Tamarind

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Tamarind
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Tribe: Detarieae
Genus: Tamarindus
L.
Species: T. indica
Binomial name
Tamarindus indica
L.

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) (from Arabic: تمر هندی‎, romanized tamar hindi, "Indian date") is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa. The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic taxon, having only a single species.

The tamarind tree produces edible, pod-like fruit which are used extensively in cuisines around the world. Other uses include traditional medicine and metal polish. The wood can be used in carpentry. Because of the tamarind's many uses, cultivation has spread around the world in tropical and subtropical zones.

Origin[edit]

Tamarindus indica is indigenous to tropical Africa, particularly in Sudan, where it continues to grow wild; it is also cultivated in Cameroon, Nigeria and Tanzania. In Arabia, it is found growing wild in Oman, especially Dhofar, where it grows on the sea-facing slopes of mountains. It reached South Asia likely through human transportation and cultivation several thousand years prior to the Common Era.[1][2] It is widely distributed throughout the tropical belt, from Africa to South Asia, Northern Australia, and throughout Oceania, Southeast Asia, Taiwan and China.

In the 16th century, it was heavily introduced to Mexico, and to a lesser degree to South America, by Spanish and Portuguese colonists, to the degree that it became a staple ingredient in the region's cuisine.[3]

Today, South Asia and Mexico remain the largest consumers and producers of tamarind.

Description[edit]

A tamarind seedling
Tamarind

The tamarind is a long-lived, medium-growth, bushy tree, which attains a maximum crown height of 12 to 18 metres (40 to 60 feet). The crown has an irregular, vase-shaped outline of dense foliage. The tree grows well in full sun in clay, loam, sandy, and acidic soil types, with a high drought and aerosol salt (wind-borne salt as found in coastal areas) resistance.

Leaves are evergreen, bright green in color, elliptical ovular, arrangement is alternate, of the pinnately compound type, with pinnate venation and less than 5 cm (2 inches) in length. The branches droop from a single, central trunk as the tree matures and is often pruned in human agriculture to optimize tree density and ease of fruit harvest. At night, the leaflets close up.

The tamarind does flower, though inconspicuously, with red and yellow elongated flowers. Flowers are 2.5 cm wide (one inch), five-petalled, borne in small racemes, and yellow with orange or red streaks. Buds are pink as the four sepals are pink and are lost when the flower blooms.

Tamarind flowers

The fruit is an indehiscent legume, sometimes called a pod, 12 to 15 cm (3 to 6 inches) in length, with a hard, brown shell.[4][5][6] The fruit has a fleshy, juicy, acidulous pulp. It is mature when the flesh is coloured brown or reddish-brown. The tamarinds of Asia have longer pods containing six to 12 seeds, whereas African and West Indian varieties have short pods containing one to six seeds. The seeds are somewhat flattened, and glossy brown.

The tamarind is best described as sweet and sour in taste, and is high in tartaric acid, sugar, B vitamins and, oddly for a fruit, calcium.

As a tropical species, it is frost sensitive. The pinnate leaves with opposite leaflets give a billowing effect in the wind. Tamarind timber consists of hard, dark red heartwood and softer, yellowish sapwood.

Tamarindus leaves and pod

Tamarind is harvested by pulling the pod from its stalk. A mature tree may be capable of producing up to 175 kg (350 lb) of fruit per year. Veneer grafting, shield (T or inverted T) budding, and air layering may be used to propagate desirable selections. Such trees will usually fruit within three to four years if provided optimum growing conditions.

Etymology[edit]

The name ultimately derives from Arabic tamr-hindī, meaning "date of India". Several early medieval herbalists and physicians wrote tamar indi, medieval Latin use was tamarindus, and Marco Polo wrote of tamarandi.[7]

Alternative names[edit]

Raw tamarind fruits

The tree is most numerous in South Asia, where it is widely distributed and has a long history of human cultivation. Many South Asian regional languages have their own unique name for the tamarind fruit. In Sanskrit, it is called thinthrinee. In Assamese, it is called teteli. It is called tetul (তেঁতুল) in Bengali. In Oriya, it is called tentuli, in Hindi it is called imli (इमली); in Rajasthani, it is known as aamli (आम्ली); in Gujarati the amli, and Marathi and Konkani चिंचं (the chinch); in Kannada it is called hunase (ಹುಣಸೆ), Telugu chintachettu (tree) and chintapandu (fruit extract). In Tamil-speaking regions as such in Tamil Nadu and northern areas of Sri Lanka, the tamarind is known as puli (புளி). In Malayalam, it is called vaalanpuli (വാളന്‍പുളി) and in Pakistan in Urdu, it is known as املی imli and in Sindhi, it is called Giddamrii . In Sri Lanka in Sinhala, it is called siyambala (සියඹලා). Much further west, in Turkey, it is called demir hindi.

