Talk:Haj Amin al-Husseini

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Recruitment draft work in progress[edit]

Himmler had a romantic vision of Islam as a faith ‘fostering fearless soldiers’, and this probably played a significant role [1][2]in his decision to raise three Muslim divisions under German leadership in the Balkans from Bosnian Muslims and Albanians .[3][4]  : the 13th Waffen SS Mountain Division Handschar,[5] the 21st Skanderbeg, and the 23rd Kama (Shepherd's dagger). Riven by interethnic conflict, the region's Jewish, Croat, Roma, Serb and Muslim communities suffered huge losses of life,[6][7] Bosnian Muslims losing around 85,000 from a genocidal Četnik ethnic cleansing operations alone.[8]. The Muslims had three options: to join the Croatian Ustaše, or the Serbian partisans, or to create local defense units. Following a tradition of service in the old Bosnian regiments of the former Austro-Hungarian army, they chose an alliance with Germany, which promised them autonomy. Husseini, having been petitioned by the Bosnian Muslim leaders, was well informed of their plight.[9] Dissatisfied with low enlistenment, Himmler asked the mufti to intervene.[10] Husseini negotiated, made several requests, mostly ignored by the SS, and conducted several visits to the area.[11] His speeches and charismatic authority proved instrumental in improving enlistment notably.[12] In one speech he declared that:

Those lands suffering under the British and Bolshevist yoke impatiently await the moment when the Axis (powers) will emerge victorious. We must dedicate ourselves to unceasing struggle against Britain -that dungeon of peoples - and to the complete destruction of the British Empire.We must dedicate ourselves to unceasing struggle against Bolshevist Russia because communism is incompatible with Islam.'

One SS officer reporting on impresssions from the mufti's Sarajevo speech said Husseini was reserved about fighting Bolshevism, his main enemies being Jewish settlers in Palestine and the English.[13]

In an agreement signed by Husseini and Himmler on May 19,1943, it was specified that no synthesis of Islam and Nationalism was to take place.[14][15]Husseini asked that Muslim divisional operations to be restricted to the defense of the Moslem heartland of Bosnia and Herzegovina; that partisans be amnestied if they laid down their arms; that the civilian population not be subject to vexations by troops;that assistance be offered to innocents injured by operations; and that harsh measures like deportations, confiscations of goods, or executions be governed in accordance with the rule of law. [16]The Handschar earned a repute for brutality in ridding north-eastern Bosnia of Serbs and partisans: many local Muslims, observing the violence, were driven to go over to the communist partisans.[17][18] Once redeployed outside Bosnia, and as the fortunes of war turned, mass defections and desertions took place, and Volksdeutsche were drafted to replace the losses.[19] The mufti blamed the mass desertions on German support for the Četniks.[20] Many Bosnians in these divisions who survived the war sought asylum in Western and Arab countries, and of those settling in the Middle East, many fought in Palestine against the new state of Israel. [21]

  1. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 496
  2. ^ Lepre 1997, pp. 12, 310
  3. ^ Stein 1984, pp. 184-5.
  4. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 228, n.28.
  5. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 47 named from the word for a Turkish policeman's sword (or fighting knife:handžar from Turkish hancerTomasevich 2001, p. 497), which had figured as an emblem on the Bosnian coat-of-arms.
  6. ^ Mojzes 2011, p. 78
  7. ^ Lepre & 1997 313:'Overall, it is fairest to say that the Yugoslavian insurgency was a racial - national - ideological - religious struggle that was unique in its barbarity and excesses were perpetrated by all of the warring sides against both combatants and the civilian population.'
  8. ^ Mojzes 1984, pp. 97-98: ‘a scorched-earth practice commenced . .”During the operation, we carried out the complete annihilation of the Moslem inhabitants, without regard to their sex and age . .The whole population has been annihilated.'
  9. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 31:'The hearts of all Muslims must today go out to our Islamic brothers in Bosnia, who are forced to endure a tragic fate. They are being persecuted by the Serbian and communist bandits, who receive support from England and the Soviet Union.... They are being murdered, their possessions are robbed, and their villages are burned. England and its allies bear a great accountability before history for mishandling and murdering Europe's Muslims, just as they have done in the Arabic lands and in India.'
  10. ^ Lepre 1997, pp. 26-28
  11. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 34.
  12. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 313.
  13. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 33.
  14. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 497:'the objective was not to synthesize National Socialism and Islam, nor to convert the Bosnian Muslims (who, it said, though racially Germanic, were ideologically part of the Arab world) to National Socialism. . .though distinctm the two ideologies would act togfether against their common enemies-Jews, Anglo-Americans, Communists, Freemasons, and the Catholic Church.'
  15. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 67:'Husseini and the Germans opted against forming any synopsis between Islam and national socialism. . .The Idea of Family (Familiengedanke) - the strong family sense possessed by the German and Muslim peoples.The Idea of Order (Ordnungsgedanke) - the idea of the New Order in Europe. The Idea of the Fũhrer (Fũhrergedanke) - The idea that a people should be led by one leader. The Idea of Faith (Glaubensgedanke) - That Islam (for Muslims) and national socialism (for Germans) would serve as educational tools to create order, discipline, and loyalty.’
  16. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 135.
  17. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 499
  18. ^ Hoare 2014, pp. 194-195.
  19. ^ Lepre 1997, pp. 247ff..
  20. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 257
  21. ^ Lepre 1997, p. 303.

Verification of obscure ref required[edit]

Copied from Archive 15:

ref name=princeton>Princeton Papers. Department of Middle Eastern studies. Vol 9-8: pp.217-221

This is poor referencing. That is a journal, the volumes are 9-8, which seems back to front, and in any case if so, one cannot give a page number to 2 volumes. The journal has an editor unnamed, and presumably this is to an article, unnamed, with an author or two, unnamed. I'm removing it until this can be fixed. Nishidani (talk) 14:54, 25 June 2012 (UTC)

Solution: this is a compilation of articles reprinted as "Germany and the Middle East 1871–1945", ed. Wolfgang G. Schwanitz, and the particular article cited is by Gerhard Höpp. I'll fix it. Zerotalk 08:33, 15 November 2014 (UTC)
That's been a problem for several years, and I've never managed to track it down. Thanks Nishidani (talk) 10:26, 15 November 2014 (UTC)