Madras State Legislative Assembly election, 1967

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Madras State legislative assembly election, 1967
India
1962 ←
5-21, February 1967
→ 1971

All 234 seats in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
  First party Second party
  Mbhaktavatsalam.jpg
Leader C.N. Annadurai M. Bhaktavatsalam
Party DMK INC
Leader's seat Nominated[1] Sriperumbudur
(lost)
Seats won 179 51
Seat change +123 -88
Popular vote 8,051,437 6,293,378
Percentage 52.59% 41.10%
Swing +15.69% -5.04%

Chief Minister before election

M. Bakthavatsalam
INC

Chief Minister

C.N. Annadurai
DMK

The fourth legislative assembly election of Madras State (later renamed as Tamil Nadu) was held in February 1967. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) led coalition under the leadership of C.N. Annadurai won the election defeating the Indian National Congress (Congress). Anti-Hindi agitations, the rising prices of essential commodities and a shortage of rice were the dominant issues. K. Kamaraj's resignation as the Chief Minister in 1963, to concentrate on party affairs, along with persistent rumours of corruption had weakened the incumbent Congress Government. This was the second time after Communist Party of India winning Kerala assembly elections in 1957, for a non-Congress party to gain majority in a state in India, and the last time that Congress held power in Tamil Nadu. It marked the beginning of Dravidian dominance in the politics of Tamil Nadu. Annadurai, who became the first non-Congress chief minister of post-independence Tamil Nadu, died in office in 1969 and M. Karunanidhi took over as chief minister.[2]

Background[edit]

The Congress party began to show weakness in the years after the 1962 election.[3] In the summer of 1962, DMK conducted demonstrations against rising prices. These demonstrations turned violent throughout the state leading to the arrest of 6500 DMK volunteers, 14 members of the assembly and four members of the Lok Sabha, including Annadurai.[3]

Kamaraj resigned the Chief Ministership in 1963 to assume the presidency of the All India Congress Committee and was replaced by M. Bakthavatsalam. Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr. (Temple Professor Emeritus in the Humanities, Government and Asian Studies from the University of Texas) wrote in an article published in the journal Pacific Affairs, that M. Bhaktavatsalam did not have the personal charisma or political acumen of Kamaraj. Persistent rumours of corruption tarnished the image of the Government. In October 1964, the food crisis brought the popularity of the Congress Government to an all time low.[3]

Issues[edit]

The major issues at play in the election were the official language issue, the rise in essential commodity prices and the shortage of rice. The central Government led by the Indian National Congress had implemented an act replacing English with Hindi as an official language of India while retaining a possible "associate" status to English. The switchover came into effect on 26 January 1965. In protest to the vague wording of the act, fearing a possible elimination of English and imposition of Hindi, DMK had launched an agitation opposing the switchover and that agitation turned violent. The 1967 election was held in the aftermath of this violence.[4]

The acute rice shortage prevailing in the state became an election issue with the DMK promising to supply three padis (approx. 4.5 kg) of rice for 1 Rupee in its election manifesto.[5][6] The DMK capitalised on the rice shortage as well as widespread discontent with the Bhaktavatsalam administration. Slogans like Kamarajar Annachi kadalaiparuppu vilai ennachu (Elder Brother (Annachi is a title historically been used to refer to a person of Kamaraj's caste) Kamaraj, what happened to the price of chana dal?), Bhaktavatsalam annachi arisi vilai ennachu (lit. Brother Bhatavatsalam, what happened to the price of rice?) were used effectively by the DMK to stir public anger against the Congress.[7]

This election was noted for popular actor, DMK candidate and future Chief Minister M.G. Ramachandran (MGR) being shot in the throat by actor M.R. Radha. He survived the shooting, but the incident created a huge popularity wave for MGR. This eventually helped increase the popularity of not only MGR, but also the DMK in the election, and is attributed as one of the reasons for the victory of the DMK.[8]

Coalitions[edit]

