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If obligation is not observable in a state of affairs, then it arises by ascription or utterance. Simply ascribing (i.e. writing to - from the Latin 'ad scribere') obligation to B doesn't establish the state of affairs where B is obliged and therefore doesn't establish the truth of the sentence 'B is obliged' just as simply saying "The cat is sitting on the mat" doesn't establish the state of affairs where the cat is sitting on the mat and therefore doesn't establish the truth of the sentence 'The cat is sitting on the mat'. The process is one of magical incantation i.e. saying it's so makes it so. Ash220.127.116.11 (talk) 11:40, 23 August 2012 (UTC)