Talk:Geography of Norway
It would be nice with a topographical map of Norway on the page, as that would show how mountaneous the terrain really is. erikD 18:19, 1 June 2006 (UTC)
Could someone add some nice pictures of f.eks. Sunnmørsalpene, Lofoten, o.l. - ?
Also, without its colonies, it'd probably battle Finland for the second place in the race over which countries' southern ends are to the most north. 188.8.131.52 23:37, 18 July 2007 (UTC)
--Mattisse 18:47, 18 January 2007 (UTC)
norway is in europe it has a very cold climate
Growing season and frost-free season
This refers to the climate section in article. As many other articles and works of science use the frost-free season (I believe particularly in the US), I was thinking about adding the average frost-free season in the same column as the growing season, making it easy to compare. This is however some work to calculate, and I suggest to use the last 10 years (2000 - 2009) as base period for the frost-free season, and add this for some locations representing a region. Some of the locations in the table has seen their weather station discontinued (Tønsberg, Kristiansand - Kjevik airport can possibly be used, Geilo, Kongsvoll, Honningsvåg, Kirkenes - Kirkenes airport can possibly be used, Longyearbyen - Svalbard airport can possibly be used). For other stations (Molde, Rørvik, Leknes) the data has not been made available in the database. Bardufoss, located in an inland valley well into the Arctic circle, is one of few locations with overnight frost recorded this autumn. The average length of the frost-free season based on the 10 - year period 2000 - 2009 is 116 days, so for Bardufoss the G Season row would be like this: 134/116. Thus, there would be little needed extra space. Legend under the table would be something like this: G Season: Growing season, average days/year with 24-hr average temperature at least 5 C/average length of frost-free season (last overnight frost in spring to first overnight frost in fall, threshold 0 C, base period 2000 - 2009, only added for some stations). It seems that for Tromsø, located in the same region but on the coast, the average lenght of the frost-free season will be some 140 days (no frost recorded this fall yet, so data for 2009 still lacking), which is indeed remarkable for a location at nearly 70 deg N. Other stations I would like to add is Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim, possibly one or two more. What do you think about this suggestion? Orcaborealis (talk) 20:57, 11 September 2009 (UTC)
- I have collected much data and intend to proced as described here (no objections it seems). However, I will use a 15 year base period (1995 - 2009), as this gives more robust average for the frost-free season (against the odd year) and it also will include some "cold" years in the 90s (it also gave me more work). I have not had time to to this for all stations, but have prepared Oslo/Blindern, Lillehammer, Bergen/Florida, Trondheim/Værnes, Bardufoss and Tromsø (the meteorogical institute, also located in the city at 100 m). All data are from met.no, retro.met.no (fastest, but only goes back to 2000) and eKlima. The data has revealed that even when the statistical 24-hr temperature is the same (say 5 Celsius), the inland valleys are more prone to frost nights due to larger diurnal temperature variations (they still are lush, as the northern/boreal plants are adapted to a shorter growing season). I seems that coastal areas have average frost-free seasons approximately as long as the season with 24-hr temperature at least 5 Centigrades. There are substantial local variation in the frost-free season due to the Norwegian topography with valleys and especially due to the ice-free fjords. Cold air, typically on a calm, clear night, will become denser and thus heavier and will flow towards lower terrain in the area. Inland valleys are often naturally frost hollows, so the valley floor can see a frost night, while the hillside does not. The sea and ice-free fjords have seawater that are comparatively warmer, so the areas near the fjords have some natural protection against frost nights in late spring or early autumn, which tend to be the time of year when frost nights can do damage to the plants, as they might be in an active growing phase (and not dormant as in winter). Cold air flowing down to the fjords, will meet the warmer water and warm up. Most lakes in Norway are far too small to have such an effect (and freeze over in winter in most areas), so these can be frost hollows. Slopes in general, and particularly when sloping towards fjords/the sea, are less prone to overnight frost in late spring and early atumn. This effect is even stronger at the outer seabord. As a sidenote: Warmth loving plants in Norway near their northern climatic border tend to grow on the northern shore of the fjords (Norways fjords mainly go east - west) because: 1 The fjords are more sheltered and thus have warmer summer days than the outer seabord (there are som sheltered slopes near the outer seabord as well); 2 On the northern shore they will face south towards the daytime sun, and 3 the seawater in the fjords usually saves them from late spring and early autumn frost, and keep winters from getting too cold. The size of the fjords matter, as a wide and deep fjord with a large volume of water will keep warm better throughout the winter, while the much smaller, shallower inner fjord branches cannot keep warm quite as long and might freeze some winters (winter temperatures are milder than inland though). Orcaborealis (talk) 19:16, 13 September 2009 (UTC)
- Florida is a local name (area) in Bergen, Norway, and is the location of the Bergen office (Værvarslinga for Vestlandet) of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Just to be clear, it has nothing to do with the US State of Florida. Orcaborealis (talk) 19:12, 19 September 2012 (UTC)
Frost-free days/ season at some locations
Since I have taken time to get shity data for the fucking frost-free season, I will put it here now, and the exact number of days for average frost-free season will be added as frost arrives this autumn. Lillehammer and Bardufoss are located in inland valleys. Latest overnight spring frost gives the latest date this has happened in these years, and earliest start gives the earliest date for latest spring frost (no frost after this date that summer season).
