The municipality is situated in the northern part of Nueva Ecija, about 71 kilometres (44 mi) from the seat of the provincial government in Palayan City; 169 kilometres (105 mi) from Manila; and 29 kilometres (18 mi) from the nearby City of San Jose. It is bounded on the South by the Municipality of Guimba; on the southeast by the municipality of Muñoz; on the west by Cuyapo, on the east by Lupao, all of which are in the province of Nueva Ecija. On the northern most side of Talugtug is the boundary of Pangasinan with the municipality of Umingan. Talugtug has a total land are of 10,122.2324 hectares (25,012.581 acres).
Talugtug is characterized by hilly and rolling land in the northeastern and northwestern section of the municipality covering almost 7 barangays. The foot of two mountain ranges, namely Mt. Baloy (with peak in Cuyapo) and Mt. Amorong (with peak in Umingan, Pangasinan) occupies its hilly and rolling areas.
About 70% of the land area and mostly located in the western portion is flat which constitute the agricultural area of the municipality where almost 75% of its total rice production come.
The municipality's status is currently fourth class, having attained an annual income of thirty million four hundred ninety nine thousand two hundred ninety nine pesos and eighty six cents (P30, 499, 299.86) as of 2006. Majority of the inhabitants rely mainly on farming from their small farm holdings while the rest depend on pasturing animals and cogon harvesting as their source of livelihood.