Talk:Theresienstadt concentration camp
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- 1 Previous discussion
- 2 Dates?
- 3 Photos
- 4 Article's name and language (concentration camp vs. ghetto)
- 5 Citations
- 6 Name
- 7 Children in Theresienstadt
- 8 Created in part for Jewish veterans of World War I?
- 9 Dates confused
- 10 AfD for CD on Terezin Music
- 11 Aditional information about the Czech use of Theresienstadt?
- 12 Troubling Sentence
- 13 Missing Section on the Surgery
- 14 media not just movies?
- 15 more information
- 16 Main fortress
- 17 mportant facts about Terezin or Theresienstadt concentration camp
Has all discussion and history on this page been removed by admins? ---BobLoblaw 07:07, 21 January 2006 (UTC)
- Simply, no discussion since the page was created. You are the second here. Pavel Vozenilek 22:29, 21 January 2006 (UTC)
Part of this article reads:
- On 3 May 1945 control of the camp was transferred from the Germans to the Red Cross. Five days later, on 5 May 1945 Terezín was liberated by Soviet troops.
May 5 is not five days later than May 3. Which is the correct date, May 5 (as stated) or May 8 (as implied by "Five days later")? The 5 May 1945 was just added, but I'm not sure that that means it's wrong... Hbackman 22:09, 21 March 2006 (UTC)
I have read several sources which confirm the arrival of Soviet troops at the camp on May 8. However, I also have one source which dates the arrival of the Red Cross as May 5, with the official control of the camp passing to Soviet officials on the morning of May 9 (Women of Theresienstadt, Ruth Schwertfeger 1988).
I also have another source which does not mention the arrival of the Red Cross previous to the liberation of the camp by Soviet troops. That source (Theresienstadt, Vera Schiff 1996) is a personal memior by a Czech Jewish nurse, who writes extensively on the typhus epidemic brought to Theresienstadt by death marchers from Birkenau on April 24. Schiff also states that death marchers under SS guard were brought to the camp during the last two weeks of April.
Schiff writes of the camp internees realizing only on the morning of May 8 that SS guards were not present to stop them from approaching the walls to watch the oncoming Soviet tanks, at which point they cut their way out through a section of chain-link. I find it puzzeling how a camp nurse would end up omitting the presense of the Red Cross, although I have left that section unchanged. Curious.
Paganolive 01:34, 11 September 2006 (UTC)
I have uploaded 3 photos which might help add to the view on Terezin
- Entrance to the camp with distinctive styling.
- Memorial built outside the camp.
- Commandant's house in stark contrast to the conditions in the small fortress.
Collieman 16:04, 14 April 2006 (UTC)
Article's name and language (concentration camp vs. ghetto)
I'd appreciate an explanation of:
- * why the article's name doesn't begin with Theresienstadt, and doesn't include Terezin
- * its predominant (per its title) yet internally inconsistent use of "concentration camp" rather than "ghetto"
Redirects aside, I'd have thought this article to be entitled somewhat otherwise, e.g. Theresienstadt (Terezin) ghetto.
I'd like to read some discussion here on the above points, as I'm quite new to editing Wikipedia, and Holocaust topics are my primary area of endeavor (corresponding with RL :-)
Thanks, Deborahjay 05:15, 2 June 2006 (UTC)
- The designation "concentration camp" is confusing but not wrong. It´s mentioned in the article that Terezín was a ghetto for privileged Jews from Germany, "Czechoslovakia" and Austria. In fact, it was founded by Heydrich as a transit CAMP for Czech Jews only. For instance, people could not walk on the pavement, and the living conditions were tougher than in the later period.
- More than 90 % of Protectorate Jews were transported to Terezín!
- The CAMP became a GHETTO - and, partially, an "Altersghetto" (i.e., for older and/or privileged Ŕeich Jews) only after HEydrich was assasinated. As late as June 1942, first non-Protectorate Jews were deported to Terezín.
- TO be exact, there was one more designation used for Terezín. In the spring of 1944, it became "area of settlement" instead of "ghetto".
- The twists in the tactics of the Nazis meant Terezín was quite a different place in 1941, 1942, 1944 and 1945.
- This is well described in the book by HG Adler - a magnum opus of the "Holocaust science". Highly recommended...
When I was in Theresienstadt, there were two places - the fortress, which was definitely a camp, and the town, which I believe may have contained a ghetto (but I'm not sure abou this). The fortress, which was the prison for Jews during the war, would never qualify as a ghetto - people didn't LIVE there, they were IMPRISONED there. And that, to me, is a quite big difference. --Alvestrand 15:56, 11 September 2006 (UTC)
Why are there no citations? If this is to be viewed as a credible article, the dates and events mentioned need to be cited. ~~ Kyle
So long as there is no any credible citations, all this sounds as science fiction. ~~ Martin
You don't need citations when being anti-nazi. Look on the holocaust page and you will see a coloured photo with no citations claiming to be of Jewish victims. Subsequently the Jews have altered history, and refer to Theresienstadt as a death camp. --Saintrotter 22:27, 28 February 2007
Nobody refers to Theresienstadt as a death camp over here, my dear 'historian'.Jeff5102 22:04, 8 March 2007 (UTC)
Did this camp avoid the "death camp" name because it seems to have avoided typhus to the degree other camps had the disease? Any idea of the normal population of the camp. 144,000 but not all at once I assume. The final survival amount 17000+- may be a good start. 126.96.36.199 15:10, 29 March 2007 (UTC)
Are the deaths listed a count of people who died ( and were buried ) at this camp or a count of anyone who had ever been here. From what records are the numbers taken?188.8.131.52 15:49, 29 March 2007 (UTC)
Without citations, you should not put any figures down. Cite your sources. Magicana 00:44, 28 July 2007 (UTC)
For the record (these comments having been here for 3 years unchallenged):In general, people at Theresienstadt died of severe malnutrition, overwork, lack of facilities to maintain an hygienic lifestyle, lack of medical care of any kind for anyone, and murder by the guards, that is if they were not sent to Auschwitz. In support of this assertion, please see award-winning website www.rijo.de, and within it, the diary of Bernhard Kolb, a Theresienstadt survivor. The numbers requested are there too. Michalsuz (talk) 02:28, 1 July 2010 (UTC)
Why is it called concentration camp instead of compulsory deportation ghetto? As far as I know, people have not been killed or murdered there, they have not been "punished" or tortured sadistically, being obliged every morning or evening to stand for hours in order to be counted and things like that.