There were two major political coalitions running in the elections. The Indian National Congress contested[9] alone, while the Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) under Periyar E. V. Ramasamy supported and campaigned for the incumbent Congress against his protege Annadurai.[10][11][12] The DMK-led United Front comprised the Swatantra Party, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Praja Socialist Party, Samyukta Socialist Party, Tamil Nadu Toilers Party, Republican Party of India and the Indian Union Muslim League. The Tamil Arasu Kazhagam and the We Tamils party campaigned using the DMK election symbol.[4][13] This opposition coalition was forged by C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) with the sole purpose of defeating the Kamaraj led Congress. Rajaji's personal hostility to Kamaraj and his opposition to the Congress party were the main reasons behind Swatantra's alliance with DMK.[14] The Communist Party of India campaigned alone without joining either of the two coalitions.[15][16]

The electoral alliance between DMK, Swatantra Party and Muslim League had emerged in the years before the 1964 civic elections throughout Madras state. During the 1964 election campaign Rajagopalachari had said, "The DMK and Muslim League are my children and I am duty bound to nurse them to strength and stature."[3]

Campaigning[edit]

Both Congress and DMK used films and actors for campaigning. Gemini Studios produced a political film for the Congress – Vazhga Nam Thayagam starring Shivaji Ganesan and Nagesh. Sivaji and Padmini worked for the Congress party. Despite its efforts, Congress could not counter the DMK's propaganda, which had a long history of using films for political campaigns since its founding.[17]

DMK's long term association with the Tamil Film industry was put to good use in the campaign. MGR's films were used to attack Congress policies and to popularise DMK's positions. Similar to the tactics employed in the elections of 1957 and 1962, film songs and dialogues from Kaanji Thalaivan (1963), Aayirathil Oruvan (1965), Enga Veettu Pillai (1965), Anbe Vaa (1966), Naan Aanaiyittal (1966), Vivasayee (1967) and Arasakattalai (1967) were used for political messaging. Lesser known film stars like Ravichandran and Jaishankar used their films for praising DMK and Annadurai. The DMK put up posters of MGR recuperating in a hospital bed with a neck cast (from his gunshot wounds) all over Tamil Nadu to garner public sympathy and support.[7][18][19]

Election[edit]

The election was held for a total of 234 constituencies, including 43 Scheduled Caste and 2 Scheduled Tribe reserved constituencies. 778 candidates, including 11 women were in the fray, of whom 231 men and 3 women were elected to the assembly. The election saw a turnout of 76.57 percent of all eligible voters, with 79.19% men and 73.99% women casting their votes. The polling for the assembly election took place along with the polling for the 1967 parliamentary elections. It took place in three phases between 5 and 21 February (5th, 18 and 21 February).[20][21]

Results[edit]

DMK and its coalition allies won 179 seats (76.5%). The Indian National Congress won 51 seats (21.8%).[22] Four candidates of the Naam Thamizhar Party led by S. P. Adithanar and two candidates of Tamil Arasu Kazhagam led by M. P. Sivagnanam contested[9] under DMK's "Rising Sun" Symbol. The Indian Union Muslim League candidates contested[9] as independents.[23]

Alliances Party Popular Vote Vote % Seats contested Seats won Change
United Front[24]


Seats: 179
Seat Change: +123
Popular Vote: 8,051,437
Popular Vote %: 52.59%

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 6,230,556 40.69% 174 137 +87
Swatantra Party 811,232 5.30% 27 20 +14
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 623,114 4.07% 22 11 +11
Praja Socialist Party 136,188 0.89% 4 4 +4
Indian Union Muslim League 95,494 0.62% 3 3 +3
Sanghata Socialist Party 84,188 0.55% 3 2 +2
DMK Backed Independents 70,665 0.46% 2 2 +2
Indian National Congress
Seats: 51
Seat Change: -88
Popular Vote: 6,293,378
Popular Vote %: 41.10%
Indian National Congress 6,293,378 41.10% 232 51 -88
Others
Seats: 4
Seat Change: -5
Independents 591,214 3.86% 246 1 -4
Communist Party of India 275,932 1.80% 32 2
Forward Bloc 44,714 0.29% 1 1 -2
Republican Party of India 31,286 0.20% 13 0
Bharatiya Jana Sangh 22,745 0.15% 24 0
Total 11 Political Parties 15,310,702 100% 234

