frequency suggests either a recent migration of this group to Africa and/or a restricted gene flow due to linguistic or cultural barriers. The high frequency of subclade E-V22, which is believed to be northeast African (Cruciani et al., 2007) and haplogroup R-M173, suggests an amalgamation of two populations/cultures that took place sometime in the past in eastern or central Africa. This is also evident from the frequency of the ‘‘T’’ allele of the lactase persistence gene that is uniquely present in considerable frequencies among the Fulani (Mulcare et al., 2004). Interestingly, Fulani language is classified in the Niger-Congo family of languages, which is more prevalent in West Africa and among Bantu speakers, yet their Y-chromosomes show very little evidence of West African genetic affiliation.".[3]

MtDNA (Maternal)[edit]

In contrast, maternally the Fulani largely cluster with other Niger-Congo peoples with only 8.1% of the mtDNA lineages associated with Afro-Asiatic or Eurasian peoples (J1b, U5, H, and V):[4]

"Despite the large size of the contemporary nomadic Fulani population (roughly 13 million people), the genetic diversity and degree of differentiation of Fulanis compared to other sub-Saharan populations remain unknown. We sampled four Fulani nomad populations (n = 186) in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Chad, Cameroon, and Burkina Faso) and analyzed sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA. Most of the haplotypes belong to haplogroups of West African origin, such as L1b, L3b, L3d, L2b, L2c, and L2d (79.6% in total), which are all well represented in each of the four geographically separated samples. The haplogroups of Western Eurasian origin, such as J1b, U5, H, and V, were also detected but in rather low frequencies (8.1% in total). As in African hunter-gatherers (Pygmies and Khoisan) and some populations from central Tunisia (Kesra and Zriba), three of the Fulani nomad samples do not reveal significant negative values of Fu's selective neutrality test. The multidimensional scaling of FST genetic distances of related sub-Saharan populations and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) show clear and close relationships between all pairs of the four Fulani nomad samples, irrespective of their geographic origin. The only group of nomadic Fulani that manifests some similarities with geographically related agricultural populations (from Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria) comes from Tcheboua in northern Cameroon." [5]

Overall the Fulani are approximately 48% Eurasian (Afrasian) and 52% Sub-Saharan African (Niger-Congo) from genetic testing.

Genetics[edit]

The V22 sub-clade of E1b1b is not solely North African as asserted. It has general Afro-Asiatic affinities, with notable frequencies in the Horn. The Hassan et al. paper notes this. The same applies to the Eurasian mtDNA lineages. Also, the Fulani's West Eurasian component has historically been associated with either the Horn or North Africa. For example:

"We confirmed previous observations, based on HLA class I data, that the Fulani from Burkina Faso are genetically differentiated from sympatric Mossi and Rimaibe;. We have also observed that the Fulani from Burkina Faso are very close to the Fulani from The Gambia, indicating that the Fulani populations of the two countries could be the descendants of the same group of ancestors. Furthermore, both the Fulani from Burkina Faso and from The Gambia share the distribution of specific alleles with East African populations. In particular, the DRB1*04 allele is absent or rare in all Sub-Saharan African populations, except in the Fulani and in Amhara-Oromo from Ethiopia, where it reaches a frequency close to that of Europeans. These observations are in agreement with the hypothesis that the Fulani’s genetic make-up includes an appreciable Caucasoid component of possible East-African origin, which has been suggested on the basis of their physical features and cultural traditions."

http://www.afshg.org/AfSHG2009_Final_Programme_Abstract_Book.pdf

One other thing, most Fulani do not have 40% West Eurasian ancestry. On average, they have about as much such ancestry as the Maasai. Most also don't carry the R1 paternal haplogroup; these are only the ones in Sudan that Hassan et al. actually tested. The Fulani in West Africa (i.e. the majority) actually mainly have the same E3a/E1b1a haplogroup as most other Niger-Cango-speaking groups there [1]. Middayexpress (talk) 17:58, 24 December 2013 (UTC)

