Talk:Inca Empire

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Wikiproject Tradditional Medicine[edit]

Currently, unlike the Aztec and the Maya, no article on traditional Incan medicine exists, please help change this by supporting the creation of wikiproject traditional medicine which aims to make a detailed pharmacopoeia including indigenous organisms and minerals used medicinally by all ancient cultures. This is of great anthropological value to wikipedia, if nothing else, but the project needs your support.

Cranial deformation[edit]

Are we sure that the Inca practiced cranial deformation? I know that it was widely practiced in Paracas, but that was pre-inca. Editfromwithout (talk) 22:22, 10 August 2012 (UTC)

Coca Leaf misinformation[edit]

I removed the bit about the Spaniards forcing the indigenous to become drug addicts ("When the Spaniards realized the effects of chewing the coca leaves, they took advantage of it. They forced the people of the Tawantinsuyo (Peru) to become addicted to it to avoid having to provide the usual amounts of food and rest while they were engaged in slave labour.") Not only is it unreferenced, this information is false. Although cocaine is addictive, I don't think the leaf is. It's still used today in the Andes for altitude sickness, etc. and is a pretty mild drug.) I have no idea if the Spaniards took advantage of it in another way, so I left that part for now. Editfromwithout (talk) 22:10, 10 August 2012 (UTC)

Erroneous statement about khipu in the population section[edit]

A passing familiarity with khipu and Andean ethnohistory will reveal the falsehood espoused in the Population section. Modern scholars have a decent understanding of khipu (see Gary Urton's work), and on top of that, kurakas in the colonial period used khipu as records in Spanish visitas-- not exactly "Spaniards destroying khipu." 67.171.139.225 (talk) 02:23, 6 May 2012 (UTC)

"Incan Calendar" Redirects here[edit]

Seeing as the redirect portion under the article title is the only portion of the article that says "calendar" this is not a suitable redirect for "Incan Calendar." 71.87.112.14 (talk) 18:45, 19 January 2011 (UTC)sex

split[edit]

the page splits suggested on the articles are into existing pages, so those would be merges instead of splits, but from my quick overview not all of the information belongs in the "civilization" page versus the "empire" page. Because of that I will remove the split tags from "Origin myths" and suggest that some of the content be moved into Inca mythology since that appears to be the right page. And also from the "Archaeology" section and move that into Inca civilization page. I will remove the tag, someone else will need to move the specific data and/or copy edit the destinations to include the appropriate information. Tiggerjay (talk) 07:54, 28 May 2011 (UTC)

Inca, arí; Incan, arí; Inka, manan[edit]

Just as a reminder, don't add WP:OR non-WP:ENGLISH unWP:COMMON names to the lede. Inka may very well be the modern orthography for the Quechua word that became the English "Inca", but the English is still "Inca". Since it's standard to use adjectives for empire names, "Incan" is another common one, hypercorrection or no.

The last ones are two local companies that employ the name. Even including those irrelevant pages only brings the total to ~50k. — LlywelynII 14:14, 7 October 2011 (UTC)

Hmmm... Might actually need to consider a page move. ""empire of the inca" -wikipedia" returns 1700k. Seems more awkward to me, but if it's the common name, then it is... Anybody wanna check over at books and scholar? — LlywelynII 14:17, 7 October 2011 (UTC)

Date Format[edit]

I noticed a couple of editors are not in agreement as to whether this article should use AD or CE to date the current era. According to Wikipedia's Manual of Style, the format within an article should be consistent and it should not be changed from one format to the other without consensus. Dave (djkernen)|Talk to me|Please help! 03:02, 7 November 2011 (UTC)

Relgion[edit]

"Most Incas imagined the after world to be very similar to ours with flower covered fields and snow capped mountains"

Who does "our" refer to? Shouldnt the article be neutral and not aimed at a particular group? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 86.17.0.3 (talk) 10:59, 8 November 2011 (UTC)

Our refers to the physical world that we live in. The group is quite inclusive -- all living persons. But if the meaning is unclear then let's change it from "our world" to "the physical world". Dave (djkernen)|Talk to me|Please help! 17:34, 8 November 2011 (UTC)
Cheers, i believe it did need a little clairification as it could have implied anything the way it was worded. :) — Preceding unsigned comment added by 86.17.0.3 (talk) 13:42, 16 December 2011 (UTC)

political expansion and conquest resource[edit]

"Inca takeovers not usually hostile. Bloodless takeovers built ancient New World empire" by Bruce Bower November 19th, 2011; Vol.180 #11 (p. 16); excerpt ...

