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- 1 Edit request on 9 July 2012
- 2 Dubious: "Records of competitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland in 1829 BCE"
- 3 Edit request on 7 February 2013
- 4 Edit request on 12 March 2013
- 5 Photos
- 6 Semi-protected edit request on 12 April 2014
- 7 Running speeds of average humans
- 8 The fastest human footspeed on record.
Edit request on 9 July 2012
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In the official page about running in wikipedia, when we talk about energy expenditure of running Vs walking (source 11 of the references ) the study is not well cited. as it says, according to the page, running uses 1.20X more energy than walking on the track, and 1.01X more energy on the treadmill , but according to the study it should be 1.41X ( 481Kj/340Kj ) more energy on the track and 1.43X (480/334) on the treadmill! The fastest land-speed record ever set by man was 38.3 MPH in 2012 in the 2012 Olympics however the runner was only able to keep this speed for about 20 seconds. Shortly after, running consistently at 34.5 MPH for the rest of the duration of the sprint!
- Not done: Please present changes as 'Please change X to Y', not 'please change X'. Mdann52 (talk) 10:36, 13 July 2012 (UTC)
Dubious: "Records of competitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland in 1829 BCE"
Dubious and citation seriously needed. Oral history can't preserve chronologies for more than about fifty to one hundred years. Written history didn't exist in Europe at the time. The first readable texts in Europe are the Linear B texts a few hundred years later and on the other end of the continent.18.104.22.168 (talk) 02:22, 7 February 2013 (UTC)
Edit request on 7 February 2013
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Please either remove the claims about the antiquity of the Tailteann Games, find reliable sources for the claims, or mark the claims as dubious. I already mentioned some reasons for disbelieving the claims on this talk page. 22.214.171.124 (talk) 02:31, 7 February 2013 (UTC) 126.96.36.199 (talk) 02:31, 7 February 2013 (UTC)
- I have added a "citation needed" tag to the passage. Feel free to open a new request if a reliable source is not added in a reasonable length of time. Rivertorch (talk) 08:57, 7 February 2013 (UTC)
Edit request on 12 March 2013
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I am a Physical Therapy Student at Western University of Health Sciences and would like to submit the following edit to "Motions" section of this page. It is my hope to improve this page and provide a well written and cited section on the kinematics and kinetics of running
Please replace the current text of the "Motions" section of the "Running" wikipedia page with the following text below.
- Running Kinematic Description
- Running gait can be divided into two phases in regard to the lower extremity: stance and swing (1; 18; 19; 22). These can be further divided into absorption, propulsion, initial swing and terminal swing. Due to the continuous nature of running gait, no certain point is assumed to be the beginning. However, for simplicity it will be assumed that absorption and footstrike mark the beginning of the running cycle in a body already in motion.
- Footstrike occurs when a plantar portion of the foot makes initial contact with the ground. Common footstrike types include forefoot, midfoot and heel strike types (6; 11; 24). These are characterized by initial contact of the ball of the foot, ball and heel of the foot simultaneously and heel of the foot respectively. During this time the hip joint is undergoing extension from being in maximal flexion from the previous swing phase. For proper force absorption, the knee joint should be flexed upon footstrike and the ankle should be slightly in front of the body (7). Footstrike begins the absorption phase as forces from initial contact are attenuated throughout the lower extremity. Absorption of forces continues as the body moves from footstrike to midstance due to vertical propulsion from the toe-off during a previous gait cycle.
- Midstance is defined as the time at which the lower extremity limb of focus is in knee flexion directly underneath the trunk, pelvis and hips. It is at this point that propulsion begins to occur as the hips undergo hip extension, the knee joint undergoes extension and the ankle undergoes plantar flexion. Propulsion continues until the leg is extended behind the body and toe off occurs. This involves maximal hip extension, knee extension and plantar flexion for the subject, resulting in the body being pushed forward from this motion and the ankle/foot leaves the ground as initial swing begins.
