Talk:Military academies in Russia

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Propose rename to "Russian military educational institutions"[edit]

  • It makes little sense to have two separate articles, one for military education in the Soviet era and one for contemporary Russia. If there will be only a single article it should be named for the present and not the past.
  • Coverage of the reality of the Soviet era may be of historical interest but correct and comprehensive coverage, periodically updated, of the current state of affairs will be of continuing useful reference as the Russian Armed Forces evolve.Федоров (talk) 23:20, 30 May 2012 (UTC)
Fedorov, completely agree Russian military institutions are of interest, but both are notable, and material on the Soviet period should be researched and added as well. Endorse a move to 'Russian military educational institutions' in line with the most-recent-name-used policy of WP:MILMOS#UNITNAME. Buckshot06 (talk) 12:05, 31 May 2012 (UTC)

Since 1991[edit]

  • All entries referring to institution events after 25 Dec 1991 do not belong in an article entitled "Soviet Military Academies".

They belong in an article entitle "Russian Military Academies".Федоров (talk) 14:23, 11 December 2011 (UTC)

Suggest moving NII entries to a "Research Institutes" page[edit]

NII (Scientific Research Institute)s are different from normal military training and educational institutions and should have their own WIKI article. Such an article would then list many more such organizations than have been noted in this article.Федоров (talk) 15:30, 3 July 2011 (UTC)

Suggest rearranging the contents of this article by agency/service[edit]

Suggest rearranging the contents in a fashion similar to that of its naval section. Grouping institutions by agency and service would make the article easier to read. Also, extended historical treatment of individual institutions should be in a separate WIKI article linked to the mention in this article.Федоров (talk) 15:30, 3 July 2011 (UTC)

Suggested additions/corrections from a Russian source[edit]

One should note that Red Army (and later Soviet Army) educational facilities called "academies" do not correspond to the military academies in Western countries. Those Soviet Academies were the post-graduate schools, mandatory for officers applying for senior ranks (e.g., the rank of Colonel since 1950s) [Not correct; first of all Colonels do not apply for their ranks; it is done in a form of promotion initiated by their superiors, not by “applicants” themselves. Secondly, it is only partly true. There were a lot of Colonels, and even some Generals who did not study in any Academy. So word “mandatory” could not be used in this sense. It was highly recommended that an officer that aspires to take a position of a commander of regiment would finish an academy first and when there was a choice - preference would be given to the one with an academy grade, rather than to the one without it, but it was not mandatory, still. Some officers were promoted based on their experience and on their achievements, rather than on their diplomas.].