- Austerlitz -- 184.108.40.206 10:28, 21 October 2007 (UTC)
"Concentration camp" doesn't mean "death camp". The people were concentrated there, not necessarily exterminated. On the other hand, people indeed were punished, tortured and murdered there. It's only that it wasn't on the industrial scale as in Auschwitz, for example. ...accountless person. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 220.127.116.11 (talk) 18:17, 20 March 2008 (UTC)
It had features of 'Concentration Camp' and features of 'Ghetto', so both terms should be used, with realisation that we are accepting Nazi terminology, itself intended to be mendacious as well as being irredeemably imprecise because of the inherent arbitrariness characteristic of Nazism. So I would write somethin like "... referred to both as a concentration camp and a ghetto", which is factually correct. The Wikipedia page on 'Internment' handles clarification of the terms very well. The Czech name Terezin should be given with its proper accent and I'd appreciate a pronunciation if possible; could both be done by a Czech to get them right? —Preceding unsigned comment added by Wilmslow (talk • contribs) 02:19, 6 May 2008 (UTC)
In Czech, it's written "Terezín", with a "carka" above i. I hope it displays correctly. As for pronounciation, I guess I'd better leave it to someone who actually knows how to upload such thing. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 12:49, 6 May 2008 (UTC)
How come a holocaust denial site, as http://www.cwporter.com/hoess.htm is listed here at the "links"? The guy is everything but related to history !!! Who can remove this link? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 15:18, 3 January 2009 (UTC)
- You fixed it -- thanks! That one slipped by us, obviously -- it was inserted in December of 2007. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 15:55, 3 January 2009 (UTC)
Children in Theresienstadt
The article states: "There were 15,000 children living in the children's home inside the camp; only 93 of those children survived." For years I had been given, and had seen at Beit Terezin in Israel, a figure of 150 surviving children out of 15000, remarkably round figures. Both Yad Vashem and the Terezín Initiative Institute (www.holocaust.cz) give figures which seem to be very different. Friends who recently looked for the data at Yad Vashem came back with figures as follows: 7700 children entered T, of whom 1234 (this oddly mnemonic figure is not a mistake by me but the figure they found) survived the war.The Terezín Initiative Institute informs me: 'There were 10.500 children prisoners (under 14 years before deportation to Terezín) in Terezín Concentration Camp of whom 2300 survived the Holocaust and 700 died in Terezín. A couple of people professionally concerned with Holocaust education suggest to me that the apparent wide discrepancies relate to a very late influx of children who had a much higher survival rate than those in Terezín earlier. Could different age criteria for 'child' play a part? How many children were in T but not in 'the children's home'? My sister and I were two such, but I have no idea how many others there were. What about the Dutch 'Barneveld group' which was sent to T? Did it include a significant number of children? Were there Danish children? Were there other special groups with outcomes very different from that suggested in the current page?
Could someone who knows the documentary evidence comment and if possible edit the page to clarify these figures including legitimate uncertainties?
In view of the widespread interest in children in Theresienstadt, some of it reflected in the article, a section (even a page?) specifically on the children would surely be appreciated by many, including those who use 'I Never Saw Another Butterfly' and 'Brundibar' educationally. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Wilmslow (talk • contribs) 03:16, 6 May 2008 (UTC)
Created in part for Jewish veterans of World War I?
The article Wannsee Conference states:
"…Heydrich said that to avoid legal and political difficulties, it was important to define who was a Jew for the purposes of "evacuation." He outlined categories of people who would be exempted. Jews over 65 years old, and Jewish World War I veterans alike, who had been severely wounded or who had won the Iron Cross, would be sent to the "model" concentration camp at Theresienstadt. "With this expedient solution", he said, "in one fell swoop many interventions will be prevented." Historian932 (talk) 11:04, 2 July 2008 (UTC)
- TEREZIN "Sometimes such differences in political ideologies caused dissent among the population, particularly in the running of the administration and the education of the children. However, these differences were nothing compared to the lines drawn between Czech Jews and German Jews. There was a palpable mistrust between these two groups, as oftentimes the Czech Jews felt the German Jews were imposing on their territory and the German Jews felt superior over the Czech Jews."
Article states that the hoax against the Red Cross visit in June '44 was so successful a propaganda movie was commissioned as a result and filming started in Feb '44. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 126.96.36.199 (talk) 22:27, 25 May 2009 (UTC)
AfD for CD on Terezin Music
Aditional information about the Czech use of Theresienstadt?
I feel the article is missing a section about its postwar use, in particular about Malá pevnost. This is not a chapter that we should forget and many people interned and mistreated after the war, were not SS or even German. The Czech camp commandant, Alois Prusa, openly told new arrivals, that none would leave Malá pevnost alive. This was not merely a matter of punishing German war criminals, it was part of the ethnic cleansing committed by the Czech against German speaking Czechoslovakians.
I don’t’ mind writing this, but I feel there need to be an agreement with the other authors. Otherwise someone might just delete it. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 188.8.131.52 (talk) 07:26, 6 January 2010 (UTC)
The following sentence shows up twice in the article:
"Murmurstein was as popular in the ghetto as was the SS command."