Great: the more genetic studies the merrier- especially with the Fulani as they are the most widespread ethnic in Africa and inhabit over 15 countries and as a result are not surprisingly culturally and genetically diverse (although there are clear genetic structures uniting the Fulani across the different countries as highlighted by the mtDNA study). Perhaps we can summarize each of these studies and include them in the section indicating which country each study follows from? They are one of the largest groups in Africa (possibly the second largest after the Hausa) so I think it would be worthwhile to include as much as we can about them in summary. They and the other three largest groups in Africa definitely deserve a great deal of attention on Wikipedia if only based on the numbers (Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa) so anything you can add would also be appreciated. I will also dig for more studies to include in the summary/synthesis. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 18:05, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
And as for R1b, it has been found in elevated numbers in the Fulani in Cameroon as well. Indeed, almost all the R1b found in Africa has in fact been found in the Fulani, which one must remember are found throughout West, northern Central and Sudanic Africa. That is another reason why a good synthesis/summary of these studies in the article with a note as to the region/country the Fulani tested are from would be a great addition. The quote from the mtDNA study in particular is a great example of what I am talking about as it notes the study of Fulani from four different countries and explicitly compares the results to those of the Fulani in other areas. Many studies of the Fulani however have been done for individual Fulani groups within the country of study (like that for Cameroon) so differentiating the national origin or at least the region (West Africa, north Central Africa, Sudanic Africa) of the Fulani for each of the studies cited in the article would probably be the ideal situation (without it getting overlong). Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 18:07, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
That sounds plausible. Do you have a link for the R1b in Cameroon? Also, I just checked the Facts on File link, and it doesn't indicate that the Fulani have 40% West Eurasian ancestry [2] (not saying that it's not possible). Middayexpress (talk) 18:18, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
Great, so I have changed it to this: "Genetic studies have found the Fulani to be largely a combination of Sub-Saharan African and Eurasian or North African lineages. With most of their Eurasian or North African heritage devolving paternally, this is consistent with the group's oral history of a (largely male) nomadic migratory population from North Africa then culturally integrating with, marrying women from, and taking the language of their Sub-Saharan African (Niger-Congo) neighbors over hundreds of years of cultural, demographic and genetic interaction. This genetic and cultural interaction most probably occurred in Senegal, where the closely linguistically related Tukulor, Serer and Wolof people predominate, ultimately leading to the ethnogenesis of the Fulani culture, language and people before subsequent expansion throughout much of West Africa. [6]" Deleting the entire history section which was sourced was wholly unnecessary and I would even call it a type of vandalism, but in any case. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 18:24, 24 December 2013 (UTC)Let me know if you need more sources for the last section of the above before you delete it again, as I can find hundreds. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 18:25, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
The Facts on File link (i.e. the footnote in the paragraph above) doesn't indicate that the Fulani are "largely a combination of Sub-Saharan African and Eurasian or North African lineages" or any of the foregoing. This is original research. Middayexpress (talk) 18:29, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
It is most definitely not original research: anyone with any familiarity with African history or the Fulani is aware of the clear consensus on this issue. I will be adding multiple references right now. If you can hold off on deletion for a few minutes. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 18:32, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
I have added some references regarding the historical origins of the Fulani per above. I will continue to add some more. Feel free to summarize these other genetic studies you have noted and include them in the article-please remember to note the region/nation of the Fulani involved or include a quote noting that (like the two present), as the Fulani are found in over 15 countries in Africa as they are the largest nomadic group in the world. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 19:07, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
As promised, I've added numerous supporting references to the well-known history and origins of the Fulani in Senegal as a result of interactions between North African and Sub-Saharan Africans in the article so please do not delete that section again.(Genetic studies have found the Fulani to be largely a combination of Sub-Saharan African and Eurasian or North African lineages. [7][8][9] With most of their Eurasian or North African heritage devolving paternally, this is consistent with the group's oral history of a (largely male) nomadic migratory population from North Africa then culturally integrating with, marrying women from, and taking the language of their Sub-Saharan African (Niger-Congo) neighbors over hundreds of years of cultural, demographic and genetic interaction. [10][11] [12] This genetic and cultural interaction most probably occurred in Senegal, [13][14][15][16] where the closely linguistically related Tukulor, Serer and Wolof people predominate,[17] ultimately leading to the ethnogenesis of the Fulani culture, language and people before subsequent expansion throughout much of West Africa. [18][19]) Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 21:24, 24 December 2013 (UTC)
I Added a few more references and the study showing R1b in Cameroon and Niger (Elevated levels of the West Eurasian Haplogroup R1b (R-V88) was also found present in the Fulani of Niger and Cameroon. [20]). One of the many references for origins and history I added: Carl Skutsch, Encyclopedia of the World's minorities, p. 474, books.google.com/books?isbn=1135193886 "Therefore, the modern Fulani and their language, Fulfulde, originated in Senegambia, probably in the northern river area of Futa Toro. The original Fulani may have descended from a pastoral group inhabiting the Western Sahara in the Chadian wet phase 5,000 to 10,000 years ago, before moving into the Mauritanian Adrar as the Sahara dried up. later they may have gradually filtered down to the lower and middle Senegal river Valley, the area known as Futa Toro, and intermarried with local groups. From Futa Toro, the Fulani most likel spread into the Sahel zone along the Senegal and Niger Rivers and then further east." Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 22:14, 24 December 2013 (UTC)

