List of tallest buildings and structures in London

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Skyline of Canary Wharf viewed from Greenwich Park in April 2011
Skyline of the City of London and Southwark during the opening ceremony of The Shard in July 2012

This list of the tallest buildings and structures in London ranks skyscrapers and towers in London, United Kingdom by height. Since November 2010 the tallest structure in London has been the Shard London Bridge. It was topped out at approximately 306 metres (1,004 ft) in March 2012, making it the tallest habitable building in Western Europe. The second tallest building is the 50-storey One Canada Square, which rises 235 metres (771 ft) in Canary Wharf and was completed in 1991.[1] It is the 19th-tallest building in Europe. The third-tallest completed building in London is Heron Tower in the City of London which was topped out in 2010, and stands at a height of 230 metres, including a 28-metre spire.

The Greater London area currently contains the most skyscrapers of any metropolitan area, along with the Paris urban area in the European Union. As of 2014, there are 17 skyscrapers that reach a roof height of at least 150 metres (492 feet), compared to 14 such skyscrapers in Frankfurt, 8 in Warsaw and 5 in Madrid.

The history of tall structures in London began with the completion of the 27-metre (90 ft) White Tower, a part of the Tower of London, in 1098.[2][3] The first structure to surpass a height of 100 metres (328 ft) was Old St Paul's Cathedral. Completed in 1310, the cathedral stood at a height of 150 metres (493 ft).[4] It was the world's tallest structure until 1311, when its height was surpassed by Lincoln Cathedral in Lincoln, England.[4] It regained the title when the spire of the Lincoln Cathedral fell in 1549.[5] Although the spire of the Old St Paul's Cathedral was destroyed by lightning on 4 June 1561, it still stood as the tallest structure in London,[5] while the world's tallest structure became Strasbourg Cathedral in Strasbourg, France.[5] Old St Paul's was severely damaged by the Great Fire of London in September 1666.[4] The title of tallest structure in London passed to Southwark Cathedral, which stands at a height of 50 metres (163 ft)[6] and no structure in London again rose above 100 metres (328 ft) until 1710, when the current St Paul's Cathedral was completed.[7] At 111 metres (365 ft), the cathedral remained the tallest building in London until overtaken in 1962 by the BT Tower, which was topped out in July 1964 and officially opened in October 1965.

Few skyscrapers were built in London before the end of the last century, owing to restrictions on building heights originally imposed by the London Building Act of 1894, which followed the construction of the fourteen-storey Queen Anne's Mansions. Though restrictions have long since been eased, strict regulations remain to preserve protected views, especially those of St Paul's Cathedral, the Tower of London and The Palace of Westminster, as well as to comply with the requirements of the Civil Aviation Authority.

The lifting of height restrictions caused a boom in the construction of tall buildings during the 1960s. One of London's first notable tall buildings was the 117-metre (384 ft) Centre Point, completed in 1966. The National Westminster Tower followed in 1980, which at 183 metres (600 ft) became London's first genuine "skyscraper" by international standards. It was followed in 1991 by the 235-metre (771 ft) One Canada Square, which formed the centrepiece of the Canary Wharf development. Following a 10-year gap, several new skyscrapers appeared on London's skyline: 8 Canada Square, 25 Canada Square, the Heron Quays buildings, One Churchill Place, the Broadgate Tower and the award-winning 30 St Mary Axe. Some of the awards given to 30 St Mary Axe include the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2003[8] and the RIBA Stirling Prize for Architecture in 2004.[9]

With the precedent set by the towers of Canary Wharf and with the encouragement of former Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, a renewed trend for building tall has been established in recent years. There are 9 structures actively under construction in London that will rise at least 100 metres (328 ft) in height, besides the South Bank Tower, which is being increased in height by 11 storeys. The 288-metre "Pinnacle", planned to form the centrepiece of the City skyscraper cluster, has been on hold since January 2012.

Panorama of central London in June 2012 showing the distinct skyscraper clusters of the City of London and Canary Wharf as well as the Shard.

