Talk:German New Guinea
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I have added a reference: William Churchill, 'Germany's Lost Pacific Empire' (1920) Geographical Review 10 (2) pp84-90. Churchill's article begins with a chronology:
1883 Annexation by Queensland of New Guinea east of the Dutch boundary at 141 E.
1883 Annexation annulled by Great Britain.
1884 October to December. Germany annexes Kaiser-Wilhelmsland (the northern shore of New Guinea east of 141 and inland to the central ranges) for the Deutsche Neuguinea-Gesellschaft, the New Britannia Archipelago (changing its name to the Bismarck Archipelago), and the Solomon Islands as far south as the strait between Ysabel and Malaita.
1884 November. Great Britain proclaims protectorate over British New Guinea (the southern shore east of 141 and inland to the centralranges), turning over administration to Australia, and over the southern Solomon Islands and the Santa Cruz group.
1885 August 25. German flag hoisted over Yap in the Caroline Islands. Spain protests the annexation, the matter being referred to the Holy See for arbitration.
1885 October 15. German flag hoisted at Jaluit in annexation of the Marshall Islands in the name of the Jaluit-Gesellschaft.
1885 Queensland re-annexes southeastern New Guinea.
1899 Germany buys from Spain the Carolines, Pelews, and Marianas.
1899 November 14. Germany completes the partition of Samoa on the dissolution of the Berlin General Act of 1889.
1914 September to December. Capture of Samoa by New Zealand, of New Guinea by Australia of the equatorial islands by Japan.
Disagreement in historiography
There is a historiographical debate concerning the determinant forces driving German (and other European) colonial policy in the South Pacific. The debate is well discussed in Hans-Jürgen Ohff (2008) Empires of enterprise: German and English commercial interests in East New Guinea 1884 to 1914 Thesis (Ph.D. University of Adelaide, School of History and Politics). Care will be needed to ensure a balanced account. Plaindrome (talk) 08:36, 18 December 2009 (UTC)
1st April 1899
On 18th November 2003, editor Stan Shebs inserted the precise date, 1st April, beside the year 1899 in relation to Spain's sale of the Caroline Islands to Germany. I have just produced a source which casts doubt on this accuracy. I am however fully aware that sources often contradict each other when it comes to the finer details. This is a matter which may therefore need to be double or triple checked. And by the way, this is not an April Fool's day joke. David Tombe (talk) 14:47, 1 April 2010 (UTC)
Moved over from Landeshauptmann
- German (North East) New Guinea (Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, over which Germany proclaimed a protectorate on 3 November 1884) during two periods of indirect rule by a chartered company, the Deutsche Neu-Guinea Compagnie ('German New Guinea Company'), preceded by a Commissioner (1885 - January 1887 Gustav von Oertzen) and interrupted by another Commissioner (21 August 1889 - 31 August 1892 Fritz Rose; acting to 30 September 1890) :
- 10 June 1886 - 1 March 1888 Georg Freiherr von Schleinitz (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
- 1 March 1888 - 31 October 1889 Reinhold Kraetke (b. 1845 - d. 1934)
- 1 September 1892 - 3 March 1895 Georg Schmiele (b. 1855 - d. 1895)
- 3 March 1895 - 17 August 1896 Hugo Rüdiger
- 22 September 1896 - 13 August 1897 Kurt von Hagen (b. 1859 - d. 1897)
- 15 August 1897 - 11 September 1897 Albert Hahl (acting) (b. 1868 - d. 1945)
- 11 September 1897 - 31 March 1899 Hugo Skopnik; after him the colony was under Governors
- Jaluit (Marshall Islands), since 13 September 1886 a German protectorate, after several Kaiserliche Kommissare :
- 11 May 1894 - March 1898 Georg Irmer (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
- 24 March 1898 - 18 January 1906 Eugen Brandeis (b. 1846 - d. 1919) (acting to 22 February 1900)
- 18 January 1906 - May 1906 Ludwig Kaiser (acting) (b. 1862 - d. 1906)
- 1 April 1906 - 3 October 1914 the governors of German New Guinea; afterwards the jurisdiction was downgraded to district, under a Bezirksamtmann