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|WikiProject Molecular and Cellular Biology||(Rated Start-class, Low-importance)|
Haplogroup C2 and its subclades
According to ISOGG's Y-DNA haplogroup tree (2007), haplogroup C2 is defined by M38 and it has two parallel subclades, C2a-P33 and C2b-M208. However, according to Cox et al., "A Polynesian Motif on the Y Chromosome: Population Structure in Remote Oceania" (Human Biology, vol. 79, 2007), haplogroup C2-M38 has only one identified immediate subclade, haplogroup C2a-M208, and C2a-M208 in turn has two immediate subclades, haplogroup C2a1-P33 and haplogroup C2a2-P54. The data of Cox et al. show haplogroup C2-M38*(xC2a-M208) as being the only form of haplogroup C2 found in central and eastern Indonesia, from Sulawesi, Flores, and Sumba eastwards through the Maluku Islands. Haplogroup C2-M38*(xC2a-M208) is present in approx. 30% of the total of all samples from central and eastern Indonesia in Cox et al. (2007), with the highest frequency of haplogroup C2-M38* being found among the population of the central Indonesian island of Sumba.
In New Guinea, in addition to very small amounts of haplogroup C2-M38*(xC2a-M208), Cox et al. have also found small amounts of haplogroup C2a-M208*(xC2a1-P33). Haplogroup C2a-M208* is limited to low frequency (2/21 or approx. 10%) among their sample of people from Coastal New Guinea.
C2a1-P33, on the other hand, is extremely common among (and completely limited to) Polynesian populations. Cox et al. found haplogroup C2a1-P33 Y-chromosomes among their samples of Polynesians from Rapanui (Easter Island), Tahiti, Samoa, and Tonga, but this haplogroup was completely absent from their samples of populations from Melanesia (including Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands), Micronesia, and Indonesia. Basically, this means that the majority of Polynesian males are descended directly from some man who was related to the direct patrilineal ancestor of the majority of Sumbanese as well as a significant proportion of men in Flores, Sulawesi, and the Malukus. This man later moved eastward to somewhere around the north coast of New Guinea, where he left a few branches of his descendants at low frequency among some coastal New Guinean populations. Most of his descendants, however, moved further eastward, past New Guinea and Melanesia, and out into the Polynesian islands of Remote Oceania.
Should we change the "Subclades" section on the haplogroup C (Y-DNA) wiki page to reflect the data of Cox et al., or should we continue to follow ISOGG's Y-DNA haplogroup tree? Ebizur (talk) 21:27, 22 February 2008 (UTC)
Orphaned references in Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)
I check pages listed in Category:Pages with incorrect ref formatting to try to fix reference errors. One of the things I do is look for content for orphaned references in wikilinked articles. I have found content for some of Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)'s orphans, the problem is that I found more than one version. I can't determine which (if any) is correct for this article, so I am asking for a sentient editor to look it over and copy the correct ref content into this article.
Reference named "Cadenas2008":
- From Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups: Alicia M Cadenas, Lev A Zhivotovsky, Luca L Cavalli-Sforza et al., "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 374–386.
- From Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA): Cadenas AM, Zhivotovsky LA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (March 2008). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 16 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. PMID 17928816.
- From Haplogroup G (Y-DNA): Cadenas, A. et al. (2008). "Chromosome Diversity Characterizes the Gulf of Oman". Eur Journal of Genetics 16 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. PMID 17928816.
- From Haplogroup B (Y-DNA): Alicia M Cadenas, Lev A Zhivotovsky, Luca L Cavalli-Sforza et al., "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 374–386
- From Haplogroup P (Y-DNA): Alicia M Cadenas et al., "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 374–386.
I apologize if any of the above are effectively identical; I am just a simple computer program, so I can't determine whether minor differences are significant or not. AnomieBOT⚡ 10:04, 20 February 2010 (UTC)