- Swing Phase
- Initial swing is the response of both stretch reflexes and concentric movements to the propulsion movements of the body. Hip flexion and knee flexion occur beginning the return of the limb to the starting position and setting up for another footstrike. Initial swing ends at midswing, when the limb is again directly underneath the trunk, pelvis and hip with the knee joint flexed and hip flexion continuing. Terminal swing then begins as hip flexion continues to the point of activation of the stretch reflex of the hip extensors. The knee begins to extend slightly as it swings to the anterior portion of the body. The foot then makes contact with the ground with footstrike, completing the running cycle of one side of the lower extremity.
- Each limb of the lower extremity works opposite to the other. When one side is in toe-off/propulsion, the other side is in the swing/recovery phase preparing for footstrike (1; 18; 19; 22). Following toe-off and the beginning of the initial swing of one side, there is a flight phase where neither extremity is in contact with the ground due to the opposite side finishing terminal swing. As the footstrike of one side occurs, initial swing continues. The opposing limbs meet with one in midstance and midswing, beginning the propulsion and terminal swing phases.
- Upper Extremity Function
- Upper extremity function serves mainly in providing balance in conjunction with the opposing side of the lower extremity (18). The movement of each leg is paired with the opposite arm which serves to counterbalance the body, particularly during the stance phase (8). The arms move most effectively (as seen in elite athletes) with the elbow joint at an approximately 90 degrees or less, the hands swinging from the hips up to mid chest level with the opposite leg, the Humerus moving from being parallel with the trunk to approximately 45 degrees shoulder extension (never passing the trunk in flexion) and with as little movement in the transverse plane as possible (4). The trunk also rotates in conjunction with arm swing. It mainly serves as a balance point from which the limbs are anchored. Thus trunk motion should remain mostly stable with little motion except for slight rotation as excessive movement would contribute to transverse motion and wasted energy.
- Propulsion Phase
- Most recent research, particularly regarding the footstrike debate, has focused solely on the absorption phases for injury identification and prevention purposes. The propulsion phase of running involves the movement beginning at midstance until toe off. (8; 18; 19). From a full stride length model however, components of the terminal swing and footstrike can aid in propulsion (2; 22).
- Set up for propulsion begins at the end of terminal swing as the hip joint flexes, creating the maximal range of motion for the hip extensors to accelerate through and produce force. As the hip extensors change from reciporatory inhibitors to primary muscle movers, the lower extremity is brought back toward the ground, although aided greatly by the stretch reflex and gravity (22). Footstrike and absorption phases occur next with two types of outcomes. This phase can be only a continuation of momentum from the stretch reflex reaction to hip flexion, gravity and light hip extension with a heel strike, which does little to provide force absorption through the ankle joint (3; 8; 14). With a mid/forefoot strike, loading of the gastro-soleus complex from shock absorption will serve to aid in plantar flexion from midstance to toe-off (14; 30).
- As the lower extremity enters midstance, true propulsion begins (8). The hip extensors continue contracting along with help from the acceleration of gravity and the stretch reflex left over from maximal hip flexion during the terminal swing phase. Hip extension pulls the ground underneath the body, thereby pulling the runner forward. During midstance, the knee should be in some degree of knee flexion due to elastic loading from the absorption and footstrike phases to preserve forward momentum (10; 15; 26). The ankle joint is in dorsiflexion at this point underneath the body, either elastically loaded from a mid/forefoot strike or preparing for stand-alone concentric plantar flexion.
- All three joints perform the final propulsive movements during toe-off (3; 8; 14; 30). The plantar flexors plantar flex, pushing off from the ground and returning from dorsiflexion in midstance. This can either occur by releasing the elastic load from an earlier mid/forefoot strike or concentrically contracting from a heel strike. With a forefoot strike, both the ankle and knee joints will release their stored elastic energy from the footstrike/absorption phase (10; 15; 26). The quadriceps group/knee extensors go into full knee extension, pushing the body off of the ground. At the same time, the knee flexors and stretch reflex pull the knee back into flexion, adding to a pulling motion on the ground and beginning the initial swing phase. The hip extensors extend to maximum, adding the forces pulling and pushing off of the ground. The movement and momentum generated by the hip extensors also contributes to knee flexion and the beginning of the initial swing phase.