"Y-chromosome data of 22 African populations, including the Fulani from Burkina Faso and northern Cameroon, were analyzed by Cruciani et al. (2002). The main result of Cruciani's study is that different populations from northern Cameroon (Fali, Ouldeme, Daba, and some mixed samples) reveal traces of backmigration from Asia to Africa because of a high proportion of haplotype 117. However, the Fulani sample from northern Cameroon considered by Cruciani and colleagues shows a rather low frequency of this haplotype, and the Fulani, which have a high frequency of haplotype 43, are situated as outliers. Cruciani et al. (2002) also showed that the Fulani from Burkina Faso have reduced diversity, because only two Y-chromosome haplotypes were observed in their sample. - Cerny et al. (2006), mtDNA of Fulani Nomads and Their Genetic Relationships to Neighboring Sedentary Populations" I am trying to get some more precise citations. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 18:37, 24 December 2013 (UTC)

Origins in Senegal DNA studies: "similarity among the Fulani, Serer, and Wolof (all from Senegal) is so strong that these three groups even form a discrete cluster (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994, p. 169)." Andajara120000 (talk) 18:39, 24 December 2013 (UTC)

──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── According to Rosa et al. (2007), the Fula/Fulani/Fulbe have 70%+ frequencies of the paternal haplogroup E1b1a [3]. Middayexpress (talk) 18:42, 24 December 2013 (UTC)

Great, could you please summarize these studies and include them in the article as necessary noting the nationalities of the Fulani involved? I feel like the nomadic nature of the Fulani and the fact that they are found in over 15 African countries and as such the fact that the genetic studies for them will differ depending on the source of the study is quite obvious. This is well-known to those with a basic grounding in African history. Considering the fact that the Fulani are estimated to be the second largest ethnic group in Africa after the Hausa, and are the largest nomadic group in the world this kind of accuracy and differentiation by region/nationality is key. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 18:54, 24 December 2013 (UTC)

Genetics[edit]

YDNA (Paternal)[edit]

According to a study by Hassan et al. (2008), the Fulani in Sudan have been found to have over 88% paternal West Eurasian or North African lineages: 53.8% Haplogroup R-M173 (West Eurasian) and 34.62% E-M78 (with 27.2% E-V22) (North African):[21]

"The Fulani, who possess the lowest population size in this study, have an interesting genetic structure, effectively consisting of two haplogroups or founding lineages. One of the lineages is R-M173 (53.8%), and its sheer frequency suggests either a recent migration of this group to Africa and/or a restricted gene flow due to linguistic or cultural barriers. The high frequency of subclade E-V22, which is believed to be northeast African (Cruciani et al., 2007) and haplogroup R-M173, suggests an amalgamation of two populations/cultures that took place sometime in the past in eastern or central Africa. This is also evident from the frequency of the ‘‘T’’ allele of the lactase persistence gene that is uniquely present in considerable frequencies among the Fulani (Mulcare et al., 2004). Interestingly, Fulani language is classified in the Niger-Congo family of languages, which is more prevalent in West Africa and among Bantu speakers, yet their Y-chromosomes show very little evidence of West African genetic affiliation."[22]

Elevated levels of the West Eurasian Haplogroup R-V88 was also found present in the Fulani of Niger and Cameroon. [20] Other studies of the Fulani from Cameroon [23] and Niger [24] have confirmed these findings.

MtDNA (Maternal)[edit]

In contrast, maternally the Fulani largely cluster with other Niger-Congo peoples with only 8.1% of the mtDNA lineages associated with Eurasian or North African peoples (J1b, U5, H, and V):[25]

"Despite the large size of the contemporary nomadic Fulani population (roughly 13 million people), the genetic diversity and degree of differentiation of Fulanis compared to other sub-Saharan populations remain unknown. We sampled four Fulani nomad populations (n = 186) in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Chad, Cameroon, and Burkina Faso) and analyzed sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA. Most of the haplotypes belong to haplogroups of West African origin, such as L1b, L3b, L3d, L2b, L2c, and L2d (79.6% in total), which are all well represented in each of the four geographically separated samples. The haplogroups of Western Eurasian origin, such as J1b, U5, H, and V, were also detected but in rather low frequencies (8.1% in total). As in African hunter-gatherers (Pygmies and Khoisan) and some populations from central Tunisia (Kesra and Zriba), three of the Fulani nomad samples do not reveal significant negative values of Fu's selective neutrality test. The multidimensional scaling of FST genetic distances of related sub-Saharan populations and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) show clear and close relationships between all pairs of the four Fulani nomad samples, irrespective of their geographic origin. The only group of nomadic Fulani that manifests some similarities with geographically related agricultural populations (from Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria) comes from Tcheboua in northern Cameroon." [26]