Analysis[edit]

After the election, many analysts concluded that it was the unity of the opposition parties against Congress, missing in the 1962 elections, that made the difference. The victory is attributed to the electoral alliance between DMK and Rajaji.[25] Even though Congress had done an effective job of managing the state of Madras, the effective grass roots campaigning by the DMK and the political acumen of Annadurai, defeated the Congress and its leader M. Bhaktavatsalam. The popularity of the United Front was so large that they were able to win an absolute majority in ten out of the 14 districts in the state, while Congress could not accomplish that in a single district. This was largely due to the fact that the United Front was able to capitalize on its growing support in large towns and cities, combined with the decline in Congress support in its traditional Schedule Caste constituencies.[24]

Margin of Victory[edit]

The following table shows the number of seats won by corresponding parties, by the margin of votes.[24]

Party Less than 500 500-1000 1000-3000 3000-5000 5000-10000 10000-20000 20000+
DMK 3 1 10 9 42 56 17
SWA 5 1 5 8 1
INC 5 5 20 10 5 3 1
CPM 1 1 4 4 1

Notable losses[edit]

The former chief minister and popular leader of the Indian National Congress, K. Kamaraj lost his seat in Virudunagar by 1285 votes to the student leader P. Seenivasan from the DMK. A few days before the election, Kamaraj had an accident and could not campaign. This led to his famous declaration that he would win lying down (Tamil: படுத்துக் கொண்டே ஜெயிப்பேன்).[7] He lost the election along with the incumbent Chief Minister M. Bakthavatsalam, who lost his seat in Sriperumbudur to D. Rajarathinam from the DMK by 8926 votes. Except for G. Bhuvaraghan (the minister for Information and Publicity), all ministers of the outgoing Bakthavatsalam cabinet were defeated in this election.[26][27]

Government formation[edit]

The election results were announced on 23 February 1967 and the DMK won an absolute majority on its own. It had increased its vote share to 40.6% from 27.1% in 1962 election. Annadurai resigned as the Member of Parliament from the Madras South Lok Sabha constituency, which was later won by Murasoli Maran in the following by-election. Annadurai was nominated as Chief Minister of Madras State and staked a claim to form a Government on 2 March 1967.[28] He was sworn in by Governor Ujjal Singh on 6 March 1967 in Rajaji Hall.[13] He was later elected to the Madras Legislative Council on 22 April 1967.[29][30]

Annadurai's Cabinet[edit]

The council of ministers in C. N. Annadurai's cabinet (6 March 1967 - 10 February 1969) were all from the DMK and they are listed in the following table.[31]

Minister Portfolios
C.N. Annadurai Chief Minister, General Administration, Finance, Civil services, Planning, Police, Prohibition, Overseas Indians, Refugees and Evacuees
V. R. Nedunchezhiyan Education, Industries, Official Language, Textiles, Yarn, Handlooms, Mines and Minerals, Electricity, Iron and Steel, Companies and Religious Endowments
M. Karunanidhi Public Works, Highways, Transport, Ports and Minor Irrigation
K. A. Mathialagan Food, Revenue and Commercial Taxes
A. Govindasamy Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Forests and Chinchona
S. J. Sadiq Pasha Public Health
Satyavani Muthu Harijan Welfare and Information
M. Muthuswamy Local Administration, Community Development, Khadi and Village Industries, Bhoodan and Gramdhan, Ex-servicemen
S. Madhavan Law, Co-operation and Housing
N. V. Natarajan Labour

List of elected members[edit]