While a basic officer education in the Red Army was provided by the facilities named военная школа or военное училище - which may be generally translated as "School" and compared to Western "academies" like West Point or Sandhurst. [I would suggest expanding this. I wrote down a lot, but you could select what you think is suitable for a short article. Military schools and military colleges in Soviet Union were of few different grades. The most military schools were equal in grade to high schools in civil life. They used to give basic military education along with full secondary civil education. There were not many of such in later Soviet times, but mostly in 30s to 50s where there were still many uneducated adults available. Later, when most of citizens would finish high-schools anyhow, there was no need to continue to maintain such military schools. Military schools of later times would not give any civil education at all, but only some basic military one and they were intended to train military specialists (let’s call them here military school type I), to train would-be junior sergeants of various military specialties (military school type II), and to train would-be warrant-officers (military school type III) {note “types I II III” is my own remark, this terminology was not used as such”}. Schools “type I” and “type II” were intended to admit young conscripts and to train them for 6 months. Upon graduation from school “type I” cadets would be given status “specialist” (but their rank “private” will remain the same as given at the day they entered the army) and assigned to combat army units. Cadets from schools “type II” would be given rank of “junior sergeants” and assigned to combat army units where they would be typically given command of a detachment (one third of a platoon). Schools “type III” were intended to admit either non-commissioned officers who wanted to be promoted to warrant-officers, or to admit some aspiring conscripts who wanted to continue their military service as warrant-officers; the minimum requirement for conscripts in this case was at least 1.5 year service as soldiers or as conscript-sergeants first. The full course in schools type III would take normally 9 months. Upon graduation a status “specialist” (in corresponding military specialty) and rank of warrant-officer would be given. Usually after graduation these warrant-officers would be sent back to those military units that sent them to study in such a school. Schools type IV (usually called not “schools” but “courses”, in fact) were intended to train second lieutenants; full course would take 11 months; only warrant-officers, or non-commissioned officers, or conscripts who completed 2 years prior service could be admitted; upon graduation a rank of second lieutenant was given but not any diploma (as opposed to graduates from real military colleges who upon graduation got rank of first lieutenant and some diploma). Typically, most of officers that enter these kinds of courses would be discharged from the military upon graduation, since the main purpose of these courses is to train reserve officers. However, some of these second lieutenants might remain in the military and continue their active service right away. These “11-months second-lieutenants courses” as they were known in the military were not really popular among those who wanted to be commissioned officers in active service. These would rather prefer to go to study in some military college, instead, because they would have better education, higher rank, diploma in both – civil and military education, and better chances in future careers. However, there was a limitation of age – 23 years and not older for enlisting in a standard military college (except for warrant-officers who could be up to 26 years old), while for “11-months second-lieutenant courses” even elder people could be admitted. Another thing was that for a military college one has to pass on entry exams in 4 different subjects (2 common and 2 profiling) and it was sometimes very difficult, since there could be as many as 5 to 10 aspirants to each available cadet’s position and harsh competition on entry exams, while for 11-months courses there were no any special requirements and it was much easier to get enlisted in.

Military colleges. They were of two different kinds. Those offering higher civil education along military one (let’s call them here type I) and those offering upper-intermediate civil education along with military one (type II). First ones would give you a diploma equal to that of a university, the second ones would give you a diploma equal to that given by a technical school that is lower than a college that gives a higher education. Full course in “type II” military college would typically take 3 years. Rank of first lieutenant would be given upon graduation. Graduates would be assigned to various army units usually as platoon commanders (or their equivalent in other troops and services). When it comes to “type I” military colleges are sub-divided into few different varieties. Type Ia – so-called “commanding military colleges” full course would take 4 years; Type Ib – so-called “engineering military colleges” – full course would take 5 years; Type Ic – medical military colleges – full course would take 6 years. Upon graduation a corresponding diploma equal to that given by a university and a rank of first lieutenant will be given. Only aspirants who completed high-school and passed entry exams on 4 subjects + fitness test could be admitted into any military college – either with 3-, 4-, 5- or 6- years courses as mentioned above (though it was comparatively easier to be admitted to a type II college than to be admitted into a type I one). However, when it comes to “11-months-second-liuetenants courses” even people with secondary school education could have a chance to enter.

Some security clearance of various degrees could be required to enter some kind of military colleges (especially cryptographic and communication ones and those belonging to the GRU, to Strategic Rocket Forces, and those that train stuff for strategic bombers and for submarines). In Soviet times no women could be admitted to any kind of military college, except only one: the Moscow Institute of Military Interpreters. It was the only one military college that had girls-cadets. The rest of women-officers known to serve in the Soviet Army and Navy were all graduated from civil universities and later enlisted into military while heaving their diploma already.