- Footstrike Debate
- Recent research into running form has focused on the differences in the potential injury risks and shock absorption capabilities between heel and mid/forefoot footstrikes. It has been shown that heel striking is generally associated with higher rates of injury and impact due to inefficient shock absorption and inefficient biomechanical compensations for these forces (6). This is due to forces from a heel strike traveling through bones for shock absorption rather than being absorbed by muscles. Since bones cannot disperse forces easily, the forces transmitted to other parts of the body, including ligaments, joints and bones in the rest of the lower extremity all the way up to the lower back (27). This causes the body to use abnormal compensatory motions in an attempt to avoid serious bone injuries (28). These compensations include internal rotation of the tibia, knee and hip joints. Excessive amounts of compensation over time have been linked to higher risk of injuries in those joints as well as the muscles involved in those motions (3). Conversely, a mid/forefoot strike has been associated with greater efficiency and lower injury risk due to the grasctro-soleus complex being used as a lever system to absorb forces with the muscles eccentrically rather than through the bone (6). Landing with a mid/forefoot strike has also been shown to not only properly attenuate shock but allows the grastro-soleus complex to aid in propulsion via reflexive plantarflexion after stretching to absorb ground contact forces (2; 20). Thus a mid/forefoot strike may aid in propulsion.
- However, even among elite athletes there are variations in self selected footstrike types (9). This is especially true in longer distance events, where there is a prevalence of heel strikers (11). There does tend however to be a greater percentage of mid/forefoot striking runners in the elite fields, particularly in the faster racers and the winning individuals or groups (4). While one could attribute the faster speeds of elite runners compared to recreational runners with similar foostrikes to physiological differences, the hip and joints have been left out of the equation for proper propulsion. This brings up the question as to how heel striking elite distance runners are able to keep up such high paces with a supposedly inefficient and injurious footstrike technique.
- Stride Length, Hip and Knee Function
- Biomechanical factors associated with elite runners include increased hip function, use and stride length over recreational runners (4; 21). An increase in running speeds causes increased ground reaction forces and elite distance runners must compensate for this to maintain their pace over long distances (29). These forces are attenuated through increased stride length via increased hip flexion and extension through decreased ground contact time and more force being used in propulsion (16; 25; 29). With increased propulsion in the horizontal plane, less impact occurs from decreased force in the vertical plane (17). Increased hip flexion allows for increased use of the hip extensors through midstance and toe-off, allowing for more force production (8).
- The difference even between world class and national level distance runners has been associated with more efficient hip joint function (13). The increase in velocity likely comes from the increased range of motion in hip flexion and extension, allowing for greater acceleration and velocity. The hip extensors and hip extension have been linked to more powerful knee extension during toe-off, which contributes to propulsion (4).
- Stride length must be properly increased with some degree of knee flexion maintained through the terminal swing phases, as excessive knee extension during this phase along with footstrike has been associated with higher impact forces due to braking and an increased prevalence of heel striking (12). Elite runners tend to exhibit some degree of knee flexion at footstrike and midstance, which first serves to eccentrically absorb impact forces in the quadriceps muscle group (13; 23). Secondly it allows for the knee joint to concentrically contract and provides major aid in propulsion during toe-off as the quadriceps group is capable of produce large amounts of force (8).
- Recreational runners have been shown to increase stride length through increased knee extension rather than increased hip flexion as exhibited by elite runners, which serves instead to provide an intense breaking motion with each step and decrease the rate and efficiency of knee extension during toe-off, slowing down speed (21). Knee extension however contributes to additional stride length and propulsion during toe-off and is seen more frequently in elite runners as well (4).
1. Anderson, T. (1996). Biomechanics and Running Economy. Sports Medicine, 22 (2), 76-89.
2. Ardigo, L.P., Lafortuna, C., Minetti, A.E., Mognoni, P., & Saibene, F. (2008). Metabolic and mechanical aspects of foot landing type, forefoot and rearfoot strike, in human running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 155 (1): 17-22.
3. Bergmann, G., Kinggendorf, H., Graichen, F., & Rohlmann, A. (2000). Influence of shoes and heel strike on the loading of the hip joint. Journal of Biomechanics, 28 (7), 817-827.