What it seems to be saying is that it's subject was unpopular, but it is not completely clear and the tone seems facetious. And, as mentioned, it is repeated. Seems like this needs fixing.--Jrm2007 (talk) 05:45, 29 June 2010 (UTC)
- I have removed this sentence ("Not surprisingly, Murmurstein was as popular in the ghetto as was the SS command"). Its meaning is not clear – is it saying that Murmurstein and the SS command were both equally unpopular (which seems implausible) or that they were both popular (in which case the sentence is presumably facetious and, as such – given the nature of the subject matter – potentially offensive). Moreover, its relevance to the surrounding text is not transparent. Indeed, the whole text under "Differing living conditions for prisoners" could do with a tidy-up. Ondewelle (talk) 09:47, 7 October 2010 (UTC)
I have implemented a change of the word 'resident' throughout the article to the word 'prisoner', it is an example of what I mean. The emphasis in the article seems to be on how good life was there. As an example, please see the diary of Bernhard Kolb, who was a credible Theresienstadt survivor, at the rijo.de website. . It is there in German; a translation into English will soon be available. User:Navinia (talk) 04:50, 29 July 2010 (UTC)
Missing Section on the Surgery
There is no section on the surgery. There is no picture of the surgical toolbox.
According to the Independent, "a case of monogrammed surgical instruments that in 1943-44 had been used by SS Maj Anton Burger on the inmates of the notorious Theresienstadt concentration camp" ( http://blogs.independent.co.uk/2012/02/08/would-you-be-willing-to-profit-from-selling-nazi-surgical-equipment/ ) are available on the market.
Wikipedia curators could buy it to document and create a section on it for the Theresienstadt article and then donate it to the Theresienstadt Museum in Theresienstadt. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 184.108.40.206 (talk) 21:07, 8 February 2012 (UTC)
media not just movies?
I like movies but I think books and music are just as worthy of their own sections as opposed to inclusion in other sections or being placed in "Further reading" below references. 220.127.116.11 (talk) 10:41, 29 March 2012 (UTC)
a translation of the German WP article (39Kb)
KZ Theresienstadt, trans. from German
The camp Theresienstadt was in Terezin (Theresienstadt German, now in the Czech Republic) was established. Terezin was a fortress city in the late 18th Century by Emperor Joseph II to secure the transition Eger was built just before the mouth of the Elbe River. The city is divided into two parts: in the garrison town and the fortified bridgehead Small Fortress. After the occupation of Bohemia and Moravia, the Nazis made from Terezín / Theresienstadt, a concentration camp: 1940 was first established in the Small Fortress, a Gestapo prison in November 1941 in the garrison city, a collection and transit camp was first mainly for the Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia. After the Wannsee Conference in 1942 were in the camp too old or deemed prominent Jews from Germany and other occupied European countries deported. In the Nazi propaganda in the German Reich Theresienstadt was the "age ghetto" transfigured and during a brief phase as alleged "Jewish settlement patterns" various foreign visitors demonstrated. The "Theresienstadt concentration camp" met four tasks: it was a Gestapo prison, a transit camp, it served as part of the Jewish policy of extermination of people and - at times - the Nazi propaganda as "age ghetto".
The Nazis used the existing infrastructure and "perfected" the place. They built it from one part of their repression and extermination apparatus. The prison was run by the Gestapo office in Prague, because the jail was overcrowded Pankrác. In the beginning there were only male prisoners, but after the attempt on Hitler's governor Heydrich in June 1942, established a women's section. The existing three prison farms was added in 1943, a fourth, which was intended for male prisoners.
Execution site in the Small Fortress Between 1940 and 1945 by the various offices of the Gestapo about 27,000 men and 5,000 women were transferred to the prison Theresienstadt first detainees from Prague, then the whole of Bohemia and Moravia in 1944 also. In the Small Fortress war ended mostly Czechs were arrested, including many resistance fighters against the Nazi regime. In recent years, then a citizen of the Soviet Union, Poland, Yugoslavia and against war prisoners from the ranks of the Allied armies.
Of the occupants were about 8,000 to other concentration camps to which they were deported by the end of the war. 2500 died in the camp after torture, disease, and due to the working and living conditions. 250 inmates were executed in the fortress itself. Among the victims there is also a group of Jews from the Rhineland, on the 4th October 1944 - "mistake" - in the Small Fortress and not in the "ghetto" arrived in a shipment from Cologne. This error has been "corrected", but almost all were killed. 
Commander of the Gestapo prison since its inception was an SS-Hauptsturmführer Joeckel, of the first Company of the SS Guard Battalion commanded Bohemia and Moravia. He was under the respective Higher SS and Police Leader of Bohemia and Moravia (HSSPF) in Prague.
First concentration camp on Bohemian soil
Single cells in Hof IV Merell January 1943 was arrested and detained in Prague in the Small Fortress. The Council of Jewish Communities in Bohemia and Moravia, published tape Theresienstadt he recorded his impressions and experiences with the title How they suffered and died. With it he means the Jews who came to the Small Fortress. He was a Catholic priest who came as thousands of other Czechs to Theresienstadt, because he was in opposition to the Nazis. The proportion of Jews among the 2500 deaths of the Small Fortress was high. Only in the first few months, the Nazis used in the garrison city own the place of execution. From summer 1942 to all executions in the Small Fortress in Terezin were executed.
"In June 1940, she was (the Small Fortress)" Merell wrote in his report, "adopted by the Prague Gestapo who here erected a Notgefängnis to the lack of space in the Prague police Pankrac prison remedy. Thus, the small fortress for the first Hitler's concentration camps on Bohemian soil. Soon after, in November 1941, was added in a second: the Great Fortress, the adapted as a concentration ghetto Theresienstadt. In the ghetto, Jews were not a bed of roses, but woe to those who came for some reason in the Small Fortress "
Garrison town [Edit]
The role of Theresienstadt 1941-1945 was closely related to the plans of the Nazis, that "in the course of the practical implementation of the Final Solution (the Jewish Question)" - are "Europe from west to east through combed" - the wording in the minutes of the Wannsee Conference should. In addition to the Reich was placed on the Wannsee Conference, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia assigned high priority. 