In Indonesia and Malaysia, tamarind is known as the asam (or asem) Jawa (means Javanese asam), which in the Indonesian and Malay languages, translates as Javanese sour [fruit] (though the literature may also refer to it as sambaya). In the Philippines, tamarind is referred to as sampaloc, which is occasionally rendered as sambalog in Tagalog and sambag in Cebuano. The Vietnamese term is me. In Taiwan, it is called loan-tz. In Myanmar, it is called magee-bin မန်ကျည်းပင် (tree) and magee-thee မန်ကျည်းသီး (fruit). The tamarind is the provincial tree of the Phetchabun province of Thailand, where it is called má kăam (มะขาม). In Laos, it is called ໝາກຂາມ (maak-kham). In Malagasy, it is called voamadilo and kily. In Khmer language, it is called "âm-pil" (អំពិល). The Yolngu people of Australia's northeastern Arnhem Land call Tamarind djambang or jambung.

Tamarind tree, India

In the Cook Islands in the Cook Islands Māori language (also called Māori Kūki Āirani or Rarotonganis language), Tamarindus is called tamarene.

In Ghana, it is called dawadawa. In Malawi, it is called bwemba. In Zambia (nyanja) it is called viwawasha. In Nigeria, it is called tsamiya (Hausa language) and awin (Yoruba language). In the Kiswahili language of east and central Africa, it is called ukwaju. In Somalia it is called "Hamaar".

In Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and throughout the Lusosphere, it is called tamarindo. In the Caribbean, tamarind is sometimes called tamón.[1] In Trinidad and Tobago and most other Caribbean countries, however, it is also called tambran or tambrin.

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) should not be confused with "Manila tamarind" (Pithecellobium dulce). While in the same taxonomic family Fabaceae, Manila tamarind is a different plant native to Mexico and known locally as guamúchil.

Cultivation[edit]

Seeds can be scarified or briefly boiled to enhance germination. They retain germination capability after several months if kept dry.

Although native to Sudan and tropical Africa, Asia and Mexico are the largest consumers and producers of tamarind.

Three-day-old tamarind seedling

The tamarind has also long been naturalized in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the Pacific Islands. Thailand has the largest plantations of the ASEAN nations, followed by Indonesia, Myanmar, and the Philippines. In India, extensive tamarind orchards produce 275,500 tons (250,000 MT) annually. The pulp is marketed in northern Malaya. It is cultivated all over India, especially in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Commercial plantations throughout tropical Latin America include Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico and Venezuela.

In the United States, it is a large-scale crop introduced for commercial use, second in net production quantity to India, in the mainly Southern states due to tropical and semitropical climes, notably South Florida, and as a shade and fruit tree, along roadsides and in dooryards and parks.[8]

Usage[edit]

Culinary uses[edit]

Tamarinds, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 239 kcal (1,000 kJ)
Carbohydrates 62.5 g
- Sugars 57.4
- Dietary fiber 5.1 g
Fat 0.6 g
Protein 2.8 g
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.428 mg (37%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.152 mg (13%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 1.938 mg (13%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.143 mg (3%)
Vitamin B6 0.066 mg (5%)
Folate (vit. B9) 14 μg (4%)
Choline 8.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C 3.5 mg (4%)
Vitamin E 0.1 mg (1%)
Vitamin K 2.8 μg (3%)
Calcium 74 mg (7%)
Iron 2.8 mg (22%)
Magnesium 92 mg (26%)
Phosphorus 113 mg (16%)
Potassium 628 mg (13%)
Sodium 28 mg (2%)
Zinc 0.1 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The fruit pulp is edible. The hard green pulp of a young fruit is considered by many to be too sour, but is often used as a component of savory dishes, as a pickling agent or as a means of making certain poisonous yams in Ghana safe for human consumption.[citation needed]

The ripened fruit is considered the more palatable, as it becomes sweeter and less sour (acidic) as it matures. It is used in desserts as a jam, blended into juices or sweetened drinks, sorbets, ice creams and all manner of snacks.

In Western cuisine, it is found in Worcestershire sauce[9] and HP sauce.