4. Cavanagh, P.R. (Eds). (1990). Biomechanics of Distance Running. Champaign, I.L.: Human Kinetics Books.
5. Cavanagh, P., Pollock, M., & Landa, J. (2006). A Biomechanical Comparison of Elite and Good Distance Runners. The Marathon: Physiological, Medical, Epidemiologial and Psychological Studies, 301, 328-245.
6. Daoud, A.I., Geissler, G.J., Wang, F., Saretsky, J., Daoud, Y.A., & Lieberman, D.E. (2012). Foot Strike and Injury Rates in Endurance Runners: a retrospective study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. Published ahead of print.
7. Davies, G.J., Wallace, L.A., & Malone, T. (1980). Mechanisms of Selected Knee Injuries. Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association, 60, 1590-1595.
8. Hamner, S.R., Seth, A., & Delp, S.L. (2010). Muscle contributions to propulsion and support during running. Journal of Biomechanics, 43 (14), 2709-2716. 9. Hasegawa, H., Yamauchi, T., & Kraemer, W.J. (2007). Foot Strike Patterns of Runners at the 15-km Point During Elite-Level Half Marathon. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21 (3), 888-893.
10. Kubo, K., Kanehisa, H., Kawakami Y., & Fukunaga, T. (2000). Elastic properties of muscle-tendon complex in long-distance runners. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 81 (3), 181-187.
11. Larson, P., Higgins, E., Kaminski, J., Decker, T., Preble, J., Lyons, D., McIntyre, K., & Normile, A. (2011). Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race. Journal of Sports Science, 29 (15), 1665-1673.
12. Lafortune, M.A., Hennig, E.M., & Lake, M.J. (2006). Dominant role of interface over knee angle for cushioning impact loading and regulating initial leg stiffness. Journal of Biomechanics, 29 (12), 1523-1529.
13. Leskinen, A., Hakkinen, K., Virmavirta, M., Isolehto, J., & Kyrolainen, H. (2009). Comparison of running kinematics between elite and national-standard 1500-m runners. Sports Biomechanics, 8 (1), 1-9.
14. Lieberman, D., Venkadesan, M., Werbel, W., Daoud, A.I., D’Andrea, S., Davis, I.S., Mang’Eni, R.O., & Pitsiladis, Y. (2010). Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature. 463, 531–535.
15. Magness, S. How to Run: Running with proper biomechanics. Retrieved October 3rd, 2012, from http://www.scienceofrunning.com/2010/08/how-to-run-running-with-proper.html
16. Mercer, J.A., Devita, P., Derrick, T.R., & Bates, B.T. (2003). Individual Effects of Stride Length and Frequency on Shock Attenuation during Running. Medicine & Science in Sports & Science, 35 (2), 307-313.
17. Mercer, J.A., Vance, J., Hreljac, A., & Hamill, J. (2002). Relationship between shock attenuation and stride length during running at different velocities. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 87, 403-408.
18. Nicola, T.L., & Jewison, D.J. (2012). The Anatomy and Biomechanics of Running. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 187-201.
19. Novacheck, T.F. (1998). The biomechanics of running. Gait and Posture, 7 (1), 77-95.
20. Perl, D.P., Daoud, A.I., & Lieberman, D.E. (2012). Effects of Footwear and Strike Type of Running Economy. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Published Ahead of Print.
21. Pink, M., Perry, J., Houglum, P.A., & Devine, D.J. (1994). Lower Extremity Range of Motion in the Recreational Sport Runner. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 22 (4), 541-549.
22. Schache, A.G., Bennell, K.L., Blanch, P.D., & Wrigley, T.V. (1999). The coordinated movement of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during running: a literature review. Gait & Posture, 10 (1), 30-47.
23. Skoff, B., & Stuhec, S. (2004). Kinematic analysis of Jolanda Ceplak's running technique. New Studies in Athletics, 19 (1), 23-31.
24. Smeathers, J.E. (1989). Transient Vibrations Caused by Heel Strike. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 203 (4), 181-186.
