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This area could be improved with more elaboration on the evolutionary aspect of bitterness. Here are three areas of information that could improve that aspect:
1. Information on convergent evolution in different species towards sensitivity to the bitter compound, PTC. Specifically, the article " Independent Evolution Of Bitter-taste Sensitivity In Humans And Chimpanzees" by Wooding, et al. speaks about these separate phenomena in chimps and humans.
2. A focus on the expression of the TAS2R gene, rather than its presence in organisms sensitive to bitter compounds, could provide more information on the evolutionary forces on TAS2R. Specifically, T2R receptors are found in the enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1 which uses a calcium related signalling pathway.
3. A fact of note is that human changes in diet, avoidance of toxins, and use of fire has led to relaxed constraint in the evolution of bitter taste. This has led to continued negative evolution that has caused a reduced sensory capacity in humans when compared to other species. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Wodarcyk.5 (talk • contribs) 23:45, 30 September 2014 (UTC)
Citation 31 should be the following:
"Huang AL, Chen X, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Guo W, Trankner D, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS (2006). The cells and logic for mammalian sour taste detection. Nature 442: 934-938."
It's better to have the original paper as opposed to a ScienceDaily article.
Don't you guys think tomatoes are metallic? Whenever I taste them they taste like blood. -- User:Sneaky Oviraptor18
So what exactly is "bitter"?
Generalizing, "sweet" is related to ketone or aldehyd groups, "sour" is acidity, "salty" is Na+ ions, umami depends on amino acids, but what ligand(s) is/are "bitter"? -- megA (talk) 16:38, 6 December 2014 (UTC)
Primary references were added to present the potential for fat tasting, and the subject was expanded upon to make more evidence and research in support of fat tasting known. Three membrane proteins shown to have some role in fat tasting were presented. Pjuviler (talk) 10:22, 17 November 2014 (UTC)