It was a policy in the Soviet Union that graduates from civil universities with corresponding profiles (such as medical doctors or communication engineers, for example) could also be enlisted into military with starting ranks of “first lieutenant” – without any sexual discrimination in this case (except that women-officers could not occupy commanding positions – such as platoon- or company- etc. commanders, of course). It shall be clarified also that abovementioned “engineering military colleges” (type Ib) have nothing to do with engineering troops. In fact there could be a “commanding military college of engineering troops” (type Ia) and there could be an “engineering military college of communication troops” (type Ib); an “engineering military college of engineering troops” (type Ib) was available also. So the word “engineering” in the name of a military college has no relevance to engineering troops. It means that such a military college trains officers for engineering positions for various troops, rather than for commanding positions in these troops. If, let’s say a “commanding military college of communication troops” (with 4 years course) trains officers for starting position of “commander of communication troops platoon”, an “engineering military college of communication troops” (with 5 years course) trains officers for starting position of “communication engineer at a military signal center”. Practically, all various troops of the Soviet Army have both – corresponding commanding and engineering colleges (usually proportion of a total number of existing commanding colleges to engineering ones was 8:1 – approximately, of course, it might slightly differ for various troops).

The commanding and engineering colleges have different status and also distinctly different internal structure. Commander of a typical commanding (type Ia) college was a Major-General, all his deputies – Colonels. Structure was typical to a regiment. Cadets of first year were grouped into platoons, companies and eventually – into the “first year battalion”. Cadets of the second year – into the “second year battalion”, and so on. Commander of each year battalion was a Colonel, of a company – Major, of a platoon – Captain. Military engineering college (type Ib) has distinctly different structure. Firstly, it was higher in status compare to the “type Ia”. Its Commander was a Lieutenant-General with his first deputy – Major-General. Secondly, by its internal structure engineering military college resembles university, rather than a regiment. It is divided not into battalions, but into faculties. Cadets are grouped not in accordance with their year of entry, but in accordance with their actual specialties. So cadets of one specialty would be grouped into platoons (in type Ib colleges called “studying groups” rather than “platoons”) and into one company (which in type Ib colleges is called “course” rather than “company”). Five companies (“courses”) of each year of entry (5 different years - 5 different companies, but of one specialty all) would be grouped into one faculty. Engineering colleges could have different number of faculties, depending on their profile (from three to ten).

While commanding colleges would always have only 4 battalions, not more and not less – because of their 4 years course. So, as you can see, commanding colleges have “parallel” structure, while engineering ones have “vertical” structure when it comes to grouping of cadets of various ages. Commanding officers ranks in engineering colleges (type Ib) are also higher than in commanding ones (type Ia). For example: in a commanding college a battalion commander only is a Colonel, his deputies are Lieutenant-Colonels, company commanders are Majors. While in an engineering college a faculty commander is a Colonel, his both deputies are Colonels as well, and all company (“courses”) commanders are Lieutenant-Colonels with two-three helpers in a rank of Captains (platoon commanders in engineering colleges were usually not appointed – the actual platoons were commanded by sergeants from among cadets). Structure of a typical medical military college is exactly the same as that of an engineering college described above.

A slightly differently are organized military aviation colleges. They are actually divided into three kinds, rather than two. They have: 1) commanding (pilot’s) colleges with 4 years courses – organized in the same manner as commanding colleges “type Ia”. These colleges train pilots. The main starting position upon graduation is a “pilot” with a prospect of promotion such as typical commanding ranks in aviation (chief-pilot, squadron leader and so on). Then there are colleges that train flight-navigators – organized in nearly the same manner. Then there are colleges that train aviation engineers. These are organized differently – in the same manner as described above engineering colleges “type Ib”. Full course is 5 years, starting position after graduation is an “engineer” with future prospect of promotion in aviation engineering service. But in aviation there is yet another kind of military colleges – aviation-technical ones - also subdivided into two kinds – 4-years course (akin to type Ia) and with 3-years course (akin to type II). These train aircraft technicians, rather than aviation engineers. Expected position after graduating from such a college is an aviation technician that is attached to an individual aircraft – much in the same manner as a pilot is attached to one aircraft. These aviation-technical colleges are distinctly different than aviation-engineering ones. Normally, people who got this kind of specialty have not much chance to be promoted – they typically remain technicians permanently attached to some aircraft till the rest of their services and maximum of what they could hope is to get a rank of a Captain when they near their age of retirement.

