Talk:Water pollution

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Rescued text from Water Management[edit]

The following text was added to the Water management article. However it seriously unbalanced that article and seems much more appropriate here. I hope that knowledgeable editors can assimilate appropriate parts into this article (perhaps striking through incorporated parts might assist later editors).

Water pollution regulations[edit]

Some nations are already encountering water scarcity, suffering from various diseases and even death caused by contaminated water use. Water is a vital and limited natural resource, which availability varies in different parts of the world. Unfortunately, harmful human activities tend to constraint access to safe water even more intensively. For this reason well planned and successfully adopted regulations are essential for sustainable water resources management. There is a range of water pollution control policies – ‘command-and-control’ regulation, economic instruments, which adoption may vary according to the particular country. Water pollution may be regulated locally, regionally within a country or internationally, if it is transboundary water sources (such as river, sea, aquifer, etc.)[2].

The predominant direct environmental regulation – the ‘command-and-control’ approach – is based on prescriptive regulation creation, monitoring of its implementation and compliance, and penalising those who failed to comply with it [3]. In case of water pollution control, ‘command-and-control’ approach requires an appliance of specific technologies to regulate quantities of pollution emissions, so called ‘end-of-the-pipe technologies’ (filters, water cleaning installations, etc.), which is operative mostly in ‘point source water pollution’ cases. Furthermore, it determines allowable emission standards for particular industry units or companies. Notwithstanding, the prevailing ‘command-and-control’ approach is often being criticised for its prescriptiveness, costliness, inefficiency and inflexibility, which does not encourage “efficiency-oriented adaptive individual behaviour” [4]. So it is not engaging individuals and not promoting the change of their behaviour, although such initiatives could prevent pollution from happening.

According to the environmental economists, ‘command-and-control’ regulations could be complemented by economic instruments such as taxes, charges and tradable pollution rights, which are more cost effective, flexible and more attractive for business. For instance, the ‘Polluter Pays Principle’ (PPP) could be applied in order to internalise the external cost of industrial, agricultural or private pollution costs. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is encouraging the use of economic instruments in its member countries in order to tackle water pollution issues more effectively, although sometimes OECD also recognises difficulties to design specific policies or regulations, which could directly address the exact problem[5]. The reason for such challenges is that in some cases it is complicated to identify the exact sources of water pollution (non-point source pollution or diffusion). Public involvement into water resource management and its pollution regulation processes is becoming more and more important, because it may be a contributor to tackle pollution. Therefore, OECD is promoting public information and education about possible harm of contaminated water, methods helping to reduce water pollution, etc.[6].

For instance, in European Union (EU) the environmental policy is a distinctive combination of a “country-specific and EU-wide measures”[7], where regulations and policy instruments are created for all member countries, but they may be adopted and adjusted à la particular countries’ regulations. Additionally, EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its designed Common Implementation Strategy endeavours to unify water management and regulation forms in all member countries minimising the risk of disputes or even fails in WFD implementation[8]. Furthermore, the decission forum involves experts not only from EU Member States, Accession Countries, but also industrial and environmental NGOs; involvance of environmental Non-governmental Organisations(NGOs)and public actors may ensure more transparency in decission making process and to create incentives for public water pollution control.

 Velella  Velella Talk   22:19, 8 April 2011 (UTC)

Lead image[edit]

I don't think the article should lead with File:Pollution in Maracaibo lake.jpg. Only one sentence in this article is concerned with "trash" as a form of pollution. It may be a high quality photo but that is only one factor and no necessarily apparent that the thumbnail size images are presented at. -- Colin°Talk 11:23, 17 November 2012 (UTC)

Agreed. One photo is sufficient for the lead section, and the trash photo is unnecessary. In general, this article has enough photos for its present length. Moreau1 (talk) 05:50, 20 November 2012 (UTC)
Agreed. Solid waste , although significant, is relatively trivial in its impact compared to other forms of pollution.  Velella  Velella Talk   10:33, 20 November 2012 (UTC)
Removed. Trash is real and a problem, but the significant pollutants are not usually so visible and a visual focus on trash is misleading. Vsmith (talk) 13:52, 20 November 2012 (UTC)

Conversion of river water in to saline and or alkaline water[edit]

Hi, Velella, Will you please elaborate here how the wiki articles Alkali soils and Soil salinity control are not connected to this article "Water pollution" as the placed Wiki references were reverted / deleted by you. Irrigated lands are becoming less productive due to salinity and alkalinity when river water and ground water are used repeatedly which is pollution to water and land caused by human activities. It may not be case in UK due to temperate climate but extensive in arid and semi arid regions. River water and ground water quality is changed drastically effecting the river basin vegetation and aquatic flora and fauna when most of river water is used for evaporo-transpiration and evaporation needs in agriculture, industries, etc. If you have any genuine observations on this subject please state here after reading the content in the articles along with the quoted references.Kwdt2 (talk) 06:39, 7 February 2013 (UTC)

I am very well aware of water process in arid climates and I wholly agree that salination of soils through ill-judged irrigation is a major problem affecting large tracts of land as for example in Western Australia. The current definition at the top of the article is "Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.". The processes described in Soil salinity control and Alkali soils do not fit within this definition. The second issues I have is that these were inserted as main page links under Agricultural wastewater . By convention there is only one main page link to each heading and I don't believe that it can be argued that these are the relevant main pages in this context.
Personally I would have no problem if links to these pages were included in the See also section. Regards  Velella  Velella Talk   22:49, 8 February 2013 (UTC)

to include: Anti-anxiety drug pollution example effecting animal behavior[edit] (talk) 02:00, 27 March 2013 (UTC)

  1. ^ [^l2188&enPage=BlankPage&enDisplay=view&enDispWhat=object&enVersion=0&enZone=Health[
  2. ^ Cowan, S. (1998). "Water pollution and abstraction and economic instruments". Oxford Review of Economic Policy 14 (4): 40–49. 
  3. ^ Lübbe-Wolff, G. (2001). "Efficient Environmental Legislation – on Different Philosophies of Pollution Control in Europe". Journal of Environmental Law 13 (1): 79–87. 
  4. ^ Lübbe-Wolff, G. (2001). "Efficient Environmental Legislation – on Different Philosophies of Pollution Control in Europe". Journal of Environmental Law 13 (1): 79–87. p. 79 
  5. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, (OECD). "OECD Environmental Outlook". Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, (OECD). "OECD Environmental Outlook". Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  7. ^ Harrington, W.; Morgenstern, R. D. "Economic Incentives versus Command and Control: What’s the Best Approach for Solving Environmental Problems?". Resources for the Future. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  8. ^ European Commission. "Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC): Strategic Document". Retrieved 6 April 2011.