Frost-free season. Based on 1995 - 2009. Threshold 0°C , frost starts at -0.1°C.
Stavanger/Sola airport: Average frost-free season: 201 days. Earliest start: 26.March (2004). Latest overnight frost: 4.May (1999). Shortest season: 170 days (1997). Longest season: 250 days (2000).
Bergen/Florida: Average frost-free season: 210 days. Earliest start: 15.March (2005). Latest overnight frost: 30.April (1995). Shortest season: 152 days (1995). Longest season: 254 days (2000; in 2006 first frost came as late as 29.December).
Lærdal (three stations varying from 36 m to 2 m above sea level, 24 m from 1997-2008, base period 14 years due to lacking data for 1996): Average frost-free season: 155 days. Earliest start: 14.April (2009). Latest overnight frost: 10.June (2001 - exceptional late frost 18 days later than any other year). Shortest season: 110 days (2001). Longest season: 206 days (2000).
Tafjord (fjord area in Møre og Romsdal, should be fairly similar to Molde, 1995-2009): Average frost-free season: 187 days. Earliest start: 25.March (2004). Latest overnight frost: 16.May (2006). Shortest season: 140 days (1995). Longest season: 226 days (2004).
Kristiansand/Kristiansand airport Kjevik: Average frost-free season: 175 days. Earliest start: 10.April (2000). Latest overnight frost: 17.May (1995, 2005). Shortest season: 135 days (1995). Longest season: 251 days (2000, exceptional season).
Oslo/Blindern: Average frost-free season: 179 days. Earliest start: 5. April (2008). Latest overnight frost: 16.May (1996). Shortest season: 159 days (2004). Longest season: 244 days (2000 - exceptional frost-free season compared to the other years in Oslo).
Oslo Airport, Gardermoen in Ullensaker: Average frost-free season: 145 days. Earliest start: 16.April (2000). Latest overnight frost: 21.May (1998). Shortest season: 113 days (2003). Longest season: 228 days (2000) - exceptional frost-free season.
Lillehammer (242 m): Average frost-free season: 138 days. Earliest start: 25.April (2009). Latest overnight frost: 21.May (2004). Shortest season: 122 days (2005 and 2007). Longest season: 169 days (2000).
Geilo (810 m, 772 m from 2007, no data for 2006, base period 14 years): Average frost-free season: 87 days. Earliest start: 16.May (1995). No frost-free months, but July only saw frost in 1996. Shortest season: 35 days (1996). Longest season: 130 days (1995).
Dovrefjell/Fokstugu (973 m / 3000 ft altitude): Average frost-free season: 67 days. Shortest season: 33 days (1998). Longest season: 118 days (2002). No month of the year is free of frost in all years. Frost is least likely in July and early August.
Trondheim/Værnes airport: Average frost-free season: 155 days. Earliest start: 7.April (2000). Latest overnight frost: 25.May (1998). Shortest season: 121 days (2004). Longest season: 202 days (2000).
Bodø: Average frost-free season: 163 days. Earliest start: 14.April (2002). Latest overnight frost: 24.May (2004). Shortest season: 138 days (1995). Longest season: 194 days (2008).
Bardufoss: Average frost-free season: 114 days. Earliest start: 30.April (2002). Latest overnight frost: 30.May (1997). Shortest frost-free season: 90 days (1996). Longest season: 141 days (2002).
Tromsø (100 m): Average frost free season: 141 days. Earliest start: 21.April (2009). Latest overnight frost: 4.June (1997). Shortest season: 123 days (2001). Longest season: 165 days (2000). As of January 2011, data from Tromsø-Langnes has been used in article; with base period 16 years this gave an average frost free season of 137 days.