In the Protectorate lived about 88,000 Jews. Their fate was decided in Prague in October 1941. On 10 and 17 October this year at the Prague Hradcany found in the office of the newly appointed Deputy Reich Protector Reinhard Heydrich held two meetings at which it came to the "solution of the Jewish question". Besides Heydrich was attended by high-ranking Nazis, including SS General Karl Hermann Frank and SS Major Adolf Eichmann. The minutes of the meeting of 17 October 1941 captures the short-term and long-term planning with regard to the role of Theresienstadt:
"First, a transport of 5,000 Jews evacuated to Lodz. Part of it is already gone. If all gone 5000, is a brief press release about to come in the paper, but in a clever way, it has to be an expression of how quickly rolls the rich German labor. Then they must be a short break in order not to disturb the preparations for further evacuation, or ghettoization. In the meantime, the Jews of Bohemia and Moravia are collected each in a transit camp for evacuation. For this purpose has been authorized by the armed forces of the Reich Protector Theresienstadt cleared of all the Armed Forces completely. The local Czechs is encouraged to draw elsewhere. If the land is not anyway Reich property already, he is bought by the Central Office for Jewish Emigration, and thus German property. In Theresienstadt 50,000 to 60,000 Jews comfortably be accommodated. From there, the Jews are coming to the East ". 
A second camp was planned in the Moravian Kyjov. This camp, however, was no longer needed because the transport to Terezin abliefen faster than planned. So you could have 14 April 1942 notify the Commander of the Security Police and the Security Service (SD), the Home Office in Prague assume that "under the present circumstances would not consider the construction of a second concentration camp for Jews from the Protectorate". 
After the then plans should Theresienstadt assume the function of a transit camp for the Czech and Moravian Jews temporary. "After the complete evacuation of the Jews," says the report continues, "Theresienstadt is then colonized according to any plan by Germans and a center of German life will be."
The decision to Theresienstadt was closely related to the location and character of the place. He was very close to the limits of the protectorate of the Reich and was tied over the station Bauschowitz Ohří to the railway network, so that the transport to Terezin and from Theresienstadt was organized out easily.
In the garrison town of 1941 there were about 3500 residents. Likewise, many soldiers - at that time soldiers of the German army - had been removed in the fall from the local barracks. Theresienstadt is surrounded by powerful, completely intact city walls, the city has a large number of casemates and underground passages, so that the Nazis needed a minimum of SS men to guard the prisoners. Should there be a serious scenario, could also be used in the SS garrison in the Small Fortress.
Concentration camp or ghetto? [Edit]
Was the function of Terezin in the decisions of the National Socialists clearly defined as a collection and transit camp, so it was not for the name on the outside. Varies the minutes of the meetings of Prague in October 1941 between "camps", "transit camp" and "ghetto", so sat in the years to finally "ghetto" or "ghetto" more and more through. The order was intended to deceive the victims are taking place in this way is much easier than with other designations. On top of that was taken up by the Jews, the name "ghetto" or "Jewish settlement" of Theresienstadt. As it says in a paper of the Department of "G" of the Prague Jewish community, the Jewish side in the fall worked out in 1941 proposals for the organization in Theresienstadt and then the later commander, SS Lieutenant leader Siegfried Seidl, submitted: "The Ghetto administration is responsible for the care all Jews in the ghetto. Its tasks are separate and transferred function. A word from the function it has to perform the internal organization to handle self-government by the administration of the estate ... "He continued:" Organs of the settlement are, a) the line (...) b) The council of elders ... ".
Of the "camp commander" to "Head of Service" 
As camp commander (later known as "Head of Service" in order to conceal the concentration camp character of the ghetto) initially acted SS Hauptsturmführer Siegfried Seidl, then from July 1943 to February 1944 SS First Lieutenant Anton Burger and finally SS Lieutenant General Karl Rahm. Rahm organized in this capacity, the "beautification operations" in the ghetto, in the two visits by delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in June 1944 and in April 1945.
The commander about 20 SS men, and about 100 Czech gendarmes were subordinate. The latter had the task of supervising the locks and access the fortress. Police were the first to executions and mass graves in Theresienstadt, in one case, even with the help of photos, the staff sergeant Karel Salaba had secretly recorded and published in a Swiss newspaper 1942nd
Collection and transit camp for Czech Jews
After the command structure had done its job, the number of Jews deported to Theresienstadt Jews grew rapidly from the now German territory of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. To create more space, in the spring of 1942 the remaining Czech inhabitants driven from their homes and, in May 1942, nearly a third of the Jews living in the Protectorate, more than 28,000 people were deported to Theresienstadt. The trains ran on the mile (German: Bauschowitz) south railway station Bohušovice.
The first "transportation to the east" of 1000 prisoners took place on 9 January 1942 instead. This and all other transports ordered the SS camp commandant on instructions from Berlin. The guidelines contained therein regarding the number and category of prisoners. The selection of prisoners who should be deported to the East, had to meet under these rules, the "Jewish self-government".