Genetic and geomorphological studies have found the Fulani to be largely a combination of Sub-Saharan African and Eurasian or North African lineages.[27][28] With most of their Eurasian or North African heritage devolving paternally, this is consistent with the group's oral history of a (largely male) nomadic migratory population from North Africa, [29][30][31][32][33][34] then culturally integrating with, marrying women from, and taking the language of their Sub-Saharan African (Niger-Congo) neighbors over hundreds of years of cultural, demographic and genetic interaction. [35][36][37][38]This genetic and cultural interaction most probably occurred in Senegal, [39][40][41] where the closely linguistically related Tukulor, Serer and Wolof people predominate,[42][43] ultimately leading to the ethnogenesis of the Fulani culture, language and people before subsequent expansion throughout much of West Africa. [44][45]

Everything in this section now seems well sourced but if there any other users have any problems with any part of this section please bring it up in this talk page discussion before deleting it. Regards, Andajara120000 (talk) 00:51, 25 December 2013 (UTC)

Copyrighted files[edit]

Most of the images on the page appear to be copyrighted files. The banned User:Andajara120000 apparently picked them off the internet, and then colorized and uploaded them (e.g. [4]). Middayexpress (talk) 16:57, 21 January 2014 (UTC) ::; ALL the photos were uploaded by Bappah as edit history clearly shows. Careful then in reverting items on the page by solely and with unconfirmed evidence arguing it was included by a banned user, like in this case as revision history clearly shows it was not. The revision history shows that is a popular basis for a number of your recent edits. You should be careful because in this case for example you are clearly wrong and either outright lying or being inexcusably careless (as quick glance of revision history past first page clearly shows the work of numerous editors like Bappah in deeply enriching article) and specifically role of Bappah in including photos. One hopes you will not delete other such material with similar unsubstantiated, unconfirmed and clearly inaccurate arguments.— Preceding unsigned comment added by Sankaretfree (talkcontribs) 09:10, 22 January 2014 (UTC)

I have left a note on that user's page regarding your selections: you have provided evidence of one picture possibly being copyrighted, although just as easily the person could have posted the photos on that site and on this site- you'very actually provided no evidence of a copyright violation. In any case as now it is clear photos were not uploaded by banned user, you perhaps need to go back and restore those photos you cannot show a copyright violation for, since you provided questionable evidence for one photo, but not the many many others you deleted based on your lie that they were clearly uploaded by banned user- I say lie because each photo on the information page clearly showed they were uploaded by Bappah and you have made no arguments and provided no arguments that Bappah and the banned user are related. It thus seems what you did was go through and delete every single photo of a Fulani person save the image gallery on the page without checking which user uploaded it (and you would have clearly seen none were uploaded by the banned user; all you deleted were uploaded by Bappah) or whether it was copyrighted or not. If that is not WP:Vandalism then kindly infotm me what is. Sankaretfree (talk) 09:45, 22 January 2014 (UTC)

WP:SYN and inaccurate summaries by editor-Genetics[edit]

Included full quotations from source to avoid WP:SYN and errors by editors:

  • not " significantly different" from Mossi- source only says "differentiated"
  • Gambia and BF Fulani both probably share ancestors----> just as important observation from study as Amhara-Oromo connection that was quote-mined and given undue emphasis
  • No evidence Amhara-Oromo studied were "Afro-Asiatic" HLA does not indicate that in way DNA may, source does not state "Afro-Asiatic" anywhere; it does state European however and "East African" (specifically Oromo and Amhara who although do speak Afro-Asiatic languages, due to WP:SYN issues that does not allow the wording previously used as it is not actually found in original source.

Etc. please take care to use specific quotes from study as you can or otherwise try to avoid similar WP:SYN which introduces inaccuracies and misrepresentations of study. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Sankaretfree (talkcontribs) 09:08, 22 January 2014 (UTC)

The Fulani are blacks![edit]

Looking at this article and the article on Hausa people it seems there is an attempt to argue these people are "Hamitic" or at least not "true" blacks. It also seems to imply their features are "out of place" in west Africa. That is NOT the case! Look at this Igbo man http://www.africa-confidential.com/uploads/whos_who/53b5fc10e7ed4f25ba4fb2dcd2a1e4c8.jpg The so called "west eurasian" haplogroup r1b is found through out Africa even in southern Africa. http://www.academia.edu/1898548/Possible_African_Origin_of_Y-Chromosome_R1_-M173