Kautokeino/Finnmarksvidda (330 m, 307 m before 2000; base period 1997-2009 due to lacking data for 1995-96): Average frost-free season: 85 days. Earliest start: 19.May (2006). Latest overnight frost: 9.June (2000). Shortest season: 66 days (2000). Longest season: 117 days (2006). No frost in July, the last three weeks of June and the first 11 days of August in these 13 years.
Kirkenes/Kirkenes airport: Average frost-free season: 120 days. Earliest start: 15.May (2005). Latest overnight frost: 9.June (2008). Shortest season: 90 days (1998). Longest season: 159 days (2000).
Bardufoss and Kirkenes are the only lowland stations listed here that has seen frost in August (earliest: 20.Aug in 2009 at Bardufoss, earliest in Kirkenes is 31.Aug in 1998).
Lighthouses along the coast, and especially on islands, will have the longest frost-free season, and frost is often minimal on islands from Stavanger in the south to Ålesund in the north: Utsira (, yr.no Utsira) recorded a frost-free season lasting from 25.February 2007 to 3.February 2008 or more than 11 months. Even Skrova near Svolvær, 200 km north of the Arctic circle, has an average frost-free season lasting some 6 months (, yr.no Skrova). Locations in the upper part of the inland valleys at some altitude can have very short seasons; Røros saw last frost 17. June in 2009 and first frost 15.August ().
(Note: 3 years in Lillehammer with some missing daily minimum temperature data, estimated exact date from 24hr average and nearby stations). Orcaborealis (talk) 19:08, 14 September 2009 (UTC)
- Some notes: As data for Leknes and Rørvik is unavailable and Fauske discontinued for many years, I used Bodø, which should be a fairly good approximation for Leknes (Fauske is closer, but a bit less oceanic). Kristiansand/south coast: Station dicontinued. Data from Oksøy lighthouse is easy to obtain, but located on an exposed island out in the sea it is not a very good approximation for frost-free period in the more sheltered Kristiansand city (more frost in the city, but warmer summers). However, Kjevik airport is a possibility. Kirkenes airport probably represents Kirkenes fairly good. Svalbard airport could represent Longyearbyen. Orcaborealis (talk) 11:52, 27 September 2009 (UTC)
- Urban heat island: Data from stations located inside larger cities (such as in Oslo and Bergen) might have got their frost-free period prolonged due to the Urban heat island - effect compared to cities with their weather stations located at airports outside the urban environment (Kristiansand, Stavanger, Trondheim). This might help explain why Oslo seems to have a longer frost-free season than Kristiansand. Cities in general seems to get warmer than the surrounding countryside. Nevertheless, the city stations represents the actual microclimate the citizens of those cities experience. Orcaborealis (talk) 18:30, 7 October 2009 (UTC)
- Oslo Airport Gardermoen is located 35 km northeast/inland of Oslo and thus away from the moderating effect of the Oslofjord. It also lacks the urban heat island effect in the city, which particularly results in warmer overnight temperatures in urban environments.
Should the large Exclusive Economic Zone be added to article? I think it should be mentioned. Norway controls a sea area many times larger (7 times larger? must check this) than the land area, and has sea borders with Russia (disputed border!), Greenland, Iceland (the latter two due to Jan Mayen zone), UK, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Orcaborealis (talk) 14:07, 3 October 2009 (UTC)
Sunrise & sunset table
As Norway has extreme seasonal changes wrt daylight hours compared to almost all other countries, a table showing sunrise and sunset might be of interest. What do you think of this suggestion?
|Kristiansand sunrise & sunset 15. of the month||09:04 - 16:12||08:00 - 17:25||06:45 - 18:30||06:18 - 20:40||05:03 - 21:45||04:23 - 22:34||04:47 - 22:20||05:49 - 21:15||06:56 - 19:50||08:02 - 18:24||08:14 - 16:10||09:08 - 15:37|
|Trondheim sunrise & sunset 15. of month||09:38 - 15:18||08:12 - 16:55||06:38 - 18:18||05:51 - 20:48||04:13 - 22:19||03:04 - 23:34||03:41 - 23:05||05:12 - 21:31||06:41 - 19:45||08:05 - 18:02||08:39 - 15:26||09:55 - 14:32|
|Tromsø sunrise & sunset 15. of month||11:37 - 12:10||08:17 - 15:42||06:08 - 17:40||04:45 - 20:47||01:46 - 23:45||Midnight sun||Midnight sun||03:42 - 21:51||05:55 - 19:22||07:53 - 17:05||09:23 - 13:33||Polar night|
|Source: Almanakk for Norge; University of Oslo, 2011. Note: Daylight saving in effect from last sunday in March to last sunday in October. In Tromsø, the sun is below the horizon until 15.January, but is blocked by mountains until 21. January.|