Tallest buildings and structures[edit]

This list ranks externally complete London skyscrapers and free-standing towers that stand at least 328 feet (100 m) tall, based on standard height measurement. This includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna masts. An equals sign (=) following a rank indicates the same height between two or more buildings. The "Year" column indicates the year in which a building was completed.

Rank Name Image Height
metres / ft
Floors Year Notes
1 The Shard Shard London Bridge May 2012.JPG 306 / 1,004 01.087 2012 Tallest building in the UK and also the tallest in the EU.[10]
2 One Canada Square One Canada Square.jpg 235 / 771 02.050 1991 21st-tallest building in Europe, tallest in Canary Wharf.
3 Heron Tower Heron Tower, Bishopsgate, London.JPG 230 / 756 04.046 2011 Tallest Building in the City of London. 202m + 28m spire.
4 Crystal Palace Transmitter Cp mast.jpg 219 / 720 35.0N/A 1950 Tallest structure completed in London in the 1950s.[11]
5 8 Canada Square HSBC Tower.jpg 200 / 655 05.042 2002 Joint 34th-tallest building in Europe, joint fifth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[12][13]
6 25 Canada Square 25CanadaSquare.jpg 200 / 655 04.042 2002 Joint 34th-tallest building in Europe, joint fifth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[14][15]
7 Tower 42 Tower 42 looking north from Bishopsgate 2011-05-04.jpg 183 / 600 07.047 1980 Original name was the National Westminster Tower. 52nd-tallest building in Europe, seventh-tallest building in the United Kingdom. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1980s.[16][17]
8 St George Wharf Tower St Georges Wharf Tower 2013-09-26.jpg 181 / 594 01.049 2013 The crown of the building includes a small wind turbine which helps to generate power for the building.[18][19]
9 30 St Mary Axe 30 St Mary Axe, 'Gherkin'.JPG 180 / 590 09.040 2003 Also known as the Swiss Re building, or Gherkin.[20][21]
10 BT Tower BT Tower-1.jpg 177 / 581 16.034 1964 Tallest building completed in London in the 1960s, 177m + 12m antenna.[22][23]
11 Broadgate Tower Broadgate Tower.jpg 164 / 539 14.035 2008 [24][25]
12 One Churchill Place Barclays HQ.jpg 156 / 513 22.032 2004 Twelfth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[26][27]
13= Croydon Transmitter Croydon Transmitter.JPG 460/ n/a 36.0N/A 1964 [28][29]
13= 25 Bank Street 25 Bank Street 2012.JPG 153 / 502 19.033 2003 [30][31]
14= 40 Bank Street 40 Bank Street Heron Quay London.jpg 153 / 502 20.033 2003 [32][33]
17 10 Upper Bank Street 10 Upper Bank Street London.jpg 151 / 495 23.032 2003 [34][35]
18= Pan Peninsula East Tower Pan Peninsula London.jpg 147 / 484 02.048 2008 [36][37]
18= Strata Strata.jpg 147 / 484 43 2010 Winner of the Carbuncle Cup in 2010.[38][39][40]
20 Guy's Tower Guys hospital tower.jpg 143 / 469 17.034 1974 Tallest all-hospital building in the world. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1970s.[41][42]
21 22 Marsh Wall East Tower 22 Marsh Wall.jpg 140 / 458 40 2010
22 London Eye London Eye - TQ04 26.jpg 135 / 443 37.0 44 1999 The world's tallest Ferris wheel until the completion of the Star of Nanchang in 2006, it is now the world's fourth tallest, after the Singapore Flyer and the High Roller.[43][44]