If the Fulani are mixed because they have R1b, all of Africa is mixed. The article makes it seem like they are "Hamitic caucasoids" when they are not Turtire (talk) 16:53, 10 March 2014 (UTC)

  1. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 230, books.google.com/books?isbn=143812676X: "The Fulani are descended from both North Africans and sub-Saharan Africans. The earliest Fulani were nomadic cattle herders who traveled great distances with their herds in search of water and pasture...[T]he existence of the Fulani has been known for more than a thousand years...The cradle of the group in West Africa is in northern Senegal, where they settled in Futa Tora[.]"
  2. ^ Hassan, Hisham Y.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E. (2008), "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History" (PDF), American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137 (3): 316, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876, PMID 18618658, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18618658
  3. ^ Hassan, Hisham Y.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E. (2008), "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History" (PDF), American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137 (3): 316, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876, PMID 18618658, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18618658
  4. ^ Cerný V, Hájek M, Bromová M, Cmejla R, Diallo I, Brdicka R., MtDNA of Fulani nomads and their genetic relationships to neighboring sedentary populations. Hum Biol. 2006 Feb;78(1):9-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1690087/
  5. ^ Cerný V, Hájek M, Bromová M, Cmejla R, Diallo I, Brdicka R., MtDNA of Fulani nomads and their genetic relationships to neighboring sedentary populations. Hum Biol. 2006 Feb;78(1):9-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1690087/
  6. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 230, books.google.com/books?isbn=143812676X: "The Fulani are descended from both North Africans and sub-Saharan Africans. The earliest Fulani were nomadic cattle herders who traveled great distances with their herds in search of water and pasture...[T]he existence of the Fulani has been known for more than a thousand years...The cradle of the group in West Africa is in northern Senegal, where they settled in Futa Tora[.]"
  7. ^ Tishkoff, SA; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans". Science 324 (5930): 1035–44. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144. 
  8. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 230, books.google.com/books?isbn=143812676X: "The Fulani are descended from both North Africans and sub-Saharan Africans. The earliest Fulani were nomadic cattle herders who traveled great distances with their herds in search of water and pasture...[T]he existence of the Fulani has been known for more than a thousand years...The cradle of the group in West Africa is in northern Senegal, where they settled in Futa Tora[.]"
  9. ^ International Business Publications, Mali Foreign Policy and Government Guide - Volume 1 (2007), Page 52, books.google.com/books?isbn=1433032139: " suggesting the possibility that their ancestors migrated from the Middle East through North Africa to Senegal."
  10. ^ Derrick J. Stenning, Savannah Nomads: A Study of the Wodaabe Pastoral Fulani of Western Bornu (1959), p. 19, books.google.com/books?isbn=3894738782 "The myths of the Fulani themselves...often describe the marriage of a Muslim Arab or Moor with a Negress which is blessed with children...This child is the ancestor of the Fulani. In some versions his brothers learn the new language, Fulfude from him and found the four great branches of the Fulani people. In others they become the ancestors of other, Negro populations of the country. In all its versions, this myth relates the racial affinities of the Fulani, their linguistic peculiarities and their historical role in the Western Sudan."
  11. ^ Morro Suso, The Oral History of the Manding Empire (2003), p. 40, books.google.com/books?id=Qp0PAQAAMAAJ:"Another main version given about the origins of the Fula is that they originated in the lower basins of the Senegal and the Gambia as a result of a mixture between Berbers from the Sahara and the Wollof and Serer peoples."
  12. ^ Martin Ballard, Uthman Dan Fodio: Commander of the Faithful (1977), p. vii, books.google.com/books?id=CboJAQAAIAAJ: "After a time, however, Ukabu went away and left the mother with her children, and as the boys grew up they started speaking a new language among themselves. This was the Fulani language. Perhaps Ukabu and his sons only existed in the old men's stories, but it is certain that the Fulani were the product of intermarriage from the north and the inhabitants of Senegal."
  13. ^ Andrew Burke, The Gambia & Senegal (2002), pp. 27-28, books.google.com/books?isbn=1740591372: "Although they look on the Futa Toro region in northern Senegal as their cultural homeland."
  14. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 230, books.google.com/books?isbn=143812676X: "The Fulani are descended from both North Africans and sub-Saharan Africans. The earliest Fulani were nomadic cattle herders who traveled great distances with their herds in search of water and pasture...[T]he existence of the Fulani has been known for more than a thousand years...The cradle of the group in West Africa is in northern Senegal, where they settled in Futa Tora[.]"
