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- 1 I will be adding numerous references and bibliography entries.
- 2 Journal of Intelligence — Open Access Journal
- 3 Useful sources for updating this and related articles
- 4 Misinterpretation of Confidence Intervals in the Article
- 5 Calculation
- 6 Quotation
- 7 Added progresive difficulty in high school table under scholastic.
- 8 Interesting study - IQ genetic evidence on the way maybe
I will be adding numerous references and bibliography entries.
Last year I began a major revision of a working paper project (begun in 2006, based on shorter research notes I began compiling as early as 1993) largely on this Wikipedia topic. As the talk page templates note, "This is a controversial topic that may be under dispute." As a courtesy to the editors who have long been here, I will note that I will begin adding the dozens of books and articles I have at hand for my non-Wikipedia project (a literature review for popular audiences interested in the primary source literature on IQ testing) to this Wikipedia article. At first I will add books and articles from various points of view to the bibliography. Then I will add more references to verify the statements that have already long stood in the article. (I hope to add specific page numbers to both the references I add and the existing references that I am able to look up here.) At some length, I expect to expand sections with additional facts, perhaps add a few subsections, and from time to time do substantive edits under the NPOV principle, as the sources report various points of view. Thanks to all of you who have already worked on this very detailed article. I am lucky to have access to a very comprehensive academic library at which I have circulating privileges, so I am delighted to add some V and NPOV to various Wikipedia projects. WeijiBaikeBianji (talk) 03:42, 1 June 2010 (UTC)
- That sounds like a great job. I'm looking forward to reading your additions. Good luck to you! :) Lova Falk talk 08:19, 1 June 2010 (UTC)
- Here is an update on that project. You may find it helpful while reading or editing articles to look at a bibliography of Intelligence Citations, posted for the use of all Wikipedians who have occasion to edit articles on human intelligence and related issues. I happen to have circulating access to a huge academic research library at a university with an active research program in these issues (and to another library that is one of the ten largest public library systems in the United States) and have been researching these issues since 1989. You are welcome to use these citations for your own research. You can help other Wikipedians by suggesting new sources through comments on that page. It will be extremely helpful for articles on human intelligence to edit them according to the Wikipedia standards for reliable sources for medicine-related articles, as it is important to get these issues as well verified as possible. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk) 17:22, 30 June 2010 (UTC)
- I have begun substantive edits to this article based on sources that other Wikipedians can check in the Intelligence Citations list. All of you are encouraged to suggest new sources for that list, which will be useful for editing quite a few articles on Wikipedia. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk) 15:48, 28 July 2010 (UTC)
Journal of Intelligence — Open Access Journal
Journal of Intelligence — Open Access Journal is a new, open-access, "peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original empirical and theoretical articles, state-of-the-art articles and critical reviews, case studies, original short notes, commentaries" intended to be "an open access journal that moves forward the study of human intelligence: the basis and development of intelligence, its nature in terms of structure and processes, and its correlates and consequences, also including the measurement and modeling of intelligence." The content of the first issue is posted, and includes interesting review articles, one by Earl Hunt and Susanne M. Jaeggi and one by Wendy Johnson. The editorial board of this new journal should be able to draw in a steady stream of good article submissions. It looks like the journal aims to continue to publish review articles of the kind that would meet Wikipedia guidelines for articles on medical topics, an appropriate source guideline to apply to Wikipedia articles about intelligence. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 21:01, 5 December 2013 (UTC)
- The review articles published by the new journal will be very helpful for updating this Wikipedia article and many other Wikipedia article, as they meet the highest standard of reliable sources for Wikipedia article text. The Journal of Intelligence — Open Access Journal website has just been updated with the new articles for the latest edition of the journal, by eminent scholars on human intelligence. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 21:29, 16 February 2014 (UTC)
I see that there is a discussion among editors about correct sourcing of this article. As discussed in the last few months through an RFC on the Race and intelligence article talk page (the talk page of a subarticle of this article), there are a number of current sources available to editors that meet the Wikipedia guidelines for reliable sources in medicine, which is generally the correct source guideline to apply to articles on human intelligence and IQ testing. (That's because IQ tests are literally used in medical diagnosis, and also used in high-stakes forensic contexts such as finding diminished criminal responsibility in criminal trials, and consequential decisions such as school placement for children.) I will mention sources previously agreed to in a nonexhaustive list of good sources for the other article that also fit this article here, along with a few other sources that come just with my personal recommendation until other editors comment here (as I encourage all of you to do).