23= 150 High Street, Stratford Geograph-3135278-by-David-Anstiss.jpg 133 / 436 41 2013 The tallest building in Stratford.[45]
23= Wembley Stadium Wembley Stadium, From the Outside.JPG 133 / 436 34.06 2007 2nd Tallest stadium in the world.[46][47]
25 CityPoint City Point.jpg 127 / 417 11.036 1967 [48][49]
26 Willis Building Willis Building (London).jpg 125 / 410 29.026 2007 [50][51]
27= Euston Tower Euston Tower 2004.jpg 124 / 408 12.036 1970 [52][53]
27= 25 Churchill Place Geograph-3639351-by-Alex-McGregor.jpg 124 / 408 10.023 2014 Topped out.[54][55]
29= Cromwell Tower Crowell Tower, London.jpg 123 / 404 08.042 1973 [56][57]
29= Lauderdale Tower Barbican Estate Tower 2005.jpg 123 / 404 06.043 1974 [58][59]
29= Shakespeare Tower Barbican Estate Tower 2007.jpg 123 / 404 05.043 1976 [60][61]
32 Pan Peninsula West Tower Pan Peninsula London.jpg 122 / 400 10.039 2008 [62][63]
33 Millbank Tower Millbank Tower, Westminster, London, 24Apr04.jpg 119 / 390 21.033 1963 [64][65]
34 Aviva Tower St. Helen's - St. Mary Axe- 2011-05-04.jpg 118 / 387 28.028 1969 Now known as St. Helen's[66][67]
35= Centre Point Centre Point London.jpg 117 / 385 15.035 1967 [68][69]
35= Empress State Building Empress State Building.JPG 117 / 385 24.031 1961 Originally stood at a height of 100 metres (328 ft) before a height extension in 2003.[70][71]
37 ArcelorMittal Orbit ArcelorMittal Orbit at night.jpg 115 / 377 37.02 2012 [72]
38 Battersea Power Station Battersea.power.station.london.arp.jpg 113 / 370 33.010 1953 [73][74]
39 The Heron Geograph-3216844-by-Mr-Biz.jpg 112 / 367 35 2013 Also known as Milton Court, topped out.[75][76]
40 St Paul's Cathedral Cathédrale St-Paul - entrée principale.jpg 111 / 364 38.0N/A 1710 Tallest place of worship in London. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1700s.[7][77]
41 1 West India Quay OneWestIndiaQuay.jpg 108 / 354 13.036 2004 [78][79]
42 Shell Centre Shell Centre, London, UK, June 2004.jpg 107 / 351 30.026 1961 [80][81]
43= 33 Canada Square 33 Canada Square.jpg 105 / 344 32.018 1999 [82][83]
43= Nido Spitalfields Nido 100 Middlesex Street.jpg 105 / 344 34 2009 100 Middlesex Street.[84]
43= Pioneer Point North, Ilford Geograph-2337704-by-Robin-Webster.jpg 105 / 344 31 2011 [85][86]
46= 99 Bishopsgate 99 Bishopsgate from above.jpg 104 / 340 31.026 1976 [87][88]
46= Ontario Tower Blackwall Tunnel ventilation shafts and the Ontario Tower - geograph.org.uk - 789359.jpg 104 / 340 25.029 2007 [89][90]
48 Victoria Tower Westminster Palace Victoria Tower.jpg 102 / 336 39.0N/A 1858 Tallest non-religious building in the world upon completion. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1800s. Architectural height 102m, roof height 98.5m.[91][92]
49= Portland House Portland House, London, England.jpg 101 / 331 26.029 1963 [93][94]
49= London Hilton on Park Lane The London Hilton on Park Lane.JPG 101 / 331 26.028 1963
49= Royal London Hospital Tower 2 Royal London Hospital redevelopment.jpg 101 / 331 32.018 2010 [95]
52 Stock Exchange Tower Former London Stock Exchange Building - geograph.org.uk - 1501273.jpg 100 / 328 26.027 1970 [96][97] Reclad 2007.