  15. ^ International Business Publications, Mali Foreign Policy and Government Guide - Volume 1 (2007), Page 52, books.google.com/books?isbn=1433032139: " suggesting the possibility that their ancestors migrated from the Middle East through North Africa to Senegal."
  16. ^ Elizabeth Berg, ‎Ruth Wan, ‎Ruth Lau, Senegal (2009), Page 62, books.google.com/books?isbn=0761444815:"Their nomadic ancestors are thought to have come from a region north of the Senegal River. They have gradually migrated south and east over the last 400 to 500 years. During this time the majority of Fulani became sedentary[.]"
  17. ^ Dickson Eyoh, Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century African History (2002), p. 228, books.google.com/books?isbn=0203986571:"The most important dialects of the language are: Tukulor, primarily spoken in northern Senegal...[t]he major African languages related to Fulani are those of the West-Atlantic branch, especially Wolof and Seereer."
  18. ^ Toyin Folola, Historical Dictionary of Nigeria (2009), p. 135, books.google.com/books?isbn=0810863162: "Because the Fulani people historically were pastoralists, the language spread across West Africa from Senegal and east to Chad and northern Cameroon."
  19. ^ Pat Ikechukwu Ndukwe, Fulani (1996), p. 17-18, books.google.com/books?isbn=082391982X: "The Fulani themselves have their own beliefs about their origins. The most commonly held myth refers to the marriage of an Arab Muslim called Ukuba to an African woman from Fouta Toro. The marriage was blessed with four sons. The eldest of these sons showed early, though various signs, that he was destined for great things. For example, from infancy he spoke an incomprehensible language that later developed into Fulfulde, the Fulani language...There is reason to believe the Fulani may have originated from the Fouta Toro in Senegambia. Linguistic evidence shows that Fulfulde is related to Wolof and Serer, two other languages spoken in the same area. Such evidence often suggests a long historical relationship and a common source for both the languages and their speakers."
  20. ^ a b Cruciani et al.; Trombetta, B; Sellitto, D; Massaia, A; Destro-Bisol, G; Watson, E; Beraud Colomb, E; Dugoujon, JM; Moral, P (2010). "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages". European Journal of Human Genetics 18 (7): 800–7. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.231. PMC 2987365. PMID 20051990. 
  21. ^ Hassan, Hisham Y.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E. (2008), "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History" (PDF), American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137 (3): 316, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876, PMID 18618658, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18618658
  22. ^ Hassan, Hisham Y.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E. (2008), "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History" (PDF), American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137 (3): 316, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876, PMID 18618658, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18618658
  23. ^ Mulcare CA, et al.(2004) The T allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) (C-13.9kbT) does not predict or cause the lactase-persistence phenotype in Africans. Am J Hum Genet 74:1102–1110, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707628377:"Only the Fulbe and Hausa from Cameroon possessed the T allele at a level consistent with phenotypic observations (as well as an Irish sample used for comparison). We conclude that the C13.9kbT polymorphism is not a predictor of lactase persistence in sub-Saharan Africans. We also present Y-chromosome data that are consistent with previously reported evidence for a back-migration event into Cameroon, and we comment on the implications for the introgression of the 13.9kb*T allele...Our Y-chromosome data corroborate the results of Cruciani and colleagues (2002) in finding high frequencies in our Cameroonian samples of a haplogroup that is generally absent from sub-Saharan Africa. Phylogeographic arguments suggest that this haplogroup (R1*, by use of the nomenclature of the Y-Chromosome Consortium [2002]) has a non-African origin. Cruciani and colleagues (2002) found R1* Y chromosomes at an average frequency of 40% in several northern Cameroonian groups, including one Fulbe group. We found evidence for the same haplotype (typed by use of a marker that appears phylogenetically identical in this part of Africa) in our samples from central Cameroon, with a particularly high frequency (19%) in the Fulbe group that was tested. The Y-chromosome microsatellite diversity we observed indicates that this haplogroup could not have been brought to this part of Africa by a single recent founder. The origins of the Fulbe are the subject of debate, but the group is thought to be from outside Cameroon; on the basis of ethnic traditions and linguistic similarities between Fulbe languages and Tukulor (Toucouleur), an origin in the Futa Toro region of the Senegal river basin has been proposed (Newman 1995)."