- As an update, I'll mention that I've also taken care on repeated visits to my friendly state flagship university library to use online journal access to basically exhaustively check all the references currently cited in this and related articles. With all those journal articles downloaded, and with the sources mentioned here, I hope to plunge into top-to-bottom updates of this article (probably starting out as section fixes a few sections at a time, after testing in a user sandbox) Real Soon Now. Of course all of you watching this page are very welcome to comment on improvements for this article. Besides the sources listed here and the sources already referenced in the article, in principle most all of the newer and more scholarly sources in my continually updated user bibliography on human intelligence may be applied to updating this article. Your suggestions of more reliable sources, and especially sources that meet the guideline for reliable sources for medicine are warmly encouraged. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 21:52, 27 March 2014 (UTC)
- Now that there has been time for editors to check the sources and read through those that are readily available, this will be a productive time of year for updating the article from top to bottom for coherency, due weight on various subtopics, and referencing according to Wikipedia content policy. I look forward to seeing the next edits to article text along those lines and expect to edit some article sections from my own keyboard in the next few months. Let's all discuss here how to make the article better. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 16:39, 20 April 2014 (UTC)
Sources recommended in the previous RFC useful here too
- Sternberg, Robert J.; Kaufman, Scott Barry, eds. (2011). The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521739115. Lay summary (22 July 2013). (This authoritative handbook appears to be cited only as a further reading reference, for one specific chapter in this handbook, in the current version of this Wikipedia article. It deserves dozens of citations in this article. It includes chapters by N. J. Mackintosh, Susana Urbina, John O. Willis, Ron Dumont, Alan S. Kaufman, Janet E. Davidson, Iris A. Kemp, Samuel D. Mandelman, Elena L. Grigorenko, Raymond S. Nickerson, Joseph F. Fagan, L. Todd Rose, Kurt Fischer, Christopher Hertzog, Robert M. Hodapp, Megan M. Griffin, Meghan M. Burke, Marisa H. Fisher, David Henry Feldman, Martha J. Morelock, Sally M. Reis, Joseph S. Renzulli, Diane F. Halpern, Anna S. Beninger, Carli A. Straight, Lisa A. Suzuki, Ellen L. Short, Christina S. Lee, Christine E. Daley, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Thomas R. Zentall, Liane Gabora, Anne Russon, Richard J. Haier, Ted Nettelbeck, Andrew R. A. Conway, Sarah Getz, Brooke Macnamara, Pascale M. J. Engel de Abreu, David F. Lohman, Joni M. Lakin, Keith E. Stanovich, Richard F. West, Maggie E. Toplak, Scott Barry Kaufman, Ashok K. Goel, Jim Davies, Katie Davis, Joanna Christodoulou, Scott Seider, Howard Gardner, Robert J. Sternberg, John D. Mayer, Peter Salovey, David Caruso, Lillia Cherkasskiy, Richard K. Wagner, John F. Kihlstrom, Nancy Cantor, Soon Ang, Linn Van Dyne, Mei Ling Tan, Glenn Geher, Weihua Niu, Jillian Brass, James R. Flynn, Susan M. Barnett, Heiner Rindermann, Wendy M. Williams, Stephen J. Ceci, Ian J. Deary, G. David Batty, Colin DeYoung, Richard E. Mayer, Priyanka B. Carr, Carol S. Dweck, James C. Kaufman, Jonathan A. Plucker, Ursula M. Staudinger, Judith Glück, Phillip L. Ackerman, and Earl Hunt.)
- Weiss, Lawrence G.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Coalson, Diane; Raiford, Susan, eds. (2010). WAIS-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation: Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives. Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional. Alan S. Kaufman (Foreword). Amsterdam: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-375035-8. Lay summary (16 August 2010). (The several individual chapters in this book should be cited much more often in this article. This book includes chapters by Diane L. Coalson, Susan Engi Raiford, Donald H. Saklofske, Lawrence G. Weiss, Hsinyi Chen, Jossette G. Harris, James A. Holdnack, Xiaobin Zhou, Jianjun Zhu, Jacques Gregoire, Munro Cullum, Glenn Larrabee, Gerald Goldstein, Timothy A. Salthouse, and Lisa W. Drozdick. I will look for the specific page reference for the sole citation to the article that appears now. )
- Nisbett, Richard E.; Aronson, Joshua; Blair, Clancy; Dickens, William; Flynn, James; Halpern, Diane F.; Turkheimer, Eric (2012). "Intelligence: new findings and theoretical developments". American Psychologist 67 (2): 130–159. doi:10.1037/a0026699. ISSN 0003-066X. PMID 22233090. Retrieved 22 July 2013. Lay summary (22 July 2013). (This major review article in a flagship publication by the American Psychological Association deserves a lot more citations than the one it now has in this article.)