* Indicates still under construction, but has been topped out

Selection of buildings that dominate the London Skyline, including some still under construction or on hold.

Tallest under construction, approved and proposed[edit]

City of London's skyline in 2012 (projected). Owing to the financial recession of 2008 some developments were delayed, and will not be completed before 2014.

Under construction[edit]

Bishopsgate Tower as seen in November 2010

This lists buildings that are under construction in London and are planned to rise at least 328 feet (100 m). Under construction buildings that have already been topped out are listed above.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year (est.) Notes
The Leadenhall Building 225 / 738 03.048 2014 [98] Will be the tallest Building in the City of London by roof height. Topped out.
1 Blackfriars 163 / 535 49 2018 [99][100] 1 Blackfriars Road, piling
20 Fenchurch Street 160 / 525 39 2014 [101][102] "The Walkie-Talkie"
Baltimore Wharf Tower 150 / 492 46 2016 [103][104][105]
South Bank Tower 150 / 492 45 2015 [106][107] Height increase from 108m to 150m.
Providence Tower 136 / 446 44 2015 [108][109] Formerly The Quebec Building
Saffron Square 134 / 440 44 2015 [110] Croydon
One The Elephant 124 / 406 37 2015 [111][112] Formerly St. Mary's
Lots Road South Tower 122 / 400 37 [113][114][115][116]
Lexicon Tower 116 / 380 36 2015 [117][118][119] 261 City Road
2–12 High Street, Stratford 105 / 345 35 2016 [120] Capital Towers - Sky View Tower
One Angel Court 100 / 328 24 [121] Refurbishment of 97m building.

Approved[edit]

This lists buildings that are approved for construction in London and are planned to rise at least 328 feet (100 m).

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year* (est.) Notes
The Pinnacle 288 / 945 63 [122] On hold
Riverside South Tower 1 237 / 776 45 [123][124] Build to ground level. On hold.
The Pride 233 / 765 75 [125][126]
North Quay Tower 1 221 / 708 40 [127][128]
North Quay Tower 3 203 / 666 38 [129][130]
One Nine Elms East Tower 200 / 660 58 2018 [131][132] City Tower
Lansdowne Road Tower 199 / 652 51 [133][134] (Odalisk)
52-54 Lime Street 190 / 623 35 2017 [135] Application 2012/06/22, approved 2013/01/15[136]
Riverside South Tower 2 186 / 610 37 [137][138] Built to ground level. On hold.
Heron Quays West 1 185.5 / 612 40 [139] 10 Bank Street
Morello Tower 171 / 561 53 [140][141] Cherry Orchard Road
100 Bishopsgate 172 / 564 40 [142][143] Site cleared. On hold.
Vauxhall Square Tower 1 168 / 550 50 [144][145]
Vauxhall Square Tower 2 168 / 550 50 [145][146]
Principal Place 164 / 538 51 [147][148] Residential tower
Ludgate House Tower B 162.6 / 532 49 [149][150]
One Nine Elms West Tower 160 / 530 47 2018 [132]River Tower
Ruskin Square Building 159 / 522 26 [151] Aka Croydon Gateway
New Covent Garden Market T2 154 / 505 45 Application 2011/4664, maximum height
Manhattan Loft Gardens 143 / 472 42 [152] Plot N24, athletes' village
360-London 142 / 468 44 [153][154] London Park Hotel Tower
Imperial College Tower 141 / 465 35 [155][156][157] White City campus
Canada Water Building C4 140** / 462 40 [158][159]
Doon Street Tower 140 / 462 43 [160]
Vauxhall Cross Tower 1 140 / 462 41 [161]
1 Merchant Square 140 / 462 41 [162]
145 City Road 136 / 451 39 Crown House
Heron Plaza 135 / 448 44 [163]
Croydon Vocational Tower 134 / 440 29 [164]
20 Blackfriars Road Residential Tower 133 / 436 43 [165][166][167] Approved after public inquiry
Eileen House 128 / 420 42 2017 [168][169] Approved by Mayor
New Covent Garden Market T3 128 / 420 37 Application 2011/4664, maximum height
The Stage, Shoreditch 126 / 413 40 2016
Vauxhall Sainsbury's Tower G 125.5 / 411 37 2016 [170][171]
40 Marsh Wall 124 / 406 39 [172]
Elizabeth House 123 / 403 29 Waterloo
Broadway Chambers, Stratford 123 / 403 38 [173]
Helix-London Building B 122 / 400 35 Trafalgar Way
North Quay Tower 2 120 / 394 18 2017 [174][175]
Vauxhall Sky Gardens 120 / 394 36 [176]
Meridian Tower, Greenwich 118 / 387 32 [177]
Convoys Wharf Tower 1 116 / 380 40
Vauxhall Cross Tower 2 115 / 368 32 [161]
Ram Brewery Tower, Wandsworth 113 / 371 36
New Covent Garden Market T1 109 / 358 31 Application 2011/4664, maximum height
The Quill 109 / 359 31 [178]
Dollar Bay Tower 109 / 358 31 [179]
Brickfields Tower 108 / 355 30 [180] White City
Sampson House Tower B 105 / 345 31 [149][150]
Helix-London Building A 105 / 345 29 Trafalgar Way