  24. ^ Jana Bučková et al., Multiple and differentiated contributions to the male gene pool of pastoral and farmer populations of the African Sahel. AJPA 2013, doi:10.1002/ajpa.22236. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22236/abstract:"Interestingly, within the Fulani pastoralist population as a whole, a differentiation of the groups from Niger is characterized by their high presence of R1b-M343 and E-[M35]. Moreover, the R1b-M343 is represented in our dataset exclusively in the Fulani group and our analyses infer a north-to-south African migration route during a recent past."
  25. ^ Cerný V, Hájek M, Bromová M, Cmejla R, Diallo I, Brdicka R., MtDNA of Fulani nomads and their genetic relationships to neighboring sedentary populations. Hum Biol. 2006 Feb;78(1):9-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1690087/
  26. ^ Cerný V, Hájek M, Bromová M, Cmejla R, Diallo I, Brdicka R., MtDNA of Fulani nomads and their genetic relationships to neighboring sedentary populations. Hum Biol. 2006 Feb;78(1):9-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1690087/
  27. ^ Tishkoff, SA; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans". Science 324 (5930): Supplement, 16. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144.  , http://www.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2009/04/30/1172257.DC1/Tishkoff.SOM_REVISED.pdf:"Other groups of interest can be assessed with STRUCTURE analyses, including the Fulani, sampled from Nigeria and Cameroon, the Baggara sampled from northern Cameroon, and the Koma sampled from the Alantika Mountains in eastern Nigeria. The Fulani are nomadic pastoralists who speak a Niger-Kordofanian language (Atlantic Senegambian subfamily) and occupy a broad geographic range in central and western Africa... Our analysis, using genomewide nuclear markers and STRUCTURE, indicates that the Fulani have distinctive ancestry (fuchsia) at K = 14 in the global analysis (Figs. 3, 4) and at K = 9 -14 in the Africa analysis (Fig. S15). Low to moderate levels of the Fulani AAC was also observed in the Mozabite and Mandinka populations in the global analysis (Figs. 3 and 4). The Fulani cluster with the Chadic and Central Sudanic speaking populations at K <13 in the global analysis (Fig. 3; maroon) and at K <8 in the Africa analysis (Fig. S15; red). They also cluster near the Chadic and Central Sudanic speaking populations in the NJ tree based on population genetic distances (Figs. 1, S7 and S8). In the global STRUCTURE analysis, the Fulani show low to moderate levels of European/Middle Eastern ancestry (blue), consistent with mtDNA (S101) and Y chromosome (S97) analyses, as well as the presence at low frequency of the -13910T mutation associated with lactose tolerance in Europeans in this population (S102). Additionally, we observe moderate to high levels of Niger- Kordofanian ancestry in the Fulani populations (Figs. 3, 4, S15;Tables S8, S9). These results do not enable us to determine the definitive origin of the Fulani, although they indicate shared ancestry with Saharan and Central Sudanic populations and suggest that the Fulani have admixed with local populations, and possibly adopted a Niger-Kordofanian language, during their spread across central and western Africa. The origin of European (possibly via the Iberian peninsula) and/or Middle Eastern ancestry in the Fulani requires further exploration with additional genetic markers."
  28. ^ Daniel Abwa, Boundaries and History in Africa (2013), p.6, books.google.com/books?isbn=9956791016:"Who are the Mbororo?There are conflicting historical versions as to the origin of the Fulani in general and Nomadic Fulani (Mbororo) in particular. However geomorphologists speculate that the long-horn cattle Fulani originated from the North African littoral and much of what is now Sahara [formerly] grass-covered Savannah lands in comparatively recent times."
  29. ^ Stanisław Piłaszewicz, Unwritten testimonies of the African past (1991), p.85,books.google.com/books?isbn=8323002622:"Let us mention that Fulbe traditions claim a North African origin of their forefathers."
  30. ^ Toyin Folola, Health knowledge and belief systems in Africa (2008), p. 68, books.google.com/books?id=F8QPAQAAMAAJ:"The subject matter of bhuuri had important symbolic significance in Fulani life bcause bhuuri is thought to distinguish Fulani from their neighbors. Fulani believe they suffer bhuuri because they are a people who come from North Africa or the Sahara. Consequently they are more vulnerable to the humidity of sub-Saharan Africa."
  31. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 230, books.google.com/books?isbn=143812676X: "The Fulani are descended from both North Africans and sub-Saharan Africans. The earliest Fulani were nomadic cattle herders who traveled great distances with their herds in search of water and pasture..."
  32. ^ International Business Publications, Mali Foreign Policy and Government Guide - Volume 1 (2007), Page 52, books.google.com/books?isbn=1433032139: " suggesting the possibility that their ancestors migrated...through North Africa to Senegal."