- Mackintosh, N. J. (2011). IQ and Human Intelligence (second ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-958559-5. Lay summary (9 February 2012). (The first edition of this book is cited, twice, in this article. The article should be updated with many more citations to this edition.)
- Hunt, Earl (2011). Human Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70781-7. Lay summary (28 April 2013). (This appears not to be cited at all in the current version of this article, which is a serious omission. I have owned this book since soon after when it was published.)
- Flanagan, Dawn P.; Harrison, Patti L., eds. (2012). Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (Third ed.). New York (NY): Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60918-995-2. Lay summary (28 April 2013). (This comprehensive handbook by multiple authoritative authors is currently mentioned only in the further reading section of this article, which is too little use of this high-quality source. It includes chapters by John D. Wasserman, Randy W. Kamphaus, Anne Pierce Winsor, Ellen W. Rowe, Sangwon Kim, John L. Horn, Nayena Blankson, W. Joel Schneider, Kevin S. McGrew, Jie-Qi Chen, Howard Gardner, Robert J. Sternberg, Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, Sam Goldstein, Lisa Whipple Drozdick, Dustin Wahlstrom, Jianjun Zhu, Lawrence G. Weiss, Dustin Wahlstrom, Kristina C. Breaux, Jianjun Zhu, Lawrence G. Weiss, Gale H. Roid, Mark Pomplun, Jennie Kaufman Singer, Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, James C. Kaufman, Alan S. Kaufman, Nadeen L. Kaufman, Fredrick A. Schrank, Barbara J. Wendling, Colin D. Elliott, R. Steve McCallum, Bruce A. Bracken, Jack A. Naglieri, Tulio M. Otero, Cecil R. Reynolds, Randy W. Kamphaus, Tara C. Raines, Robb N. Matthews, Cynthia A. Riccio, John L. Davis, Jack A. Naglieri, Tulio M. Otero, Dawn P. Flanagan, Vincent C. Alfonso, Samuel O. Ortiz, Catherine A. Fiorello, James B. Hale, Kirby L. Wycoff, Randy G. Floyd and John H. Kranzler, Samuel O. Ortiz, Salvador Hector Ochoa, Agnieszka M. Dynda, Nancy Mather, Barbara J. Wendling, Laurie Ford, Michelle L. Kozey, Juliana Negreiros, David E. McIntosh, Felicia A. Dixon, Eric E. Pierson, Vincent C. Alfonso, Jennifer T. Mascolo, Marlene Sotelo-Dynega, Laura Grofer Klinger, Sarah E. O’Kelly, Joanna L. Mussey, Sam Goldstein, Melissa DeVries, James B. Hale, Megan Yim, Andrea N. Schneider, Gabrielle Wilcox, Julie N. Henzel, Shauna G. Dixon, Scott L. Decker, Julia A. Englund, Alycia M. Roberts, Kathleen Armstrong, Jason Hangauer, Joshua Nadeau, Jeffery P. Braden, Bradley C. Niebling, Timothy Z. Keith, Matthew R. Reynolds, Daniel C. Miller, Denise E. Maricle, Denise E. Maricle, Erin Avirett, Rachel Brown-Chidsey, Kristina J. Andren, George McCloskey, James Whitaker, Ryan Murphy, Jane Rogers, and John B. Carroll.)
- Kaufman, Alan S.; Lichtenberger, Elizabeth (2006). Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence (3rd ed.). Hoboken (NJ): Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-73553-3. Lay summary (22 August 2010). (This very useful source is cited in the current version of this Wikipedia article, although some of the material cited is used out of context in the article at present. There are many other references from this handbook that would be good for adding to this article.)
- Kaufman, Alan S. (2009). IQ Testing 101. New York: Springer Publishing. pp. 151–153. ISBN 978-0-8261-0629-2. Lay summary (10 August 2010). (This popular book by an experienced author is already cited in the article, and more citations are warranted.)
- Flynn, James R. (2012). Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-60917-4. Lay summary (16 May 2013). (This new book by an experienced researcher, published by a university press, deserves much more use than its current mere mention as a further reading source.)
- Slater, Alan M.; Quinn, Paul C., eds. (2012). Developmental Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. Thousand Oaks (CA): SAGE. ISBN 978-0-85702-757-3. Lay summary (19 May 2013). (This textbook includes an excellent review chapter on human intelligence issues by Wendy Johnson. Chapters on other issues are by Roger Kobak, Thomas H. Ollendick, Thomas M. Sherman, Peter Muris, Neville J. King, Karen E. Adolph, Kari S. Kretch, David Klahr, Alan M. Slater, Denis Mareschal, Jordy Kaufman, Kelly McWilliams, Daniel Bederian-Gardner, Sue D. Hobbs, Sarah Bakanosky, Gail S. Goodman, Usha Goswami, Coralie Chevallier, Gail D. Heyman, Kang Lee, Jennifer E. Lansford, Richard N. Aslin, and Ann S. Masten.)