Few battle wounds appear on 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites located within 150 kilometers of the Inca capital, Andrushko and Torres report in the new study. These sites date to between 600 and 1532. The investigators looked for head injuries likely to have resulted from clubs, battle axes and other Inca weapons. Such wounds include radiating and concentric fracture lines due to forceful impact. Before the Inca came to power, from 600 to 1000, only one of 36 individuals in the sample suffered war-related head injuries. As the Inca empire grew from 1000 to 1400, five of 199 individuals, or 2.5 percent, living near Cuzco incurred likely battle wounds. During the Inca heyday, from 1400 to 1532, war injuries affected 17 of 219 individuals — 7.8 percent of the total. Despite an increased rate of serious head wounds after 1400, such injuries remained sporadic, Andrushko says, indicating that the Inca had a long history of nonviolent takeovers.

Researchers report in a paper published online September 30 in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

99.181.140.213 (talk) 04:28, 26 November 2011 (UTC)

This is such a gratuite conclusion to draw. Lack of head injuries could also mean that soldiers aimed to wound their opponent in the chest and that there were plenty of people killed that way in war. These data proves nothing.

Legend[edit]

Legend has it that the first discoverers of the Inca were from the Orient. When the last Inca died, the Orient cast a spell upon the guilty parties who had betrayed the First Peoples. The Orient began making plans to weed out the mutants. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 190.245.225.194 (talk) 17:36, 9 February 2012 (UTC)

Edit request on 31 March 2012[edit]

The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century.[1]

From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and central Chile, and southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.[2]

Pachacuti sent spies to regions he wanted in his empire; they brought reports on the political organization, military might and wealth. He would then send messages to the leaders of these lands extolling the benefits of joining his empire, offering them presents of luxury goods such as high quality textiles, and promising that they would be materially richer as subject rulers of the Inca.[3]

However, most of the southern portion of the Inca empire, the portion denominated as Qullasuyu, was located in the Altiplano.[4]

The Spaniards used the Inca mita (mandatory public service) system to literally work the people to death. One member of each family was forced to work in the gold and silver mines, the foremost of which was the titanic silver mine at Potosí. When a family member died, which would usually happen within a year or two, the family would be required to send a replacement.[5]

The effects of smallpox on the Inca empire were even more devastating. Beginning in Colombia, smallpox spread rapidly before the Spanish invaders first arrived in the empire. The spread was probably aided by the efficient Inca road system. Within a few years smallpox claimed 90% of the Inca population,[6]

However, Pukina ceased to be used in the 19th century. Under this proposed idea, the root meaning of Quechua was "taken by force, stolen" and a Dominican monk (Pedro Aparicio) mistakenly taught that the Peruvians referred to themselves as Quechuas when it was actually the actions of the Spaniards the people were referring to.[7]

The Roman Catholic Church employed Quechua-Qhapaq Runasimi to evangelize in the Andean region. In some cases, these languages were taught to people who had originally spoken other indigenous languages. Today, Quechua-Qhapaq Runasimi and Aymara remain the most widespread Amerindian languages.[8]

Each province had a governor who oversaw local officials, who in turn supervised agriculturally productive river valleys, cities and mines. There were separate chains of command for both the military and religious institutions, which created a system of partial checks and balances on power.[9]

The main legislator on Inca traditions was Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui who established numerous laws, and reformed old ones .[10]

After, there were craftsmen and architects, they were very high on the social ladder because of the skill that they had was required by the Empire for such buildings. then came the working class, often just farmers that were kept in their social groupings. After this, were the slaves and peasants of the society.[11]