* Table entries without text indicate that information regarding a building's expected year of completion has not yet been released.

** Approximate figure.

Proposed[edit]

This lists buildings that are proposed for construction in London and are planned to rise at least 328 feet (100 m). Once a planning application has been submitted, a decision by the relevant authority may take two or three years.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year (Proposal) Notes
The Three Spires 253 / 830 64 2009 [181] Three towers at 830, 689 and 348 feet
South Quay Plaza Tower 1 243 / 810 80 2013 [182]
Hertsmere Tower 237 / 794 74 2013 [183] Formerly Columbus Tower, now redesigned
Quay House 235 / 788 70 2014 Scoping application February 2014
Diamond Tower 220 / 720 58 2013 [184] Application 2013/06/28, Newfoundland site
Wood Wharf A1 206 / 676 51 2013 Application 2013/12/19
Wood Wharf E4 194 / 634 2013 Application 2013/12/19
Heron Quays West 2 185.5 / 612 40 2013 1 Bank Street, application 2013/12/24
Wood Wharf F1 184 / 603 2013 Application 2013/12/19
30 Marsh Wall 183 / 600 53 2013 [185] Application 2013/12/23
Meridian Gate 180 / 590 50 2014 Scoping application 2014/01/10
Arrowhead Quay Tower 1 177.5 / 584 55 2012 [186] Application 2013/01/17
Vauxhall Bondway Tower 168 / 550 2013 Application 2014/02/04
One Park Place 162 / 532 32 2013 [187][188]
Arrowhead Quay Tower 2 161.5 / 530 50 2012 Application 2013/01/17
Wood Wharf J3 161 / 529 2013 Application 2013/12/19
Wood Wharf B1 160 / 527 2013 Application 2013/12/19
Cuba Street Tower 1 157 / 515 52 2010 Application 2011/06/09
250 City Road, Tower 1 155 / 508 42 2013 Application 2013/04/26, City Forum site
40 Leadenhall Street 154 / 505 34 2013 [189]
Angel Tower 154 / 505 46 2012 225 Marsh Wall, application 2012/10/01
Wood Wharf A3 151 / 496 2013 Application 2013/12/19
Millharbour West Building A 150 / 492 46 2009
Skylines Village Block B1 148 / 486 45 2012 Application 2012/03/07
Millharbour East Building E 140 / 464 46 2009
250 City Road, Tower 2 137 / 454 36 2013 Application 2013/04/26, City Forum site
South Quay Plaza Tower 2 130 / 430 35 2013 [182]
Wood Wharf E2 129 / 427 2013 Application 2013/12/19
Millharbour East Building A 126 / 414 37 2009
Shell Centre Tower 1 122 / 401 37* 2012 [190]
Cuba Street Tower 2 122 / 401 40 2010 Application 2011/06/09
Millharbour West Buildings B, C 121 / 398 37 2009 [191]
Keybridge House Tower 120* / 395 35* 2013 [192] Vauxhall
London Dock Tower 115 / 368 34 2012 Application 2013/05/29, Wapping
12-20 Wyvil Road 114 / 365 35 2014 Vauxhall
Wood Wharf J1 112 / 359 2013 Application 2013/12/19
Millharbour West Building D 108 / 355 24 2009 [193][194]
Stratford City Tower 103 / 337 33 2013 Application 2013/07/02, Gt. Eastern Road
Shell Centre Tower 2 102 / 334 32* 2012 [190]
Stratford Gateway Towers 1 & 2 102 / 334 32 2011 [195] Plot N06

* Approximate figure.