- Gregory, Robert J. (2011). Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications (Sixth ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-78214-7. Lay summary (7 November 2010). (This book includes a solid general overview of principles of psychological testing, including IQ testing. It is completely neglected in the current version of this article.)
- Weiner, Irving B.; Graham, John R.; Naglieri, Jack A., eds. (2 October 2012). Handbook of Psychology. Volume 10: Assessment Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-89127-8. Retrieved 25 November 2013. (This source, the second edition of the key volume of a massive, authoritative handbook of psychology, is so recently published that no editor had seen it as of the last time sources were discussed in the RFC at the other article. It is very good, and I now have it at hand in my office. It includes chapters by Irving B. Weiner, John R. Graham, Jack A. Naglieri, Paul M. Spengler, John D. Wasserman, Bruce A. Bracken, Cecil R. Reynolds, Lisa A. Suzuki, Kurt F. Geisinger, Carina McCormick, Mark E. Maruish, James N. Butcher, Celiane Rey-Casserly, Gerald P. Koocher, Leonard Handler, Justin D. Smith, Martin Sellbom, Brandee E. Marion, R. Michael Bagby, Nancy Howells Wrobel, David Lachar, Jeffery P. Braden, Jerry J. Sweet, Steven M. Tovian, Leslie M. Guidotti Breting, Yana Suchy, Richard J. Klimoski, Torrey R. Wilkinson, James R. P. Ogloff, Kevin S. Douglas, Edwin I. Megargee, Barry A. Edelstein, Ronald R. Martin, Lindsay A. Gerolimatos, Tulio M. Otero, Kenneth Podell, Philip DeFina, Elkhonon Goldberg, Rodney L. Lowman, Andrew D. Carson, Robert J. Craig, William H. O’Brien, Kathleen M. Young, Donald J. Viglione, Bridget Rivera, and Yossef S. Ben-Porath. It should be used throughout this article and related articles.)
There is more where these come from, but these are all very high-quality sources that would do much to improve the quality of this article. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 02:56, 8 December 2013 (UTC)
- Brilliant stuff. I'll leave it though to those with more interest in the article, I'll bow out now that I've been thoroughly shown the error of my ways. Dougweller (talk) 14:44, 8 December 2013 (UTC)
- I'll draw other editors' attention to a source Victor mentioned in the discussion above, which I can acclaim (sight unseen, because I know the journal series and I know other works by the author) as a medically reliable source for further updates of this article. Thank you to Victor for first citing it here. I'll be able to obtain full text of the source he kindly recommended tomorrow. Here is the citation:
- *Deary, Ian J. (2012). "Intelligence". Annual Review of Psychology 63 (1): 453–482. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100353. ISBN 978-0-8243-0263-4. ISSN 0066-4308. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- There are quite a few good sources on the topic of this article that are recent, comprehensively review the earlier literature (both primary research articles and previous secondary sources), and meet the standards of the WP:MEDRS guidelines. I would be delighted to hear suggestions of other sources. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 16:40, 8 December 2013 (UTC)
- While looking up something else, I found a good recent article by Tom Bouchard (listed in the journal that published it as an "original research" article, but more of the nature of a review article) that I will consult as I begin article updates in the mainspace article text. There are a lot of good, recent, reliable, secondary reviews of the topic of this article. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 14:17, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
Misinterpretation of Confidence Intervals in the Article
There is a pretty significant error in reasoning about statistics in the article.
Another description is there is a 95% chance the true IQ is in range from four to five points above to four to five points below the test IQ, depending on the test in question.