In most parts of India, tamarind extract (dried tamarind available commercially is heated in water and strained out leaving the extract) is used to flavor foods ranging from meals to snacks. Along with tamarind, sugar and spices are added to (regional) taste for chutneys or a multitude of condiments for a bitter-sweet flavor. The immature pods and flowers are also pickled and used as a side dish. In regional cuisines, such as Rajasthan, Maharashtra (where it is called chincha), Tamil Nadu (where it is called puli) and Andhra Pradesh,]](where it is called Chintha pandu) it is used to make rasam, amtee, sambhar, vatha kuzhambu, puliyogare and chutneys and pickles. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, tender leaves of tamarind called chintha chiguru (చింత చిగురు) and puliyankozhunthu (புளியங்கொழுந்து), respectively, are used with lentils to make raw chutney. In the state of Andhra Pradesh "Chintha pandu" (Tamarind)is an essential ingredient in their "Pulihora" "Fish Pulusu", majority of "vegetable Pulusu curries", "Chaaru" "Pappu Chaaru" "Nilava Patchallu" and "Chethi Patchallu". Curries made of "Chintha Chiguru"(Tender leaves of Tamarind tree)mixed with prawns, meat or pulses ("Chintha Chiguru Royyala Koora", "Chintha Chiguru Maamsam Koora" or Chintha Chiguru Pappu" respectively) are great delicasies in Andhra Pradesh., Karnataka, India, the tamarind, called hunasae hannu, is used in saaru (lentil soup), sambhar or sambar (vegetable soup), gojju (sauce), and several types of chutneys. In southern parts of Kerala, mostly along the coastal belt, it is added to fish curry masalas, with ground coconut for flavoring. It is also used extensively as preservative and in pickles (thokku).

In Guadeloupe, tamarind is known as tamarinier and is used in jams and syrups.

Tamarind sweets in a Mexican candy boutique

In Mexico, it is used in sauces or sold in various snack forms: dried and salted; in sweet, soft clusters, or candied (see for example chamoy snacks). Agua de tamarindo, a fresh beverage made from tamarind, is popular throughout the country. Agua fresca beverages, iced fruit bars and raspados all use it as the main ingredient. Jarritos is a well-known export brand soda drink (tamarind is the second most popular flavour of the brand). Mexican tamarind snacks, such as "Batilongo", Pelon Pelo Rico and Pulparindo are available in specialty food stores worldwide. Often in Mexico, tamarind is plucked off the tree and eaten raw.

A variant of the traditional Mexican mole sauce is made with tamarind paste in addition to the more traditional ingredients of mole, such as chile ancho and chocolate. This version is not very well known outside of the city of Oaxaca.

Tamarind balls from Trinidad and Tobago

In Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, Mexico and other Latin American countries tamarind is rolled into balls (5 cm in diameter) with white granulated sugar and a blend of spices to create tambran balls.

A sour, chilled drink made from tamarind is served in Egypt.

A traditional food plant in Africa, tamarind has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.[10]

In southern Kenya, the Swahili people use it to garnish legumes and also make juices. In Somalia, it is used to give rice some sour flavour. In Madagascar, its fruits and leaves are a well-known favorite of the ring-tailed lemurs, providing as much as 50% of their food resources during the year if available. In northern Nigeria, it is used with millet powder to prepare kunun tsamiya, a traditional pap mostly used as breakfast, and usually eaten with bean cake.[citation needed]

In Turkey, it is called demirhindi, and is consumed as a sweetened cold drink. It is also available as a fruit, but is not well known by the general population since it is not grown locally and is imported.

The Javanese dish gurame and more so ikan asem, also known as ikan asam (sweet and sour fish, commonly a carp or river fish) is served throughout Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; some dishes in Manado, Sulawesi and Maluku cuisines use tamarind.

In Lebanon, the Kazouza company sells a tamarind-flavoured carbonated beverage.

In Myanmar, young and tender leaves and flower buds are eaten as a vegetable. A salad dish of tamarind leaves (မန်ကျည်းရွက်နုသုတ်), boiled beans, and crushed peanuts topped with crispy fried onions is served in rural Myanmar.[citation needed]

In the Philippines, tamarind is used in foods like sinigang soup, and also made into candies. The leaves are also used in sinampalukan soup.

In Thailand, a cultivar has been bred specifically to be eaten as a fresh fruit: it is particularly sweet and minimally sour. It is also sometimes eaten preserved in sugar with chili as a sweet-and-spicy candy.[11] Tamarind is an essential souring ingredient in the central Thai variant of kaeng som, a sour curry. Pad Thai often includes tamarind for its tart/sweet taste (with lime juice added for sourness and fish sauce added for saltiness and umami). A tamarind-based sweet-and-sour sauce is served over deep-fried fish in central Thailand.

In Vietnam, tamarind is eaten fresh or processed into a sweet, sour and sometimes spicy candy. Tamarind is also one of the main ingredients in the Vietnamese sour soup, Canh chua.

Tamarindus indica tree at Bhopal

Traditional medicinal uses[edit]

Throughout Southeast Asia, fruit of the tamarind is used as a poultice applied to foreheads of fever sufferers.[4] Based on human study, tamarind intake may delay the progression of skeletal fluorosis by enhancing excretion of fluoride. However, additional research is needed to confirm these results.[12]

Carpentry uses[edit]

Tamarind wood is a bold red color. Due to its density and durability, tamarind heartwood can be used in making furniture and wood flooring.