In addition to typically commanding and typically engineering colleges there are (there were in Soviet times) also military political colleges. These colleges used to train political officers as those described in above chapters (that succeeded commissars). They all have 4 years courses and status and structures akin to commanding colleges (type Ia). Typical position that officers would be assigned upon graduation from such a college – a “deputy company commander for political affairs”. From among all political colleges in the USSR there was one that differed from the rest. It was the Lvov Military-Political College (located in Lvov, Ukraine). It had two faculties that trained military journalists and would be chiefs of officers clubs, rather than typical “deputies for political affairs”.

Besides of very common typical commanding, political and engineering colleges, belonging to various kinds of troops and branches of the military, there are a few very specific military colleges. Among them these: Moscow Military Institute (trains military interpreters and military jurists; resembles typical civilian university in that sense and also by its structure); financial military college (trains would be chiefs of military financial service – teaches course that is similar to any financial course of a civilian university, but resembles by its status an structure a typically commanding college (type Ia); cryptographic military college (word “cryptographic” is not actually used in its name) – trains military cryptographers – resembles by its status and structure commanding college (type Ia); Mojaiski Military Institute in St Petersburg – trains various military engineers for the Soviet Space Forces – by its status and structure resembles a military academy, rather than a college, but offers courses that are akin to those in a typical military engineering college (type Ib); Military Institute of Physical Culture (aka “Sport”) – a military establishment (in St Petersburg) that is equal in educational status to a Sports faculty of a civilian university, but in military status and in structure – to a typical commanding college (type Ia); its course is 4 years – it trains cadets who wish to become sport- and physical exercise- organizing officers on a regimental level. This Institute also hosts additional “11-months-second-lieutenants courses” for military sportsmen (of soldiers and sergeants ranks) who wish to be educated as sports-coaches and to continue to serve in the military in this capacity. A Military Medical Academy (in St Petersburg) teaches cadets (not commissioned officers as any other academies do) but by its status and structure resembles an academy. All military colleges that belong to Internal Troops (Ministry of Internal Affairs) and to Border Guards (part of KGB) have exactly the same structure and status as typical military commanding colleges (type Ia) that belong to the Ministry of Defense.

It should be mentioned also that some engineering military colleges offer “by correspondence” courses. These are intended not for young cadets, but for serving commissioned officers who would like to get higher education (such as those who have only completed “11-months-second-leutenant courses” or 3-year military colleges (type II), or for those who wish to upgrade from commanding education (received in a college type Ia) to an engineering one (such as offered by a college type Ib). Not only commissioned officers, but warrant-officers as well could also study on these “by correspondence” courses in military engineering colleges. These will get a rank of first lieutenant upon graduation – along with cadets who study daily. But the ready commission officers upon graduation will get only diploma, not any upgrade in their ranks. Some military colleges were also known to admit commissioned officers (not older than 28 years of age) on their “daily” courses.

All these military colleges bear revealing names that contain mentioning of the city they are located in, of the troops or services they belong to, whether they give higher- or medium technical education, and indication of whether they are commanding or engineering. Example: Leningrad High Military Commanding Topography College, or Leningrad High Military Commanding Anti-Aircraft Missile College. Or Leningrad High Military Engineering Communication College. However, it did not apply to military colleges that belong to the Strategic Rocket Forces and to only College that trains military cryptographers. Those simply called like this: “[city name] High Military Commanding [or Engineering] College”. This approach, ironically, effectively betrays these colleges as belonging to the Strategic Rocket Forces, since only they bear such “unrevealing” names. Former infantry colleges also do not bear indication that they are “infantry”. In the Soviet Union they were called “all-troops colleges”. These do not have word “military” in their official names and they also can not be engineering, but only commanding. So, infantry colleges are called, for example, like this: “Moscow High All-Troops Commanding College” or “Leningrad High All-Troops Commanding College”. Unlike military colleges, military schools of all kinds as described above do not bear any official names of this kind. They are officially called “training military units” (“training regiment”, “training battalion” etc.) and are being referred to as any other military unit in Soviet Union by their coded numbers (in Russian в/ч – v/ch and 5 digits). It shall be noted also that by the beginning of 80s there were practically no more military colleges of type II (those with 3-year course and without higher education). Almost all of them were slowly upgraded to the high (type Ia or Ib) military colleges.