The Incas revered the coca plant as being sacred or magical. Its leaves were used in moderate amounts to lessen hunger and pain during work, but were mostly used for religious and health purposes.[12]

The Chasqui (messengers) chewed coca leaves for extra energy to carry on their tasks as runners delivering messages throughout the empire. The coca leaf was also used during surgeries as an anaesthetic.[13]

HstoutNH (talk) 17:24, 31 March 2012 (UTC)

Not done: Please be specific about what you are changing. Thanks, Celestra (talk) 22:45, 31 March 2012 (UTC)

I believe it's a request to replace many -cn- tags with individual references. 66.87.2.7 (talk) 03:48, 1 April 2012 (UTC)

Edit request on 7 April 2012[edit]

The statements; "The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "four parts together."[7] In Quechua the term Tawantin is a group of four things (tawa "four" with the suffix -ntin which names a group)."

(tawa "four" with the suffix -ntin which names a group) The Quechua infix -ntin is an inclusive affixation it can be used within a word or on the end of a word, please see the following, "Inclusive;-ntin, derivational suffix", it does not specifically denote a group, but is used as a general inclusive as in the following, "Tuta -ntin llamka -rqa -nku." or in English "They worked all night."

"The Inca Empire was a federalist system which consisted of a central government with the Inca at its head and four provinces: Chinchay Suyu (NW), Anti Suyu (NE), Kunti Suyu (SW), and Qulla Suyu (SE)."

The spelling of the provinces should be as follows Chinchaysuyu(NW), Antisuyu (NE), Contisuyu (SW), and Qollasuyu (SE) as it is with Tawantinsuyu.

Quechua is largely agglutinative, suffixes are to indicate tense, time, space, ownership, ex/inclusive, etc.
"The most powerful figure in the empire was the Sapa Inca ('the unique Inca'). Only descendants of the original Inca tribe ascended to the level of Inca. Most young members of the Inca's family attended Yachay Wasis (houses of knowledge) to obtain their education."

The Quechua word "Yachay Wasis" Wasis is incorrectly spelled, it should be Wasikuna, the suffix -s is hispanized pluralization, whereas -kuna is the correct Quechua pluralization.

http://personalpages.manchester.ac.uk/staff/martina.t.faller/documents/Thesis-A4.pdf

I have been studying Quechua for the past 2 years and my better half is a native speaker, we are writing a book on Quechua suffix usages, it should be ready next year. You will find the above link helpful, It was the easiest example to use without wading through allot of academic pages to finally get to what was needed.

Thanks, Cheryl D. Millard (talk) 20:39, 7 April 2012 (UTC)

X mark.svg Not done Please draft a complete sentence or paragraph, exactly as you would like to appear in the article. Pol430 talk to me 22:14, 8 April 2012 (UTC)

Edit request 12 April 2012 - fix broken wikilink[edit]

In the See Also section, please change one wikilink from [[Smallpox#The Americas|Smallpox Epidemics in the New World]] to [[History of smallpox#Epidemics in the Americas|Smallpox Epidemics in the New World]]. Thank you 66.87.7.189 (talk) 03:46, 12 April 2012 (UTC)

Done. Dger (talk) 18:28, 15 April 2012 (UTC)

Proposal to Change Structure of Page[edit]

I just added a lot of information (don't worry, it's all cited from academic sources!). It seems to me that the Society section should be broken up into Society and Government. I propose that Society include Population; Language; Religion (subset of deities); Economy; and Social Structure. I propose that Government include Organization of the Empire; Laws; Philosophy and Ideology; and a new subsection: Administration. Whaddya think? Dan Cottrell (talk) 22:55, 17 May 2012 (UTC)

Edit request on 1 October 2012[edit]

WkiDingo (talk) 02:17, 1 October 2012 (UTC)

Colombia the country is spelled with two o's Colombia the city in Maryland in spelled in a "u". Even in english Colombia is with two "o's" this is a common mistake.