25. Stergiou, N., Bates, B.T., & Kurz, M.J. (2003). Subtalara and knee joint interaction during running at various stride lengths. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 43(3), 319-326.
26. Thys, H., Cavagna, G., & Margaria, R. (1975). The role played by elasticity in an exercise involving movements of small amplitude. European Journal of Physiology, 354 (3), 281-286.
27. Verdini, F., Marcucci, M., Benedetti, M.G., & Leo, T. (2005). Identification and characterization of heel strike transient. Gait and Posture, 24 (1): 77-84.
28. Walter, N.E., & Wolf, M.D. (1977). Stress fractures in young athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 5 (4), 165-170.
29. Weyand, P.G., Sternlight, D.B., Bellizzi, M.J., & Wright, S. (2010). Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89: 1991-1999.
30. Williams, D.S, McClay, I.S., & Manal, K.T. (2000). Lower Extremity Mechanics in Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike Pattern. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 16, 210-218.
- I changed the indenting on the above edit request so that word-wrap would be used, making it more readable. SlowJog (talk) 02:58, 24 November 2013 (UTC)
- I noticed the above request did not have an edit request tag, so added it.SlowJog (talk) 04:11, 8 June 2014 (UTC)
- Not done: You are welcome to do the research and make these edits yourself, assuming no one objects, but cleaning up a year-old edit request and adding an edit request template is not a useful workflow. The person who originally requested these changes, and would be the only person responsible for the accuracy and originality of them, made no other edits after dropping this lengthy replacement section here. If they had started an edit request last year and I had serviced it, I would have asked them to establish a consensus for such a large change, but since they are no longer around, that is not a useful solution. Regards, Older and ... well older (talk) 04:59, 8 June 2014 (UTC)
I think the photo sequence by Eadweard Muybridge should be at the top. This sequence shows the motions of running, and should be prominent. The other photos are of less interest. If they are retained, I suggest placing them at the bottom of the article. SlowJog (talk) 01:23, 17 November 2013 (UTC)
- I removed the photos of runners in the Chicago marathon. Since the Eadweard Muybridge photo sequence shows a complete running cycle, I think that, or similar, should be the lead image. If anyone wants to put these photos back in a different part of the article, here is a copy of the text:
[[File:Running Man Kyle Cassidy.jpg|thumb| right|A man running in Chicago]] [[File:Kyle-cassidy-running-1.jpg|thumb|right |Runners approach mile 4 of the F^3 Half Marathon in Chicago, 2013]]
Semi-protected edit request on 12 April 2014
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- Not done: as you have not requested a change.
If you want to suggest a change, please request this in the form "Please replace XXX with YYY" or "Please add ZZZ between PPP and QQQ".
Please also cite reliable sources to back up your request, without which no information should be added to any article. - Arjayay (talk) 08:45, 12 April 2014 (UTC)
Running speeds of average humans
|This topic is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.
The section or sections that need attention may be noted in a message below.
It's nice to know the maximum speed any human has ever run, but Mr. Bolt is hardly representative. All the speeds given in this article are records.
Can we have some numbers on typical speeds (and endurance) for ordinary people, fit, unfit, running regularly? Information on how it changes with age, from small children through to centenarians? Changes with height? The extent of the trade-off between top speed and endurance? Any broader statistics of populations not consisting entirely of elite athletes would be very welcome.
- I don't think the base research is there. While walking is within very defined bounds, running encompasses everything from a slow jog to a sprint. Distance is also a profound factor on this. As far as I'm aware there is no mass research which has assessed people on several reported running modes and quantified their speeds on a variety of modes and distances and ages and height and weight and expert assessment of true running mode... As you can see walking is much easier to assess! Would be interesting though! SFB 22:38, 17 April 2014 (UTC)
The fastest human footspeed on record.
The fastest The fastest human footspeed on record claimed by this article is 44.72 km/h (12.42m/s, 27.79 mph), yet on the Footspeed it's claimed to be 36.58 km/h (23.35 mph), which one is acutally true? Atsuki Kimidori (talk) 16:21, 15 April 2014 (UTC)
- I've checked the maths and 44.72km/h is the right one. SFB 22:32, 17 April 2014 (UTC)