  33. ^ Neil Peart, The Masked Rider: Cycling in West Africa (2004), books.google.com/books?isbn=1554907136:"This was my first encounter with the Fulani people, a once nomadic tribe thought to be of North African descent, who had moved into the north of present-day Cameroon in the eleventh century, at the height of the great Fulani Empire."
  34. ^ Emmanuel Neba Ndenecho, Decentralization and Spatial Rural Development Planning in Cameroon (2011), p. 23, books.google.com/books?isbn=9956717665:"The Fulani, a pastoral cattle-rearing people probably of north African origin..."
  35. ^ Derrick J. Stenning, Savannah Nomads: A Study of the Wodaabe Pastoral Fulani of Western Bornu (1959), p. 19, books.google.com/books?isbn=3894738782 "The myths of the Fulani themselves...often describe the marriage of a...Moor with a Negress which is blessed with children...This child is the ancestor of the Fulani. In some versions his brothers learn the new language, Fulfude from him and found the four great branches of the Fulani people. In others they become the ancestors of other, Negro populations of the country. In all its versions, this myth relates the racial affinities of the Fulani, their linguistic peculiarities and their historical role in the Western Sudan."
  36. ^ Morro Suso, The Oral History of the Manding Empire (2003), p. 40, books.google.com/books?id=Qp0PAQAAMAAJ:"Another main version given about the origins of the Fula is that they originated in the lower basins of the Senegal and the Gambia as a result of a mixture between [peoples] from the Sahara and the Wollof and Serer peoples."
  37. ^ Martin Ballard, Uthman Dan Fodio: Commander of the Faithful (1977), p. vii, books.google.com/books?id=CboJAQAAIAAJ: "After a time, however, Ukabu went away and left the mother with her children, and as the boys grew up they started speaking a new language among themselves. This was the Fulani language. Perhaps Ukabu and his sons only existed in the old men's stories, but it is certain that the Fulani were the product of intermarriage from the north and the inhabitants of Senegal."
  38. ^ Pat Ikechukwu Ndukwe, Fulani (1996), p. 17-18, books.google.com/books?isbn=082391982X: "The Fulani themselves have their own beliefs about their origins. The most commonly held myth refers to the marriage of...Ukuba to an African woman from Fouta Toro. The marriage was blessed with four sons. The eldest of these sons showed early, through various signs, that he was destined for great things. For example, from infancy he spoke an incomprehensible language that later developed into Fulfulde, the Fulani language...There is reason to believe the Fulani may have originated from the Fouta Toro in Senegambia. Linguistic evidence shows that Fulfulde is related to Wolof and Serer, two other languages spoken in the same area. Such evidence often suggests a long historical relationship and a common source for both the languages and their speakers."
  39. ^ Andrew Burke, The Gambia & Senegal (2002), pp. 27-28, books.google.com/books?isbn=1740591372: "Although they look on the Futa Toro region in northern Senegal as their cultural homeland."
  40. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 230, books.google.com/books?isbn=143812676X: "[T]he existence of the Fulani has been known for more than a thousand years...The cradle of the group in West Africa is in northern Senegal, where they settled in Futa Tora[.]"
  41. ^ Elizabeth Berg, ‎Ruth Wan, ‎Ruth Lau, Senegal (2009), Page 62, books.google.com/books?isbn=0761444815:"Their nomadic ancestors are thought to have come from a region north of the Senegal River. They have gradually migrated south and east over the last 400 to 500 years. During this time the majority of Fulani became sedentary[.]"
  42. ^ Dickson Eyoh, Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century African History (2002), p. 228, books.google.com/books?isbn=0203986571:"The most important dialects of the language are: Tukulor, primarily spoken in northern Senegal...[t]he major African languages related to Fulani are those of the West-Atlantic branch, especially Wolof and Seereer."
  43. ^ L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 169:"The third outlier is a minor cluster of Wolof, Serer, and Peul (from Senegal)."
  44. ^ Carl Skutsch, Encyclopedia of the World's minorities, p. 474, books.google.com/books?isbn=1135193886 "Therefore, the modern Fulani and their language, Fulfulde, originated in Senegambia, probably in the northern river area of Futa Toro. The original Fulani may have descended from a pastoral group inhabiting the Western Sahara in the Chadian wet phase 5,000 to 10,000 years ago, before moving into the Mauritanian Adrar as the Sahara dried up. Later they may have gradually filtered down to the lower and middle Senegal River Valley, the area known as Futa Toro, and intermarried with local groups. From Futa Toro, the Fulani most likely spread into the Sahel zone along the Senegal and Niger Rivers and then further east."
  45. ^ Toyin Folola, Historical Dictionary of Nigeria (2009), p. 135, books.google.com/books?isbn=0810863162: "Because the Fulani people historically were pastoralists, the language spread across West Africa from Senegal and east to Chad and northern Cameroon."