The next grade is military academies. These are intended to provide higher military education for commissioned officers only. If a typical military college described above (commanding, political or engineering one) teaches officers with a maximum prospect of becoming a division commander (theoretically only, but on practice you can not get a position of a division commander and even that of a regiment commander, unless you graduate from some academy), a typical military academy upgrades their military education with a maximum prospect of becoming an army commander.

In the Soviet Union there were few academies – one for each branch of armed forces, or troops. One academy for a general purpose – Frunze Military Academy in Moscow (all-troops academy, also could be informally called “infantry academy” or “all-troops”) – typically upgrades education of infantry commanders, but also commanders of paratroopers, marines, special purpose forces (“Spetsnaz” etc.) and, in some cases, also admits tank- and artillery- commanders; typically all high-ranking commanders in the Soviet Union and Russia (as in any other army) come from infantry ranks and almost all of them are graduates from the Frunze Academy. One academy is for tank troops – Mailnovski Armored Troops Academy in Moscow. One academy for artillery – Kalinin Artillery Academy in Leningrad (formerly there were two artillery academies, but one – Dzerjinski Academy in Moscow – was given over to the Strategic Rocket Forces later when they were created). One academy for transportation troops and rear-services – Military Academy of Rear Services and Troops in Leningrad. One academy for engineering troops – Kuibyshev Military-Engineers Troops Academy in Moscow. One academy for chemical troops – Timoshenko Academy of Chemical Defense in Moscow. One academy for Strategic Rocket Forces, also with a special faculty belonging to the 12th Chief Directorate teaching about nuclear weapons handling (in this one “strategic rocket forces” words are not used in its official name) – Dzerjinski Military Academy in Moscow. One academy – for GRU (also bearing name that does not suggest which troops it really belongs to – it is simply called “Academy of Soviet Army”, located in Moscow). One academy – for communication troops – Budennyi Military Academy of Communication Troops (in Leningrad). One academy for Navy – Military Maritime Academy (in Leningrad). Two academies for Troops of National Air Defence – Govorov Military Academy of Air Defense (located in Kharkov, now Ukraine) and Zhukov Military Commanding Academy of Air Defense in Kalinin (now Tver); the last one now is re-named into “Zhukov Military Academy of Space and Air Defense”. One Academy – for political officers (Lenin Military-Political Academy in Moscow). One Medical Academy located in Leningrad (but this one teaches cadets, rather than commissioned officers; the cadets there have status of conscript soldiers for the first 3 years, then get ranks of second-lieutenants and study 3.5 years more as commissioned officers, then, upon graduation, get ranks of first lieutenants; in the 80s this tradition was broken and the cadets remained cadets for the entire 6.5 years till graduation – probably it was done in order to save money, since cadets do not have any salary, unlike commissioned officers). Two academies for Air Force – one Zhukovski Air Force Academy in Moscow (teaches aviation engineers) and another one – Gagarin Air Force Academy in Monino, near Moscow (this one upgrades education of pilots and flight navigators). Actually, formerly Air Force has one more academy – Mojaiski Academy in Leningrad, but this one was later given first to the Strategic Rocket Forces, and later – to the Space Forces. Eventually, it began to teach cadets much in the same manner as described above in case of the Military Medical Academy – they got ranks of second-lieutenants on their 3rd year of study, but in the 80s this tradition was broken and they began to remain cadets for the entire 5 years. Later this Mojaiski Academy was re-named into “Mojaiski Military Institute”, but retained structure of a former academy, but a new status of a military engineering college (akin to “type Ib” described above). It still belongs to the Space Forces. All academies bear unique names, but, unlike in case of military colleges, names of the cities they are located in are not used in their official names (since there is only one academy of each kind it could not be mistaken with anything else anyways). Each of these academies (except “all-troops”-, aviation- and political ones) is typically sub-divided into “commanding faculty” and “engineering faculty” – much in the same sense as described above commanding (type Ia) and engineering (type Ib) colleges are. In some academies besides these two main faculties there could also be some smaller groups that train officers of scientific research specialties, but also in military history, and in some other minor professions. All these academies could offer courses of 5 years long (for those officers who completed 3-year (type II) military colleges) and 3 years long (for those who completed 4- and 5- years colleges (type I) that give higher education). Such 5 years long course would also additionally provide standard higher education and a diploma equal to that of university. Normally, those officers who were educated from commanding colleges (type Ia or II) could select whether to study in such an academy on its engineering or on its commanding faculties. But those officers who were educated from engineering colleges (type Ib) have no choice – they could only study on commanding faculties, since engineering faculty gives almost the same kind of education they have already after their colleges. Normally all officers would go to study in the same academy that corresponds to their main specialty – i.e. officers of artillery – to the artillery academy, officers of engineering troops – to the engineering troops academy etc. However, there could be some exceptions. It sometimes happens that artillery officers decided to be re-educated as chemical forces officers, for example. And in this case they could apply to study in a “non-profile” academy. But usually such requests are denied, unless there is some big re-organization of military in general and some officers are moved from one kind of troops to another as a part of some new policy. All these academies offer both – daily- and “by correspondence” courses. After completing “daily” studying (I mean upon graduation) students will be assigned to new positions; those who were lower than battalion commanders before entering the academy, would be typically assigned as battalion commanders (with some exceptions); those, who were already battalion commanders before the academy, would be assigned to some higher positions – may be, deputies of regiment commanders; those who studied on engineering faculties, would be assigned to some engineering positions equal in status to those of at least a battalion commander or higher. Those, who studied on “by correspondence” basis, would not be given any new positions – they would remain where they were, but have an extra diploma only; their possible promotions due to upgrades in their education would entirely depend on their superiors.

