Talk:Muslim conquest of the Levant
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I added the fact that prior to the Battle of Yarmuk, the Arabs abandoned Jerusalem and Damascus. It was only after Yarmuk, that they occupied it for the last time until 1099 when the crusaders took it.
Christian views on the invasions?
This article seems to rely quite heavily on Islamicist views and Arab sources, I'd like to include a section regarding Christian views of the invasion from Syriac sources to balance it out —Preceding--Mondo Libero (talk) 20:00, 10 January 2008 (UTC)
Yes, the article is written entirely from the Muslim perspective, and using Muslim sources.
There are a series of Byzantine and Armenian sources available however : these should be used, but it constitutes a very important effort.
Also, they would stand out in what is, right now, a coherent rendition of the classical Muslim historiography (Baladhuri, Wakidi, Tabari etc) which has only one problem: being written about 150 years after the event, and being rich in details which are, most likely, imaginary.Giordaano (talk) 13:57, 5 May 2010 (UTC)
- if any one can add stuff from armenian and byzantine source then its great ...
i my self have read some of the pieces from an armenian source written during 634, and amazingly it mentioned the same date for battle of yarmouk as mentioned by other tabari who compiled his work 159 years later ! even the sive of byzantine army was same.
- Any ways, i would like to add some thing which is, that most of the historians and readers around the world actually do a common mistake when doing assesment of muslim sources, they apparaently think that they were written after 150 years of the actual events (like that of mecedonian sources for alexander the great). Actually they were compiled after 150 years of the events. They were present in the form of written narrations in the official and military manuals of governments and educational institutes. Arabs had two ways for remembering their history even from pre islamic times, the oral and written. actually the oral way of transmitting the narration was based on the written documents.
Mohammad Adil 15:55, 5 May 2010 (UTC)
Has any effort been made towards showing the Christian POV of this invasion ? The only info we have now is from the Muslim pov [ick, as far as non bias goes]. 184.108.40.206 (talk) —Preceding undated comment added 06:08, 5 November 2013 (UTC)
I have corrected this false sentence:
- Persians under Khosrau II had succeeded in occupying Syria, Palestine and Egypt for over a decade before being forced by the victories of Heraclius by recapturing Jerusalem in 614 and winning at Chalcedon in 617 to conclude the peace of 628.
The encyclopedia brittanica, cited as source for this sentence, claims:
- In 623 the Byzantine emperor Heraclius reversed Persian successes over Roman arms — namely, by capturing Jerusalem in 614 and winning at Chalcedon in 617.
According to me, Brittanica claims that Persians captured Jerusalem in 614 and won at Chalcedon in 617. The author of wikipedia article has mistaken the sense of the sentence, writing that Heraclius reconquered Syria in 614 and won the Persians at Chalcedon.
Gibbon confirms what I say:
His conquest of Syria, A.D. 611. he passed the Euphrates, occupied the Syrian cities, Hierapolis, Chalcis, and Berrhaea or Aleppo, and soon encompassed the walls of Antioch with his irresistible arms. The rapid tide of success discloses the decay of the empire, the incapacity of Phocas, and the disaffection of his subjects; and Chosroes provided a decent apology for their submission or revolt, by an impostor, who attended his camp as the son of Maurice (58) and the lawful heir of the monarchy.
of Palestine, A.D. 614.. The first intelligence from the East which Heraclius received, (59) was that of the loss of Antioch; but the aged metropolis, so often overturned by earthquakes, and pillaged by the enemy, could supply but a small and languid stream of treasure and blood. The Persians were equally successful, and more fortunate, in the sack of Caesarea, the capital of Cappadocia; and as they advanced beyond the ramparts of the frontier, the boundary of ancient war, they found a less obstinate resistance and a more plentiful harvest. The pleasant vale of Damascus has been adorned in every age with a royal city: her obscure felicity has hitherto escaped the historian of the Roman empire: but Chosroes reposed his troops in the paradise of Damascus before he ascended the hills of Libanus, or invaded the cities of the Phoenician coast. The conquest of Jerusalem, (60) which had been meditated by Nushirvan, was achieved by the zeal and avarice of his grandson; the ruin of the proudest monument of Christianity was vehemently urged by the intolerant spirit of the Magi; and he could enlist for this holy warfare with an army of six-and- twenty thousand Jews, whose furious bigotry might compensate, in some degree, for the want of valour and discipline. After the reduction of Galilee, and the region beyond the Jordan, whose resistance appears to have delayed the fate of the capital, Jerusalem itself was taken by assault. The sepulchre of Christ, and the stately churches of Helena and Constantine, were consumed, or at least damaged, by the flames; the devout offerings of three hundred years were rifled in one sacrilegious day; the Patriarch Zachariah, and the true cross, were transported into Persia; and the massacre of ninety thousand Christians is imputed to the Jews and Arabs, who swelled the disorder of the Persian march. The fugitives of Palestine were entertained at Alexandria by the charity of John the Archbishop, who is distinguished among a crowd of saints by the epithet of almsgiver: (61) and the revenues of the church, with a treasure of three hundred thousand pounds, were restored to the true proprietors, the poor of every country and every denomination. of Egypt, A.D. 616.But Egypt itself, the only province which had been exempt, since the time of Diocletian, from foreign and domestic war, was again subdued by the successors of Cyrus. Pelusium, the key of that impervious country, was surprised by the cavalry of the Persians: they passed, with impunity, the innumerable channels of the Delta, and explored the long valley of the Nile, from the pyramids of Memphis to the confines of Aethiopia. Alexandria might have been relieved by a naval force, but the archbishop and the praefect embarked for Cyprus; and Chosroes entered the second city of the empire, which still preserved a wealthy remnant of industry and commerce. His western trophy was erected, not on the walls of Carthage, (62) but in the neighbourhood of Tripoli; the Greek colonies of Cyrene were finally extirpated; and the conqueror, treading in the footsteps of Alexander, returned in triumph through the sands of the Libyan desert. of Asia Minor, A.D. 616 etc. In the same campaign, another army advanced from the Euphrates to the Thracian Bosphorus; Chalcedon surrendered after a long siege, and a Persian camp was maintained above ten years in the presence of Constantinople. The sea-coast of Pontus, the city of Ancyra, and the Isle of Rhodes, are enumerated among the last conquests of the great king; and if Chosroes had possessed any maritime power, his boundless ambition would have spread slavery and desolation over the provinces of Europe.
Copy-edited the entire article
The section "Byzantine Syria" seems contradictory. History buffs know that it is discussing Roman Syria, but the article does not make this clear.
I would suggest renaming the section "Roman/Byzantine Syria" to properly reflect that at the start of the period discussed, no one refers to the rulers as "Byzantine" (and indeed, they never called themselves that even at the end). Famartin (talk) 18:48, 4 August 2013 (UTC)
- I see your point. Personally, I find the idea of a "Roman/Byzantine Syria" title a bit ugly, so I would simply call it "Roman Syria"; after all, many Byzantinists consider the Arab and Sassanian invasions the key moment to distinguish "Roman" and "Byzantine". Thus I've worked around to try to avoid confusion.Aldux (talk) 14:28, 5 August 2013 (UTC)