Scale models of the skyscrapers planned for Central London. (2012)

Cancelled constructions[edit]

This lists proposals for the construction of buildings in London that were planned to rise at least 328 feet (100 m), for which planning permission was rejected or which were otherwise withdrawn.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors* Year Notes
London Millennium Tower 386 92 1996
London Bridge Tower (Old Design) 366 87 2000 [196]
The Spark Plug (Battersea Eco-tower) 300 40 2008 [197][198]
Minerva Building 246 53 2002
Elephant & Castle, Tower 1 228 55 2001 [199]
6–8 & 22–24 Bishopsgate Redevelopment (Original Design) 216 50 2002 [200]
New London Bridge House Redevelopment 211 50 2004 [201]
Stratford City Tower 210 50 [202]
Citypoint (Santiago Calatrava) 203 27 1997 [203]
Ropemaker Place Tower 200 38 2001 [204]
Elephant & Castle, Tower 2 182 35 2001 [205]
King's Cross Towers 1 & 2 180 44 1987 [206][207]
The Blade, Paddington 150 44 [208][209]
Ram Brewery Tower 1, Wandsworth 145 / 476 42 2008 [210][211] Rejected
The Leaf Block F, Ealing 138 49 [212]
Victoria Interchange Buildings 2 & 7 134 42 [213][214]
70–100 City Road Block A 131 / 430 39 2008 [215]
Clapham Junction Towers 1 & 2 127 / 417 40 2008 [216][217]
Bishops Place Building 1 126 / 414 32 2006 [148][218]
St. John's Tower, Stratford 116 / 381 30 [219]
1 Crown Place, Hackney 114 / 365 24 2009 [220] Application withdrawn
Walbrook Square Building 1 107 / 351 22 2006 [221] Redesigned
Trinity Building 3 100 / 328 25 2008 [222] Existing building to be refurbished
4–5 South Quay Square 100 / 328 30 2006 [223] Application withdrawn

Demolished buildings[edit]

This lists all demolished buildings in London that stood at least 328 feet (100 m) tall.

Name Image Height
metres / ft
Floors Year built Year demolished Notes
Drapers' Gardens Drapersgardens cropped.jpg 100 / 328 30 1967 2007 Designed by Richard Seifert, replaced by building 74 metres (243 ft) tall.
Southwark Towers Southwark Towers, PwC, London.jpg 100 / 328 25 1976 2009 Replaced by Shard London Bridge.

Visions of skyscrapers[edit]

Name Height
metres
Floors Year Notes
Mile High Eco Tower 1500 500 2007 [224][225]
Citygate Ecotower 485 108 2002 [226]
Mallory Clifford Project 470 100 1998 [227] Aka Southwark Tower
Green Bird 442 83 1990 [228]
Wembley Park Tower 353 1890 [229]
Aldegate Tower 325 85 1989 [230]
Glass Tower 304 80 1852 [231]
Vortex Tower 300 70 2004 [232]
Credit Suisse First Boston Building 250 50 1989 [233]
Glengall View Place 230 54 2006 [234][235] Greenwich View Place
Cricklewood Tower 216 47 [236][237]
80 & 88–104 Bishopsgate Redevelopment 214 50 [238]
Folgate Street (Project Cosmos) 50 [239]
Skyhouse 168 50 [240][241] Originally 305m
Royal Courts of Justice 165* 1865 [242]
Corporation of London Tower 150* 1944

* Estimated height.

Timeline of tallest buildings and structures[edit]

The White Tower stood as the tallest structure in London from 1098 until 1310.

This lists free-standing structures that have at some point held the title of tallest structure in London.