Certain privileged students might remain in the academy after completion of its full course in order to upgrade their education even further, because usually all academies have a so-called “adjuncture” – a kind of post-graduate course after which a scientific degree could be claimed - such as that equivalent of Doctor of science in the West (because what is called “Doctor” in Russian is in fact one step higher than what called “Doctor” in the West; the Russian equivalent of Western “Doctor” called “Candidate of Science” – this is exactly what is possible to claim after post-graduation in adjuncture at military academies. Requirements to enter these kinds of academies are typically the following. An officer must have a good record of his current service, he must be fluent in at least one foreign language (usually in either English, German, French or Spanish), physically fit, he must currently occupy a position corresponding to a rank of a Major (but not necessarily a rank of Major, it means a position corresponding to that rank only - meaning that typical company commanders that occupy positions corresponding to a rank of a Captain are not eligible to apply to study in academies, unless they have some very special privilege – for example if they are Heroes of Soviet Union or in some other exceptional cases; while in normal cases those who are eligible to study in academies are deputies of chiefs of staffs of battalion commanders and their equivalents in engineering or other services – this is limitation because of too many aspirants every year apply to study in academies, but there are no means to accommodate requests of all of them), they must be not older than 28 years to study daily, and not older than 33 years to study by correspondence, they must have already at least the following educations: either completed a military college (type II or type I), or military institute, or civil institute of higher education, or civil university – meaning those who completed only 11-month long second-lieutenant courses are not eligible (unless they possess an extra diploma in a higher education); successfully pass entry exams in at least three subjects (one in foreign language and two – in profiling subjects + physical fitness test) on competition basis – much like in case of a military college, where for one available student’s seat could be as many as 3-7 aspirants. As far as I know, female commissioned officers were not eligible to study in military academies, probably with only a very few exceptional cases, upon interference of a Minister of Defense or some other high-ranking official on their behalf. Commanding officers at the academy are mostly generals. The Chief of the Academy – is usually a three-star General, all his deputies – Lieutenant-Generals, chiefs of faculties and senior professors are all Majors-General at least. All these academies belong exclusively to the Ministry of Defense. However, they admit students from other ministries – such as from the KGB and from Ministry of Internal Affairs. These officers are normally grouped into separate studying groups, not to be mixed with army officers, but taught basically the same course. Some academies, as well as some military colleges, also admit foreign cadets and officers, but these could be taught different courses, for example, some secret subjects and some secret techniques could be withheld. Contrary to common misunderstanding, the highest General Staff Academy has nothing to do with the abovementioned academies neither in status, nor in structure. General Staff Academy is intended to train only high-ranking commanding officers. While military colleges train officers with future maximum prospect of becoming division commanders, and academies train officers with future maximum prospect of becoming army commanders, the General Staff Academy trains officers for potentially higher positions (though all armies commanders, in fact, are expected to graduate from the General Staff Academy). To be eligible to apply to study at the General Staff Academy, an officer must be “prospective”, he must be relatively young, he must complete at minimum a “normal” military academy as described above, and he must currently occupy a position of at least corresponding to a rank of a Major-General (such as a typical division commander or its equivalent, or even higher than that, though it is possible that a commander of a brigade in some cases could also be eligible, but not a commander of a regiment). Therefore majority of students of the General Staff Academy are Generals of various ranks, with relatively fewer Colonels. Upon graduation from the General Staff Academy the officers would most likely be given a Major-General rank (if they are still Colonels) and given command of at least a division, or most probably some higher position than that. The only exception is a so-called “Military History Faculty” at the General Staff Academy which is relatively easy to enter, but after completing of this faculty one could not expect any promotion or any active position, but probably only some inactive post. This is an overview of education in the Soviet Army.