"Age ghetto" for selected German Jews [Edit]
band with the inscription "CONC BEARING TEREZIN - Wulkow - TEREZIN" The first mention of the idea that it should be in addition to the collection and transit camp for Jews from Bohemia and Moravia, a camp for selected German Jews from Theresienstadt, in a diary entry of Joseph Goebbels of 18 November 1941 to see. It states: "Heydrich told me about his intentions regarding the deportation of Jews from the Reich. The question may be more difficult than we had at first believed. 15,000 Jews should stay in Berlin anyway, since they are employed by military importance and dangerous work. Also a number of ancient Jews can not be deported to the East. For them to a Jewish ghetto in a small town set up in the Protectorate. " In the Wannsee Conference of 20 January 1942 Theresienstadt was determined as age ghetto. SS General Reinhard Heydrich gave the "Wannsee Conference" commentary known that all Jews would be brought empire over 65 years in the age ghetto. It was also decided that in addition to ancient Jews also heavily war-damaged and Jews should be accommodated with war decorations in Theresienstadt. These Jews home purchase contracts were offered, in which they were adequate housing, food and medical care promised. The RSHA brought by the assets of the deportees themselves, without, however, providing the benefits promised.
More than 140,000 prisoners [Edit]
The total number of men, women and children who were deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto was, until the end of World War II, about 140,000. During the last days of the war once met a 13,000 other prisoners, who had been deported from liquidated concentration camps in Germany and Poland to Theresienstadt.
The number of people affected is organized as follows :
Country of Origin
Number of internees
Bohemia and Moravia
Births + fickle Additions
Former school, in which there was a children's home L417 (now the Ghetto Museum) Among the prisoners in Terezin, there were about 15,000 children who were in the so-called "children's homes" housed by sex and age groups. The inmate self-government tried to make especially for them. The children were at the expense of survival of older people a little better food and a secret instruction from their coaches (also called Madrichim).
In the former children's home L417 which previously served as a school and were detained in the boys aged 10 to 15 years, is the Ghetto Museum since 1991. 
Total survived by the children, who were also sent by the SS to the extermination camps, only 150 the end of the war.
Cultural Activities [Edit]
The painting The Rehearsal (2009, German The rehearsal) from the series Holocaust theater the expressionist artist Stefan Krikl shows a scene from a theatrical parody of Hamlet in Theresienstadt concentration camp. In camp, there were numerous / extensive cultural, religious, philosophical activities that were worn by the prisoners. More than 2000 already known at that time or later become known prisoners participated in these activities.
Those that died in Theresienstadt prisoners known 
Marie Bloch (1871-1943), educator and representative of the women's movement Chodziesner Ludwig (1861-1943), lawyer, father of writer Gertrud Kolmar (pseudonym), she herself was probably in Auschwitz Ludwig Czech (1870-1942), politicians (ministers) in Czechoslovakia Robert Desnos (1900-1945), French writer, member of the Resistance, died after liberation on 8 June 1945 in Theresienstadt from typhoid Paul Eppstein (1902-1944) killed in the Small Fortress Terezin, sociologist Siegfried case (1877-1943), Austrian composer Alfred Flatow (1869-1942), participants in I. Summer Olympics Gustav Felix Flatow (1875-1945), gymnast and Olympic champion. Cousin of Alfred Flatow Adolfine Freud, Sigmund Freud's sister, deportation on 29 June 1942 to Theresienstadt, where they at 5th February 1943 probably died from malnutrition Petr Ginz (1928-1944), Jewish boy, publisher of Vedem in Theresienstadt Victor Hammer (1870-1943), physician, specialist author, avowed social democrat and Austrian Freemasons Max Herrmann (1865-1942) and Helene Hermann (1877-1944), German historian of literature and theater studies Trude Herzl (youngest daughter of Theodore Herzl) Karl Herxheimer (1861-1942), physician Mathilde Jacob (1873-1943), socialist, close associate and confidant of Rosa Luxembourg Hedwig Jahnow (1879-1944), Old Testament scholar, first woman magistrate in Marburg, Vice Principal of the School Marburg Elisabeth died on 23 March 1944 from malnutrition Gerhard Lowenthal's paternal grandparents perished in Theresienstadt died, other relatives in other camps, Gerhard Lowenthal and his father were temporarily imprisoned in Sachsenhausen Louis Loewenthal (1898-1944), German banker Leopold Lucas (1872-1943), Jewish historian and rabbi Julius Moses (1868-1942), physician and politician (Social Democrat) Philip coin (1864-1944), German general practitioners Friedrich Munzer (1868-1942), philologist Fanny victims (1870-1944), song and oratorio singer Auguste van Pels (1900-1945), mother of Peter van Pels was roommate of Anne Frank in Amsterdam back house (probably died in Theresienstadt) Ottilie Pohl (1867-1943), councilor from Berlin, Red Aid, died after eleven months in Theresienstadt Hugo Pribram (1881-1943), Professor of Medicine Elise Richter (1865-1943), professor of philology at the University of Vienna, died after six months in Theresienstadt Therese Rothauser (1865-1943), singer Simon Solomon (1873-1943), publisher and writer (pseudonym: Siegbert Salter) Zikmund Schul (1916-1944), composer Kurt Singer (1885-1944), a neurologist, a musicologist and Chairman of the Jewish Cultural League Siegfried Translateur (1875-1944), composer and music publisher Louis Treumann (1877-1942), Austrian singer and actor Doris Tucholsky (1869-1943), mother of writer and journalist Kurt Tucholsky Arthur von Weinberg (1860-1943), chemist, industrialist and patron of Frankfurt am Main on 2 June 1942 arrested and deported to Theresienstadt, died here on 20 March 1943 Joseph Meadows (1865-1942), former Chief Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Julie Wolf Thorn (1864-1944), a painter, died on 26 December 1944 at the age of 80 years in Theresienstadt