This is a common misinterpretation of confidence intervals, but one that is usually covered in a first class on statistics. Null hypothesis testing and confidence intervals do not tell you the probability that any hypothesis is true. Nor do they tell you that any measurable quantity is in some interval with some probability. A correct interpretation is that if you conducted a 1000 (or some other large number approximating infinity) IQ tests with the same error bounds, then approximately 95% of the intervals would contain the true mean. I am going to delete this sentence and a few other statistical errors.22.214.171.124 (talk) 09:19, 2 May 2014 (UTC)
- I'll check what the article currently says as I update the article. I was just transcribing new reliable source quotations yesterday. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 14:14, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
- I am wondering the same. 95% of what population? Or is it 95% of world population due definition. What is the upper IQ scores, by definition on a 7 billion population? Etc? --Stalkerkun (talk) 16:41, 25 July 2014 (UTC)
I deleted the quoted words "demolish some long-cherished beliefs, and raise a number of other interesting issues along the way" because they are pointless. The reader doesn't know either what beliefs were demolished or what issues were raised. So what does the reader get out of this quotation? Srnec (talk) 19:29, 31 August 2014 (UTC)
- I see you are new to editing this article, and (based on your contribution history) new to this topic. Don't worry about it. Already the quotation stands as an eminent expert's opinion on the phenomenon of the Flynn effect and how it relates to human intelligence research, and since there is no deadline, you don't have to worry about readers more knowledgeable about the research on the topic may be able to get out of that sourced statement already, nor about what editors who frequent this article plan to do with the quotation to improve the article all the way up to good article status and then featured article status. In my humble opinion as an editor who has had this article on my watchlist for years and has contributed many sources to this article, it's better for the article for the quotation to stand in article text pending future editing. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 19:37, 31 August 2014 (UTC)
- I tend to agree with Srnec that that particular quote adds no information to the article and ought to be removed.User:Maunus ·ʍaunus·snunɐw· 19:40, 31 August 2014 (UTC)
- Are you willing to wait for an article expansion to make the connection to why the quotation sums up the article section? -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 22:59, 31 August 2014 (UTC)
- In any event, it would be helpful to look up the actual book to see how the author connects Flynn's observation of secular increases in IQ test raw scores to other issues in the theory of IQ testing. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 23:01, 31 August 2014 (UTC)
- I tend to agree with Srnec that that particular quote adds no information to the article and ought to be removed.User:Maunus ·ʍaunus·snunɐw· 19:40, 31 August 2014 (UTC)
Added progresive difficulty in high school table under scholastic.
Note, the individual could very well be the complete lazy type with IQ in the 160´s, which is not measurable within what are scholastic high school efforts.
Someone else can jot down the differences between male and female performance, where the gals have a lower SD differencial norm between them. IE, a woman with a boys IQ of 130, does NOT have a girls IQ of 130 but a girls IQ of 145, when the SD differencial is 10 points instead of the normalized 15 points, which makes it important to differenciate the two aspects accordingly. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 126.96.36.199 (talk) 20:45, 1 September 2014 (UTC)
- You have spent no time researching this topic, and are entirely unfamiliar with this very mature study that has over a century of proven results. You have no understanding of what "g" represents, or even the IQ metric itself. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Polemicist2 (talk • contribs) 19:58, 4 September 2014 (UTC)
- Does this come from a reliable source? (I don't see any source cited by the inserted content, and this is not a mainstream concern of the professional publications already cited in the article.) Without a source, this doesn't belong in a Wikipedia article. -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 23:35, 1 September 2014 (UTC)
Well in theory it is possible that someone is just lazy but still is very intelligence.. Those exemptions exits.. But how does that change that high IQ people get the best grades in class.. There is a correlation between IQ and grades 0.5.. The lazy ones is the reason the correlation is only 0.5 is guess... But yeah laziness does play into how you do in life...MicroMacroMania (talk) 17:35, 7 September 2014 (UTC)
- If IQ tests test a particular form of cognitive ability that is also favored in western education the correlation becomes obvious. Especially if we assume that it it a cognitive ability that improves with practice as has been shown to be the case in several studies, where test performance was directly related to the degree of prior experience with performing similar cognitive tasks. User:Maunus ·ʍaunus·snunɐw· 19:40, 7 September 2014 (UTC)
Interesting study - IQ genetic evidence on the way maybe
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/09/05/1404623111.full.pdf — Preceding unsigned comment added by MicroMacroMania (talk • contribs) 09:59, 9 September 2014 (UTC)
- Offhand I can think of a number of problems with that paper where the gene may be associated with upbringing e.g. if they are Indians or Hispanics. I'd wait for a bit of discussion on it and see how well it gets through. Heritability of IQ would probably be the eventual article and some of the genes might make it to list of human genes. Dmcq (talk) 13:36, 9 September 2014 (UTC)
- This article talk page is about editing the article, and since Wikipedia content guidelines on reliable sources strongly favor secondary sources over primary sources, it may be quite a while before this new primary research publication has any role as a source in any Wikipedia article. (It would appear, if at all, only as "[citation to secondary source (citing primary source)]".) Right now, the big thing that this article Intelligence quotient most needs is a big reduction in the number of unreplicated primary sources cited, along with a corresponding increase in the number of citations to reliable secondary sources (which are already mentioned here on the article talk page). -- WeijiBaikeBianji (talk, how I edit) 15:42, 9 September 2014 (UTC)