I forgot to mention that there were also military high-school and even secondary-schools called “Suvorov Schools” and “Nakhimov Schools”; pupils in them used to wear military (but black rather than khaki) and navy uniforms correspondingly. “Nakhimov Schools” were not too many, only in some big cities housing navy bases, for example in Leningrad. But “Suvorov Schools” were available in almost every big city. Children in these schools were taught subjects corresponding to high school, but they have a few military subjects, in addition (and in “Nakhimov Schools” – subjects pertaining to the Navy, in addition). Both of these military schools for children corresponded to the 9th and 10th years (i.e. to the last two years) of a civil high school (meaning the children were around 14-15 years of age when they enter and they supposed to have completed 8 years of a standard secondary school education first + to successfully pass entry exams). However, there was one more children military school that admitted children starting from 4th year (10 years old children) – so the full course there was 6 years (till the last 10th year of a standard high-school). This one was a military musical school in Moscow, but pupils in it were dressed in the same kind of military uniform as those in “Suvorov Schools” (a military uniform akin to army, but of black color, rather than khaki). Children upon completion of that school were expected to enlist to the High Musical Military College and to become upon graduation conductors of military orchestras (though any one talented in music was eligible to apply to study in Musical Military College, not only these children from this particular military school). Those pupils who completed “Suvorov Schools” and “Nakhimov Schools” were given a standard diploma of high-school, but given some preferential treatment upon entering high military colleges – they supposed to have a better chance in competition on entry exams compare to other aspirants. Practically, they had guaranteed admission. That is why some career army officers who wished their children to follow their steps, but were not quite sure if their children would be able to pass entry exams in a “normal” way, would prefer to send their children to study in “Suvorov-“ or “Nakhimov Schools” first to ensure their entries to military colleges. Others preferred to send their children to study there because they wanted to protect them from bad influence in this critical age (since these schools had a well maintained discipline, organized studying and practically no time for bad things.