Metal polish[edit]

Tamarind concentrate can be used to remove tarnish from brass and copper.

In temples, especially in Buddhist Asian countries, the fruit pulp is used to polish brass shrine statues, lamps, and other objects, removing tarnish and the greenish patina that forms.[1] In south Indian homes and temples tamarind is widely used to clean the copper and bronze utensils.[citation needed]

Horticultural uses[edit]

Tamarind on a place of the foundation of city Santa Clara, Cuba

Throughout Asia and the tropical world, tamarind trees are used as ornamental, garden and cash crop plantings. Commonly used as a bonsai species in many Asian countries, it is also grown as an indoor bonsai in temperate parts of the world.[13]

Research[edit]

In hens, tamarind has been found to lower cholesterol in their serum, but not in the yolks of the eggs they laid.[14] Due to a lack of available human clinical trials, there is insufficient evidence to recommend tamarind for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia or diabetes.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Morton, Julia F. (1987). Fruits of Warm Climates. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 115–121. ISBN 0-9653360-7-7. 
  2. ^ Popenoe, W. (1974). Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Hafner Press. pp. 432–436. 
  3. ^ Tamale, E.; Jones, N.; Pswarayi-Riddihough, I. (August 1995). Technologies Related to Participatory Forestry in Tropical and Subtropical Countries. World Bank Publications. ISBN 978-0-8213-3399-0. 
  4. ^ a b Doughari, J. H. (December 2006). "Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica". Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 5 (2): 597–603. 
  5. ^ "Fact Sheet: Tamarindus indica". University of Florida. Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Christman, S. "Tamarindus indica". FloriData. Retrieved 11 January 2010. 
  7. ^ Tamarind at the Oxford English dictionary [1]
  8. ^ "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations". 
  9. ^ "BBC Recipes—Glossary of food terms: Tamarind". BBC. Retrieved 11 January 2010. [dead link]
  10. ^ National Research Council (2008-01-25). "Tamarind". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume III: Fruits. Lost Crops of Africa 3. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10596-5. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  11. ^ "Tamarind – Makahm". Thai Food and Travel. Retrieved 11 January 2010. 
  12. ^ "Ameliorative effect of tamarind leaf on fluoride-induced metabolic alterations.". PubMed. PMID 22438201. 
  13. ^ D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Tamarindus indica". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Retrieved 2011-08-19. 
  14. ^ Chowdhury, SR; Sarker, DK; Chowdhury, SD; Smith, TK; Roy, PK; Wahid, MA (2005). "Effects of dietary tamarind on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens". Poultry science 84 (1): 56–60. doi:10.1093/ps/84.1.56. PMID 15685942. 
  15. ^ "Tamarindus indica". Health Online. Retrieved 11 January 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bhumibhamon, S. 1988. Multi-purpose trees for small-farm use in the Central Plain of Thailand. D withington, K MacDicken., CB Sastyr and NR Adams, eds Multi-purpose trees for small-farm use: Proceedings of an International Workshop pp. 53–55. November 2–5, 1987, Pattaya Thailand.
  • Jean-Marc Boffa, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publisher Food & Agriculture Org., 1999. Agroforestry parklands in Sub-Saharan Africa Volume 34 of FAO conservation guide Agroforestry Parklands in Sub-Saharan Africa, ISBN 92-5-104376-0, ISBN 978-92-5-104376-9: 230 pages
  • Dassanayake, M. D. & Fosberg, F. R. (Eds.). (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Hooker, Joseph Dalton. (1879). The Flora of British India, Vol II. London: L. Reeve & Co.
  • Locke J, N Renner: 1991 Pod Form and Non-Pod Form Variants of Tamarind in Guadelupe Yaghoubian Agricultural Review 2:122–149
  • Michon G, F Mary, J Bopmart: 1986 Multi-Storied agroforestry Garden System in West Sumatra, Indonesia Agroforestry Systems 4:315–338
  • Narawane SP 1991 Success stories of Multi-purpose tree species production by small farmers in NG Hedge and JN Daniel eds, Multi-purpose tree species production by small farmers, proceedings of the National Workshop. January 28–31, 1991 Pune, India.
  • James Rennie: 1834. Alphabet of medical botany. Orr and Smith, 1834. 152 page 77. Google Books
  • George Spratt, 1830. Flora Medica: containing coloured delineations of the various medicinal plants admitted into the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin pharmacopœias; with their natural history, botanical descriptions, medical and chemical properties, Together with a Concise Introduction to Botany; a Copious Glossary of Botanical Terms; and a List of Poisonous Plants. Callow and Wilson, 1830. Google Books.

External links[edit]

  • Tamarindus indica in Brunken, U., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Janssen, T., Thiombiano, A. & Zizka, G. 2008. West African plants – A Photo Guide. www.westafricanplants.senckenberg.de.
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tamarind". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.