Name Location Years as tallest Height
metres / ft
Floors Reference
White Tower Tower Hill 1098–1310 01.027 / 90 03.0N/A [3]
Old St Paul's Cathedral[A] City of London 1310–1666 07.0150 / 493[B] 08.0N/A [4]
Southwark Cathedral Southwark 1666–1677 02.050 / 163 04.0N/A [243]
Monument to the Great Fire of London City of London 1677–1683 03.062 / 202 05.0N/A [244]
St Mary-le-Bow City of London 1683–1710 04.072 / 236 06.0N/A [245]
St Paul's Cathedral City of London 1710–1939 05.0111 / 365 07.0N/A [77]
Battersea Power Station[D] Kirtling Street 1939–1950 06.0113 / 370 01.010 [73]
Crystal Palace transmitting station[C] Crystal Palace Park 1950–1991 08.0219 / 720 09.0N/A [11]
One Canada Square Canary Wharf 1991–2010 09.0235 / 771 02.050 [246]
Shard London Bridge Southwark 2010— 306 / 1004 87 [247]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

A.^ This structure was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666, allowing a shorter structure to become the tallest in the city.[248]
B.^ The exact height of the Old St. Paul's Cathedral remains unknown. Heights ranging between 140 metres (460 ft) and 150 metres (490 ft) have all been reported.[248] The spire was destroyed by fire in 1561.
C.^ If the Crystal Palace Transmitter is excluded as a "building", then the record was held by the "Post Office Tower" (later The British Telecom Tower) from 1962 to 1980, at a height excluding antenna of 177 metres (581 ft) and containing 34 floors, and from 1980 to 1991 by Tower 42 at 183 metres (600 ft).
D.^ If counting the tallest habitable floors in buildings, then the record would be held between 1961 and 1962 by the Shell Centre, at 107 metres (351 ft) and having 26 floors; and before it by the Victoria Tower at 98.5 metres (323 ft), completed in 1858 and having 14 floors.[249][250]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "One Canada Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
  2. ^ "The White Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  3. ^ a b "The Tower of London". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Old St. Paul's Cathedral". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  5. ^ a b c "Old St. Paul's Cathedral". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  6. ^ "Southwark Cathedral". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "St. Paul's Cathedral". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  8. ^ "Winning Design". Emporis Awards. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  9. ^ "Winner 2004". Architecture.com. Winter 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  10. ^ "The Shard". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "Crystal Palace Transmitter". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  12. ^ "8 Canada Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  13. ^ "8 Canada Square". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  14. ^ "25 Canada Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  15. ^ "25 Canada Square". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  16. ^ "Tower 42". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  17. ^ "Tower 42". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  18. ^ "St George Wharf Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008. 
  19. ^ "St George Wharf Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  20. ^ "30 St Mary Axe". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  21. ^ "30 St Mary Axe". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  22. ^ "BT Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  23. ^ "BT Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  24. ^ "Broadgate Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  25. ^ "Broadgate Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
  26. ^ "One Churchill Place". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  27. ^ "One Churchill Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  28. ^ "Croydon Transmitter". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  29. ^ "Croydon TV Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  30. ^ "25 Bank Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  31. ^ "25 Bank Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  32. ^ "40 Bank Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  33. ^ "40 Bank Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  34. ^ "10 Upper Bank Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  35. ^ "10 Upper Bank Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  36. ^ "Pan Peninsula East Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  37. ^ "Pan Peninsula Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
  38. ^ "Strata". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
  39. ^ "Strata". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
  40. ^ "Strata". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  41. ^ "Guy's Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  42. ^ "Guy's Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  43. ^ "BA London Eye". Emporis.com. Retrieved 5 July 2008. 
  44. ^ "London Eye". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  45. ^ "150 High Street Stratford". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
  46. ^ "Wembley Stadium". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  47. ^ "Wembley Stadium". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  48. ^ "CityPoint". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  49. ^ "CityPoint". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  50. ^ "The Willis Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  51. ^ "The Willis Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
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References[edit]

External links[edit]