Martha Jacob born Behrendt (1865-1943), mother of Heinrich Eduard Jacob Rudolf Karel (1880-1945), Czech composer Kamil Krofta (1876-1945), historian and diplomat; 1925-27 Czechoslovak ambassador in Berlin, 1936-1938 Minister of Foreign Affairs Georg Alexander Pick (1859-1942), Austrian mathematician Hans Leo Przibram (1874-1944), an Austrian biologist Benno Wolf (1871-1943), cavers Oskar Basch (1879-1944), a theater director in Carlsbad, husband of the actress Trude Havel
Famous prisoners [Edit]
Hans Günther Adler (1910-1988), Austrian writer Karel Ančerl (1908-1973), Czech conductor Inge Auerbacher (* 1934), brought as a child to Theresienstadt (see the book "I'm a Star") Leo Baeck (1873-1956), rabbi, president of the Central Organization of German Jews (1933-1943), 1943 deportation to Theresienstadt Benscher Fritz (1906-1970), German actor, game show host, presenter, radio play announcer and director Josef Beran (1888-1969), Archbishop of Prague Susan Cernyak Sparrow (* 1922) American literary scholar in North Carolina Friedl Dicker-Brandeis (1898-1944), Austrian artist / architect murdered on 9 October 1944 in Auschwitz were in Theresienstadt art classes for imprisoned children Cordelia Edvardson (1929-2012), Swedish-Israeli journalist and author, brought as a child to Theresienstadt (see the book "once bitten investigated the fire") Arthur Green Oak (1867-1949), a German chemist Viktor Frankl (1905-1997), psychologist, 1942 Theresienstadt, 1944, the Auschwitz concentration camp in the Kaufering VI (Türkheim), a subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp survivor Friediger Max (1884-1947), a Danish chief rabbi and Holocaust survivor Rudolf Gelbard (1930), Social Kurt Gerron (1897-1944) was a German actor and director murdered in Auschwitz Petr Ginz (1928-1944), writer and artist teenager murdered in Auschwitz Rolf Grabow (1883-1963), German professor of tax law and Judge Reichsfinanzhof Leo Haas (1901-1983) was a painter and printmaker from Opava, 1939 Detention, in "Jewish camp" Nisko, hundreds of prefabricated drawings in Theresienstadt and later to Auschwitz, then a prisoner in the counterfeiting workshop of "Operation Bernhard" Pavel Haas (1899-1944), Czech composer murdered at Auschwitz-Birkenau Alice Herz-Sommer (1903), pianist and music teacher, 1943 Theresienstadt survivors Regina Jonas (1902-1944), first woman rabbi, November 1942 Theresienstadt, Auschwitz in October 1944, where she was gassed in December 1944 Miroslav Karny (1919-2001), a Czech historian and Holocaust scholars Petr Kien (1919-1944), artist and writer, murdered in Auschwitz Heinrich sound (1875-1954), an Austrian lawyer, professor and Holocaust survivor Emil Klein (1873-1950), Austrian-German physician and founder of the natural healing process Gideon Klein (1919-1945), composer, probably murdered in the concentration camp Fürstengrube Smarter Ruth (* 1931) American literary scholar and writer Sjaak Kopinsky Dutch painter and sculptor, who escaped during transport from Theresienstadt concentration camp to another and was hidden by a German family in Bad Bramstedt until the war ended. Kosík Karel (1926-2003), philosopher and literary theorist Hans Krasa (1899-1944), Jewish composer, author of the children's opera Brundibar, murdered in Auschwitz Herbert Lewin (1899-1982) gynecologist, co-founder and board member of the Central Council of German Jews Herbert Thomas Mandl (1926-2007), Jewish musician and writer Philipp Manes (1875-1944), fur trader and diarist, was murdered in Auschwitz January Merell (1904-1986), Czech theologian Oppenhejm Ralph (1924-2008), Danish writer Alfred Philippson (1864-1953), German geographer, from 8 June 1942 as a Jew with his family in Theresienstadt. The intercession of Sven Hedin led to its identification as "A Prominent" and detention facilities to the family so that they could survive in Theresienstadt. Philippson wrote in Theresienstadt his memoirs How I became a geographer. Karel Poláček, (1892-1944), Czech writer and journalist, was later transferred to Dachau concentration camp, murdered in Auschwitz Siegmund Rotstein (* 1925), long-time chairman of the Jewish Community Chemnitz, honorary citizen of Chemnitz Erich Salomon (1886-1944) German photojournalist murdered in Auschwitz Rafael Schachter (1905-1944/1945), Czechoslovakian pianist, composer and conductor Coco Schumann (b. 1924) is a German jazz musician and guitarist Walter Serner deported (1889-1942) essayist, writer and dadaist, to Minsk, murdered Shlomo Selinger (* 1928) Israeli / French sculptor Magda Spiegel (1887-1944) was a German opera and concert singer, murdered in Auschwitz Arthur Stein (1871-1950), Austrian-Czech historian Viktor Ullmann (1898-1944), Czech-German composer, conductor and pianist murdered at Auschwitz-Birkenau Ilse Weber (1903-1944), writer, murdered in Auschwitz Louis Lowy (1920-1991), Czech Slovak social workers and scientists, who emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts, USA
The function as a model camp [Edit]
Notes the "Bank of the Jewish Self-Government"
To prepare for a "visit" to a panel of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the SS began in December 1943 with a major "city beautification campaign". An ICRC Commission visited Theresienstadt on 23 June 1944. The Commission inspected inter alia, in the run-opened cafe, which also set up only for the Red Cross "Children's Pavilion", the hospice home and the Central Baths and attended a performance of the children's opera Brundibar of August 1942 Ghetto deported Czech composer Hans Krasa. Separate one-on-one meetings with detainees were held. 
Propaganda film 
Following the visit of the ICRC Commission, the film Theresienstadt. A documentary from the Jewish settlement area in August turned to September 1944. With the Director of prisoner Kurt Gerron was asked who was known as the director of films with Heinz Rühmann and Hans Albers. The film was to show how good it was to the Jews under the "benefits" of the Third Reich. The film shows a "normal life" of the Jews in the ghetto. It will include a variety of crafts scenes work with the note "they can pursue their professions in Theresienstadt" shown. After the "closing time" was "left to the free time every individual" and football games in the yard of a former barracks particularly popular. Regarding the comment "One of the Turkish saunas is available," see naked men showering. The scene with wooden bunk beds is with the remark: "Single women and girls make it in her cozy home wife" comments. After filming most of the actors and the director were deported to Auschwitz. In March 1945, the film was first seen in occupied Prague.