No, the Pre-Columbian era refers to the time befor Columbus and not to the country Colombia. Vsmith (talk) 02:28, 1 October 2012 (UTC)

Sources on "Archaeology" section and Incas' stature[edit]

The section called "Archaeology" doesn't seem to have anything related to "Inca Archeology" itself. It mentions populations statures too, but it cites no sources and there's something strange about it because:

- The Spanish never mentioned anything particular about average Incas' height in any chronicle. Had it been noticeably smaller than theirs, it would have been mentioned by detailed chroniclers such as Perdo Cieza de León or Martín de Murúa. - In an area so diverse geographically and socially, it would be very difficult to have any average height at all. The life conditions were very varied depending on location, altitude, terrain, culture, genes (there were many different and varied ethnic groups under the Incas' rule), social condition, and so on. - As far as I know, there's no study that gives any specific measure. There are only a few studies done on specific archaeological findings, and the heights measured are too few and too varied and with too big time spans to give any generalizable data.

Aside from that, during the Inca Empire there wasn't any medical study so advanced that it could have measure the data presented here (about the blood and lung capacity). While this data may be interesting, it sounds more like modern data, and even then it has no sources. Any study relate to this would be interesting in any present-day population and even better if there were also pre-Columbian forensic studies too. But it's doubtful that the last one has been done as of yet and sources should be required in either case. Otherwise this section should be removed and if that's done, I'd suggest to place the important archaeological sites in the Inca Architecture page or in the Monumental Architecture section.— Preceding unsigned comment added by 190.237.238.5 (talk) 11:08, 4 March 2013 (UTC)

A useful source?[edit]

Would the below four volume set be a useful resource to include in either the external links section or the further reading section?

I'm not familiar enough with the subject matter to know whether this is still a relevant work.WilliamDigiCol (talk) 18:56, 7 August 2013 (UTC)

Inaccurate portrayal of Atahualpa's execution[edit]

In the section "Inca Civil War and Spanish Conquest", the last two paragraphs are very misleading and more or less inaccurate. While I understand that Spanish atrocities were flagrant with respect to the natives, as the Spanish priest de Las Casas noted, there's no need to overplay the vilification.

My problem is that the end of the section seems to imply this peaceful interchange turned afoul by a bloodthirsty Pizarro. That's not really what happened. Juan de Betanzos relates that, under the leadership of his captains, the drunk Atahualpa advanced in warlike formation with his warriors. When the exchange between de Valverde the priest and Atahualpa happened, yes there was a language barrier problem, but from what de Betanzos relates, Atahualpa threw away the Bible, having said he also was a son of the Sun, after which the priest went to Pizarro, and saying something, caused Pizarro to attack.

The reason for Pizarro's execution of Atahualpa, also, is very different, though probably de Betanzos has used an account that made Pizarro look more favorable than the reality. What de Betanzos relates is that one of his Indian interpreters raped Atahualpa's wife, and having been caught by Atahualpa, who said nothing to anyone about it, decided to get him killed so he could have that wife. He told some of his people from his tribe to go about 5 miles from Cajamarca, where the Spanish and Atahualpa were at, and raise fires and trample the ground like the warriors. He then told Pizarro Atahualpa was preparing to attack them. The other Indian interpreter of Pizarro's and others told him this was a lie. However, Almagro, who despised Atahualpa, started basically backing up the idea of executing him. Also, the treasurer told Pizarro that if there was an attack and the king's gold was lost, the royal fifth was gonna come out of his pocket. A Spaniard told Pizarro he would investigate the supposed warriors, but before he came back, Pizarro was persuaded, so says de Betanzos, to execute Atahualpa. Moreover, Atahualpa requested from Pizarro that his soldiers don't damage or make any changes to the golden and silver vessels that he filled the room with, which de Betanzos speculates, reflected the fact that Atahualpa was planning to unleash a massive war when released and to recover the vessels - not an unreasonable supposition at all. Some unhistorical bias in de Betanzos' account - probably. A more accurate picture than the two paragraphs in the article - definitely. Cornelius (talk) 01:30, 5 November 2013 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 10 March 2014[edit]

please can i edit this page i see tons of mistakes Hklavaman (talk) 01:58, 10 March 2014 (UTC)