* Non-elected as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
** Muslim League Candidates contesting as independents[32]
* DMK backed Independents[33]
No. Assembly Constituency Winner Party Runner-up Party Margin
(votes)
1 Acharapakkam P. S. Ellappan SWA P. Saradambal INC 14,901
2 Aduthurai A. Marimuthu INC M. G. Mani DMK 4,572
3 Alangudi K. V. Subbiah DMK T. A. S. Thangavelu INC 836
4 Alangulam V. Arunachalam DMK A. B. Balagan INC 2,571
5 Ambasamudram G. G. S. Dikshidar INC A. Nallasivan CPM 2,513
6 Ambur M. Panneerselvam DMK P. Rajagopal INC 10,607
7 Andhiyur E. M. Natarajan DMK Gurumurthi INC 7,468
8 Andimadam K. N. Ramachandran DMK M. S. T. Padayachi INC 5,683
9 Andipatti S. Paramasivam SWA A. Thiruvenkidasamy INC 6,260
10 Arakkonam S. J. Ramasamy DMK B. Naidu INC 7,608
11 Arantangi A. Thurairasan DMK K. B. Dervaikarar INC 6,421
12 Aravakurichi S. K. Gounder SWA V. P. Gounder INC 24,132
13 Arcot Arcot N. Veeraswami DMK A. G. R. Naicker INC 14,330
14 Ariyalur R. Karuppiam INC G. Sepperumal DMK 1,423
15 Arni A. C. Narasimhan DMK T. B. J. Chettiar INC 20,718
16 Aruppukottai S. S. Bharathi SWA T. K. Sundarm INC 9,141
17 Athoor V. S. S. Manichettiar DMK R. R. Reddiar INC 1,755
18 Attur K. N. Sivaperumal DMK M. P. Subramaniam INC 10,204
19 Avanashi R. K. Gounder SWA K. M. Gounder INC 5,119
20 Basin Bridge M. R. Kannan DMK K. Ramdas INC 9,352
21 Bhavani A. M. Raja DMK P. K. Mudaliar INC 21,353
22 Bhavanisagar Ramarasan DMK M. Velusamy INC 4,793
23 Bhuvanagiri A. Govindarasan DMK D. Ramachandran INC 10,561
24 Bodinayakkanur N. Srinivasan INC P. V. Durairaj CPM 766
25 Chengalpattu C. G. Viswanathan DMK T. Naicker INC 23,549
26 Chengam P. S. Santhanam DMK A. Arumugham INC 11,055
27 Cheranmadevi D. S. Adhimoolam SWA S. Chellapandian INC 6,375
28 Cheyyar K. Govindan DMK K. M. Kangan INC 19,673
29 Chidambaram R. Kanagasabai Pillai INC P. Ponchockalingam DMK 1,555
30 Coimbatore East M. Bhupathy CPM G. R. Damodaran INC 5,645
31 Coimbatore West J. Govindarajulu DMK S. R. P. P. Chettiar INC 17,808
32 Colachel A. Chidambaranatha Nadar INC S. Retnaraj SWA 1,446
33 Coonoor B. Gowder DMK M. K. N. Gowder INC 9,475
34 Cuddalore E. Re. Elamvazhuthi DMK P. R. S. Padayachi INC 7,248
35 Cumbum Rajangam DMK N. S. K. S. Pandiaraj INC 13,415
36 Dharapuram Palaniammal DMK P. Velusamy INC 20,633
37 Dharmapuri M. S. Gounder DMK D. N. Vadivel INC 6,691
38 Dindigul A. Balasubramanyam CPM O. C. Pillai INC 12,844
39 Edapadi A. Arumugam INC K. S. S. Gounder INC 6,342
40 Egmore A. V. P. Asaithambi DMK J. Vencatachellum INC 6,946
41 Erode M. Chinnasamy DMK P. Arjunan INC 19,663
42 Gandarvakottai R. R. Durai INC D. G. Kalingarar DMK 4,231
43 Gangaikondan A. Karuppiah DMK M. Chellappa INC 13,221
44 Gingee V. Munusami DMK G. Rajaram INC 11,612
45 Gobichettipalayam K. M. R. Gounder SWA M. Gounder INC 4,571
46 Gudalur C. Nanjam INC Bomman SWA 628
47 Gudiyatham V. K. Kothandaraman CPM B. R. Naidu INC 16,924