Theresienstadt and the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" 
To the fact that Theresienstadt was part of the extermination campaign against the Jews, was changed by the Nazi propaganda nothing. A quarter of the prisoners of the Theresienstadt ghetto (33,000) died there mainly because of the appalling living conditions. About 88,000 prisoners were further deported to Auschwitz and other extermination camps like Treblinka, Majdanek and Sobibor. For the affected inmates had in the same way as the rest of the "camps" of the extermination camps in Poland.
The numbers of "Departures" looked so :
deported to extermination camps
murdered in Theresienstadt
Arrested + presumably killed
on 9 May 1945 lives
"In Theresienstadt," he writes, "had 73,468 42,921 Czech and German Jews to Theresienstadt before the 20th April 1945 had been deported. The difference in the mortality of the Czech and German Jews directly in Theresienstadt was very large, which can be regarded as a consequence of the different age structure.
In Theresienstadt itself died altogether 6152 Czech prisoners, which were 8.37% of the entire number of prisoners from the Czech transport - it died one in twelve. The mortality of the German group was almost six times higher in Theresienstadt. It died here 20,848 German Jews, which were 48.57% of the whole number of prisoners from German transports - every second.
If we want to compare the fate of the Czech and the German group, "he continues," we need to add this information to the figures from the Theresienstadt deportees to the East. Eastward from Theresienstadt were 60,382 Czech Jews deported (which were 82.19%) and 16,098 German Jews (37.5%). Of the Czech Jews who survived 3097, fewer than 100 of the German This means that after the deportation from Theresienstadt to the east - in the eastern migration, as the head of the concentration camp called Oswald Pohl - 57,285 Czech Jews were killed and about 16,000 German Jews.
In summary, the percentage of deaths of Terezín prisoners - ie death in Theresienstadt and death after further deportation - is at the Czech Jews 86.35% (63,437 deaths), the German Jews 85.85% (36,848 deaths). The death toll of the two groups of prisoners differs only by half a percent. "
The Funeral [Edit]
In Theresienstadt camp the prisoners could usually observe the religious rituals at funerals. Thus, up to August 1942, the dead were buried in individual graves with wooden coffins. After that mass graves were dug for each 35 to 60 prisoners died. On 19 July began with the burial in mass graves. In these graves no more coffins were used. The cemetery was in Bohusovicer basin. The transport to the cemetery was a Jewish hearse. Allowed the hearse at night only one member of the ghetto police and a Czech policeman accompany. Which at this time still living in Theresienstadt people should know nothing of it as possible.
On 6 October 1942 was the last burial took place in a mass grave. In 1250 individual graves and 270 mass graves at the Jewish cemetery, between December 1941 and October 1942, 8,903 victims of the Nazis were buried.
The dead chambers [Edit]
Room beside the dead chambers in a bunker of the fortification Two chambers in which the dead were laid out, found themselves within the walls on the southeast outskirts on the way to the cemetery. One was the Jewish dead, the other the deceased, who had different beliefs. The first common prayer had to take place as a rule directly on the point of death.
The highest mortality rate has made the storage statistics for the fall of 1942, as each day more than 100 people died.
The crematorium [Edit]
By autumn 1942, the dead were buried in mass graves in front of the hills of the city. Some 9,000 victims were buried in this way. End of 1942 the camp of the Teplice company Ignis huts AG build a crematorium to the dead from the garrison city and the small fortress - and later from the central warehouse "Richard" in the Flossenbürg Leitmeritz - to burn there.
Interior view The duty officer pushed the corpse without a coffin or without the upper part of the furnace. He burned with the board on which it was attached. The rest of the coffin could be used several times for reasons of economy. With some delay, those dead came to be cremated, for an autopsy was ordered. Opening the corpse could here imprisoned doctors, especially in clear-cut cases not determine the cause of death.
The staff on duty at the ovens tried to stir up the remains cremated to each separately from the oven so that they could be saved in an individual container. They had the ashes for gold fragments (crowns and dentures) Browse this aussammeln and the SS command passed.
About the process of combustion in the kilns daily protocols were performed. Also, each urn containing the ashes of a detainee was provided with the key information concerning the cremated. They were copied from the notes, which we had attached to the legs of the dead, and contained the name of the transport label and an equivalent number combustion. Then allowed the polls, they have mostly cardboard, are stored in the columbarium. The columbarium was in the rampart. Here stood until the end of 1944 in wooden racks next to each other thousands polls and urged the prisoners assumed that they would be worthy buried after the war. But when the Nazis began to remove the traces of their crimes in Theresienstadt in November 1944 ordered the camp to throw the ashes of 22,000 prisoners in the Eger.
In the years 1944 and 1945 in the Theresienstadt crematorium the dead out of the camp in Litomerice were cremated. There, the mortality reached as a result of intolerable working conditions and epidemics enormous. Before he succeeded in stock to take its own crematorium, (early April 1945), took the carts the dead prisoners to Theresienstadt.
That of the staff, who did service in the crematorium, carefully applied the register of some 30,000 victims who were cremated there during the years from 1942 to 1945.
In October 1944 tractors appeared before the columbarium. Groups of prisoners were chains to charge the guns, which were then taken to the banks of the Eger. The prisoners had under close guard the ashes poured into the river. During northeast exit from the city, on the river bank, where the ashes of the deceased was sunk in the water, now stands a monument.