Not done: requests for decreases to the page protection level should be directed to the protecting admin or to Wikipedia:Requests for page protection if the protecting admin is not active or has declined the request. — {{U|Technical 13}} (tec) 02:11, 10 March 2014 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 11 April 2014[edit]

I would like to edit a few words from the Inca Communication and Medicine section because some words are misspelled. Redakai74 (talk) 12:57, 11 April 2014 (UTC)

Padlock-dash2.svg Not done: requests for decreases to the page protection level should be directed to the protecting admin or to Wikipedia:Requests for page protection if the protecting admin is not active or has declined the request.
If you want to suggest a change, please request this in the form "Please replace XXX with YYY" or "Please add ZZZ between PPP and QQQ".
Please also cite reliable sources to back up your request, without which no information should be added to any article. - Arjayay (talk) 13:07, 11 April 2014 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 18 June 2014[edit]

58.108.194.36 (talk) 03:32, 18 June 2014 (UTC) YOLO

Red information icon with gradient background.svg Not done: as you have not requested a change.
If you want to suggest a change, please request this in the form "Please replace XXX with YYY" or "Please add ZZZ between PPP and QQQ".
Please also cite reliable sources to back up your request, without which no information should be added to any article. - Arjayay (talk) 07:46, 19 June 2014 (UTC)

Origin section, what?[edit]

The origin section has no context. It starts out with what seems to be an origin legend, but the reader cannot be sure. It leaves out a lot of detail and has no progressive explanation, interpretation or whether the legend is considered actual history or only myth. 76.126.138.121 (talk) 05:49, 6 July 2014 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 16 July 2014[edit]

The name is spelled Tahuantinsuyo, and it came into existence only 100 years before Spanish arrival. Quechua was an analphabet language that did not originate in Cuzco. The Inca royalty spoke a different language, which no longer exists. 199.167.100.242 (talk) 18:10, 16 July 2014 (UTC)

Red information icon with gradient background.svg Not done: as you have not cited reliable sources to back up your request, without which no information should be added to any article. - Arjayay (talk) 18:32, 16 July 2014 (UTC)
    • ^ Morris, Craig and von Hagen, Adriana; The Inka Empire and its Andean origins, 1993.
    • ^ Kindersley, Dorling. (2009). The Prentice Hall Atlas of World History 2nd Edition. Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pg. 71.
    • ^ Granberry, Julian. (2005). The Americas That Might Have Been: Native American Social System through Time. The University of Alabama Press. Pg. 82.
    • ^ Malpasa A., Michael. (1996). Daily Life in the Inca Empire. British Liberty Cataloging Publishing. Pg. xxv.
    • ^ 25. Tignor, Adelman, Aron, Kotkin, Marchand, Prakash, Tsin. (2011). Worlds Together Worlds Apart Volume 2 Third Edition. W.W. Norton & Company. NY, NY. Pg.468.
    • ^ 26. Tignor, Adelman, Aron, Kotkin, Marchand, Prakash, Tsin. (2011). Worlds Together Worlds Apart Volume 2 Third Edition. W.W. Norton & Company. NY, NY. Pg.465.
    • ^ 31. Nelsy Echavez Solano and Kenya C. Dworkin y Mendez. (2007). Spanish and Empire. Vanderbilt University Press. Pg. 56.
    • ^ UNESCO World Report. Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue. (2009) Published by UNESCO.
    • ^ Adas, Michael. (2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Published by Temple University Press. Pg. 205.
    • ^ Susan E. Alcock, Terence D. D’Altroy, Kathleen D. Morrison, Carla M. Sinopoli. (2001). Empires. Published by The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge. Pg. 431.
    • ^ Gordon F. McEwan. (2006). The Incas: New Prospective. W.W. Norton & Company. NY, NY. Pg. 97-102
    • ^ Robert Snedden. (2009) Aztec, Inca, and Maya. Black Rabbit Books. Pg. 38
    • ^ Daniel W. Gade. (1999). Nature and Culture in the Andes. The University of Wisconsin Press. Pg. 137-156.