Talk:Lupinus mutabilis

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Dear authors of the Wikipedia entry about Lupinus mutabilis.

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I am a student in the master course "alternative crops" at the ETH Zurich. Part of this course was an update of a Wikipedia entry of our choice. Below you can find the modified entry. I am happy about all kinds of feedback and comment.



Lupinus mutabilis
Peruvian Field Lupines.jpg
Pisac, Peru
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Lupineae
Genus: Lupinus
Subgenus: Platycarpos
Species: L. mutabilis
Binomial name
Lupinus mutabilis
Sweet

Lupinus mutabilis is a species of lupines grown in the Andes, mainly for its edible bean. Vernacular names include tarwi, tarhui, chocho, altramuz, Andean lupin, South American lupin, Peruvian field lupin, or pearl lupin.[1] There are different aspects why L. mutabilis could become an important international crop. But until now, the high content of alkaloids in the seed is the main reason, why the crop is not very known outside the Andes. This content could be decreased by different processes. [1]

Origin and Dissemination[edit]

The origin of L. mutabilis has been identified in the Andean region of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.[2] In this area, the greatest genetic variability in the world was found.The plant has been domesticated for more than 1500 years, mostly because of its high protein content.[1]

Biology[edit]

L. mutabilis is an annual plant. The steam is hollow and highly branched. Plant height reaches from 0.5 to 2.80 meters, depending on the environmental conditions and the genomic properties. Due to the high vegetative growth, species from northern South America are taller than species from the southern Andean region.[3] The genome contains 2n = 48 chromosomes and there is a high genomic variation, which leads to big differences in morphology. Several architectural types of L. mutabilis exist. Most common is the branching in V-form, this type has the highest biomass production. The basal branching type has the positive feature that its infructescence is at the same level. This species is preferably promoted because of its early ripening, stability and the homogeny seed quality.[3]

Morphology

The fruit is a 5-12 cm long pod, depending on the amount of seed. One pod contains on average 2-3 seeds, but can have up to 9 seeds per pod. The thousand-seed weight (TSW) is around 200g. Leaves are palmate and have a typical appearance: one leave is divided in five to twelve leaflets, which have an oval or lanceolate form. The form is typical for Faboideaes. The corolla reaches 1-2 cm and contains five petals. Variation in coloration is high and reaches from white to purple. The white coloration is recessive to purple. L. mutabilis has a strong taproot reaching 3 m length. Like all Leguminosae secondary roots build nodules containing bacteria for nitrogen fixation.[3]

Development

The growing cycle varies from 150 to 360 days, depending on the genotype, altitude and environmental conditions. Phenological phases are: emergence, first true leaf, formation of the raceme on the central stem, flowering, podding, pod ripening, and physiological maturity.[3]

Use[edit]

Human consumption

The bone-white seed has been used as a food by Andean people since ancient times, especially in soups, stews, salads and by itself mixed with boiled maize. Like other legumes, its protein is rich in the essential amino acid lysine. The distribution of essential fatty acids is about 28% linoleic acid (omega-6) and 2% linolenic acid (omega-3). It has a soft seed coat that makes for easy cooking. It may have not been more widely used because of its bitter taste, due to the alkaloid content. It contains unusually high amounts of sparteine, which make up nearly half of its alkaloid content. However, the alkaloids are water-soluble and can be removed by soaking the seeds for some days in water. It is also possible to remove the alkaloids by denaturation with heat treatment.[2]

Compounds

L. mutabilis contains 42% of protein and 18% fat in average.[3] The high fat content has allowed commercial oil pressing. The protein digestibility and nutritional value are reportedly similar to those in soybeans.

Contents in the seed (in percent): </ref>http://de.scribd.com/doc/61824656/8/Composicion-quimica-y-valor-nutricional</ref>

Ingredient Amount in percent Range
Protein 42.6 37.7 – 49.7
Oil 18.7 12.8 – 22.2
Fibre 6.27 4.29 – 7.51
Ash 3.69 3.10 – 4.24
Carbohydrates 27.3 23.7 – 29.9
Alkaloids 3.26 2.56 – 4.14

The chocho is said to have nutrients like Omega 3 which is considered very important for brain.

Green manure and soil improver

L. mutabilis is able to fix nitrogen from the air. Therefore, succeeding cultures can profit from 60 to 140 kg of nitrogen per hectare. Incorporation in the flowering stage leads to a higher quantity of organic matter and to an improved soil structure.[2]

Agricultural aspects[edit]

Soil and climate requirements

L. mutabilis is a crop for cool climates and exists mainly in valleys at high altitudes, such as the Andes at tropical latitudes. The crop can be grown at an altitude that ranges from 800 to 3000 m. The crop withstands exceptional levels of drought. Mature plants are resistant to frost, whereas seedlings are sensitive to low temperatures.[1]

Cultivation technique

Sowing

In traditional farming practices minimum tilling is done before sowing. 100 to 120 kg unselected seeds per hectare is sown.

Improved cultivation practices:

It is recommended to apply 80 kg Phosphorus and 60 kg of Potassium as fertilization before sowing. The sawing of 90 kg selected seeds in a distance of 60 to 80 cm, either by hand or by seed drill follows. Plants germinate fast due to the high fat content in the seeds.[1]

Crop rotation aspects

Early varieties of L. mutabilis, with a growing period of about 150 days, can be cultivated in rotation with potatoes and cereals. Nematode disease of potato can be controlled by alkaloids when cultivated after L. mutabilis.[1]

Harvest

In traditional farming practices harvest occurs when plants have reached full maturity and the water content of seeds is between 8-12%.[3] From peasant plots average yield is about 500 to 1000 kg per hectare under suitable conditions yield reaches up to 3500 kg per hectare.[2]

Disease control

Alkaloids can act as a pesticide but breeding goals aim for a low alkaloid content. Therefore other disease control methods must be applied. Since ‘‘L. mutabilis’‘ is a low-input crop, disease control mainly is done by phytosanitary methods.[3] A reduction of soil born saprophytes can be reached by removing dry straw from the field. Instead of green manure the plant residues can be used as fuel. Seed borne diseases can be reduced by translocation of seed production and by the use of certificated seed.[3] If seed production is done by the cultivator, diseases can be controlled by reducing the number of infected seed and by a permanent control of diseases in the field. Another possibility is to treat seed with a fungicide prior to sawing.[3]

Breeding goals

Since species with low alkaloid content are already available a further step would be to make them more stable and low alkaloid content is inherited. Other breeding goals are tolerance to diseases and insects, improvement in yield, early maturing and synchronous ripening. Higher resistance could be reached by breeding a variety with high alkaloid content in leaves but not in the seeds.[1]

External Links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Lost crops of the Incas: little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation / report of an ad hoc panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council. - Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989, page 180-189.
  2. ^ a b c d Neglected crops: 1492 from a different perspective / ed. by J. E. Hernández Bermejo and J. León; publ. in collab. with the Botanical Garden of Córdoba (Spain) as part of the Etnobotánica 92 Programme (Andalusia, 1992). - Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1994.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i El cultivo y la utilización del tarwi: Lupinus mutabilis sweet / por Rainer Gross. - Roma: Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación, 1982.

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