The Theresienstadt concentration camp was next to the main camp various central warehouse. "The list of concentration camps and its external commands" leads  of the Federal Ministry of Justice on the following nine categories:
Budweis (České Budějovice) of 13 April 1942 to 23 June 1943 Oaks (Dubi) in / cf. Kladno - 1 March 1942 and the first October 1942 Virgin Breschan from 1 July 1942, the used by the widow of Reinhard Heydrich Good Kladno - 26 February 1942 to 22 June 1943 Motischin (Motyčín) - 1 March 1942 and the first October 1942 Oslawan (Oslavany) - 4th April 1942 to 30 August 1943 Křivoklát (Křivoklát) - 10th April 1942 to 6th June 1942 Wulkow (Brandenburg - between Neuhardenberg and Trebnitz) - 2nd 1944 March to the 3rd February 1945 Snoring Reuth / Bavaria - 13 March 1945 to 22 April 1945
Nazi perpetrators [Edit]
Reinhard Heydrich, SS-Obergruppenführer, planned and commanded the mass destruction in Prague and Europe, died on 4 June 1942 as a result of an assassination Hans Guenther, SS-Sturmbannführer and leader of the "Central Office for the settlement of the Jewish question" in Prague until the beginning of May 1945. His deputy was temporarily Karl Rahm, he replied to Theresienstadt. Siegfried Seidl, SS-Hauptsturmführer, camp commander from November 1941 to July 1943, 1947 executed Anton Burger, SS Lieutenant leader, camp commander from July 1943 to February 1944, sentenced to death in absentia, lived incognito until his death in 1991 in Germany Karl Rahm, SS Lieutenant leader, camp commander of February 1944 executed by May 1945, 1947 Rudolf Burian, overseer, executed in 1946 Heinrich Joeckel, SS-Hauptsturmführer, Commander, 1946 executed Anton Malloth (1912-2002), Warden, 2001 by the District Court of Munich convicted of murder of a detainee to life imprisonment Albert Neubauer, overseer, executed in 1946 Stefan Rojko, overseer, 1963 convicted by the Regional Court of Graz to life imprisonment for killing and abuse resulting in death of political prisoners and Jews Wilhelm Schmidt, deputy commander, 12th Sentenced November 1946 and executed Julius Viel, in the so-called "Ravensburger war crimes" and sentenced to 12 years in prison Kurt Willi Wachholz, overseer, from East Berlin court in 1968 convicted of killing of more than 300 prisoners by slaying, Tottreten, stoning, drowning, and participation in the shooting of at least 183 people in more than 25 shootings to death 
Shortly before the war, succeeded to the International Committee of the Red Cross, after long negotiations with the SS to bring Jews from Theresienstadt in neutral countries. 1,200 Jews were on the 6th Leave in February 1945 in Switzerland. 
On 15 April the surviving until then Danish Jews were dismissed from Sweden. For nearly two weeks, the SS eventually handed the responsibility for Theresienstadt nor the Red Cross (ICRC).On 8 May 1945 the Red Army reached Theresienstadt.
- This section had a translation of the German WP article, taking up most of the page. I've collapsed it, but the original article is available via the interwiki link; do we need this as well? Xyl 54 (talk) 17:26, 10 February 2013 (UTC)
I've deleted the "Importatnt information..." section; I can't see what is so important about it, and (as the edit note says) it was a bit propaganda-ey. There was some information about the use of the small fortresss as a prison, so I've kept that ( though it still needs a citation).
The division of the town, and therefore the camp, into two parts suggests the article should deal with the two sections separately. The Small fortress/prison already has a section at the end of the article, so I've labelled some of the "History" section as being about the Main fortress/ghetto. I trust I've got it right. Xyl 54 (talk) 17:15, 10 February 2013 (UTC)
- To the RACIST and delusional person above. I have personally been to Terezin. The fact is as soon as you walk in the the small fortress which was the original part of Terzin. That it's clearly painted on the entrance in German "Arbeit macht frei" in English "Work makes you free". Work camp is the correct given name, and Czechoslovakians were the first Nazi prisoners not Jewish. I have photos of the plaque's on the wall showing what races sent time behind bars. And documents of my visit to Terezin. And I am disgusted by your bad attitude thinking you have a right to slander dead people with your false lie's. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 06:22, 2 March 2013 (UTC)
- I’m unclear what point is being made here. That Theresienstadt was NOT a concentration camp for Jews? That takes us into a very dark (and in some countries illegal) area. If you “personally went to Terezin” and somehow didn’t take in that particular “important fact”, then it isn’t me that’s delusional. And if that’s the message you are trying to peddle here it isn’t me that’s the racist. Xyl 54 (talk) 23:31, 25 April 2013 (UTC)
mportant facts about Terezin or Theresienstadt concentration camp
After the Munich Agreement in September 1938. And following the occupation of the Czech lands in March 1939 with the existing prisons gradually filled up as a result of the Nazi terror, the Prague Gestapo Police prison was set up in the small fortress in 1940. The first inmates arrived on June 14th 1940. By the end of the war 32,000 prisoners of whom 5,000 were women passed through the small fortress. These were primarily Czechs, later other nationals, for instance citizens of the former Soviet Union, Poles, Germans and Yugoslavs. Most of the prisoners were arrested for different sign of resistance to the Nazi regime. The fact is the first people to enter Terezin (The Small Fortress) were Czechoslavakian. The Jewish Getto was not built until 1941. And the correct name is "Work camp" and at the entrance in German it's written Arbeit macht frei " Work makes you free". — Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 06:25, 2 March 2013 (UTC)
- What is so important about thse facts? More to the point, about this particular form of words? They’ve already been added to the article twice, and been rejected as un-necessary, (the information is already in the article) un-encyclopaedic (it reads like a school essay) and un-neutral (Theresienstadt wasn’t just a work camp for Czech dissidents) So, as WP is not a soapbox why should we keep them? Xyl 54 (talk) 23:39, 25 April 2013 (UTC)