48 Gummidipundi K. Vezhavendan DMK Kamalambujammal INC 4,360
49 Harbour Habibullah Baig IND K. S. G. H. Shereef INC 3,850
50 Harur N. Theerthagiri INC N. Arumugam DMK 548
51 Hosur B. Venkataswami SWA K. A. Pillai INC 2,201
52 Ilayangudi V. Malaikannan DMK S. Ramachandran INC 10,483
53 Jayankondam K. A. A. K. Moorthy DMK S. Ramasami INC 5,960
54 Kadaladi M. Alangaram DMK K. Paramalai INC 18,125
55 Kadambattur C. V. M. Annamalai DMK C. C. Naidu INC 21,758
56 Kadavur K. K. Muthiah INC Anbil P. Dharmalingam DMK 6,314
57 Kadayanallur A. R. S. Mudaliar IND S. M. A. Majid INC 446
58 Kalasapakkam S. Murugaiyan INC M. Sundarasan DMK 12,143
59 Kallakurichi D. K. Naidu DMK V. T. Elayapillai INC 10,533
60 Kamiyambadi L. Balaraman INC T. Thiruvengadam DMK 1,412
61 Kancheepuram N. Krishnan DMK V. C. S. Nayagar INC 11,550
62 Kandamangalam M. Raman DMK M. S. Saraswathi INC 7,437
63 Kangayam A. S. Gounder INC Velusami DMK 146
64 Kanyakumari B. M. Pillai INC S. M. Pillai SWA 9,738
65 Kapilamalai C. V. Velappan DMK R. S. Gounder INC 8,293
66 Karaikudi S. Meiyappan SWA C. V. C. V. V. Chettiar INC 16,318
67 Kariapatti A. R. perumal SWA P. M. Baskaran INC 1,118
68 Karur T. M. Nallasamy INC S. Nallaswamy CPM 4,875
69 Katpadi G. Natarajan DMK P. S. R. Naidu INC 7,920
70 Kattumannarkoil S. Sivasubramanian INC C. Govindarasu DMK 134
71 Kaveripattinam P. Naidu INC P. V. Seeramulu DMK 3,421
72 Killiyoor William INC Paniadimai SWA 5,656
73 Kinathukadavu M. Kannappan DMK S. Gounder INC 19,954
74 Kodavasal C. Krishnamoorthi DMK M. D. T. Pillai INC 6,295
75 Kottur A. K. Subbiah CPI C. M. Ambikapathy INC 5,529
76 Kovilpatti S. Alagarsamy CPI V. O. C. A. Pillai INC 10,426
77 Krishnagiri P. M. M. Gounder INC C. Manniappan DMK 185
78 Krishnarajapuram P. Soundarapandian DMK T. V. Sannasi INC 2,541
79 Kulittalai M. Kandaswamy DMK P. E. S. Reddiar INC 3,815
80 Kumbakonam N. Kasiraman INC K. S. Mani DMK 1,193
81 Kunnathur M. Gopal DMK P. Appavoo INC 27,209
82 Kurinjipadi N. Rajangam DMK M. Jayaraman INC 7,252
83 Kuttalam G. B. Mohan CPM M. Sivakadaksham INC 6,736
84 Lalgudi D. Natarajan DMK D. R. Udaiyar INC 2,640
85 Madhuranthakam Kothandam DMK G. Reddy INC 13,182
86 Madurai Central C. Govindarajan DMK V. Sankaran INC 16,779
87 Madurai East K. P. Janakiammal CPM A. G. Subburaman INC 8,244
88 Madurai West N. Sankaraiah CPM M. Chelliah INC 23,870
89 Manamadurai K. Cheemaichamy SWA C. B. Rena INC 453
90 Mangalore A. Krishnan DMK P. Vedamanickam INC 12,869
91 Mannargudi T. S. S. Odayar INC S. Narayanaswamy DMK 923
92 Mayuram N. Kittappa DMK G. N. Naidu INC 3,342
93 Melapalayam M. M. Peer Mohammed IND S. R. Reddiar INC 8,124
94 Melmalayanur R. R. Munusamy DMK K. G. Gounder INC 15,820
95 Melur North P. Malaichamy DMK M. A. Ambalam INC 8,519
96 Melur South O. P. Raman DMK P. Kakkan INC 21,537
97 Mettupalayam T. T. S. Thippiah INC Thooyamani DMK 2,973
98 Mettur M. Surendaran PSP K. K. Gounder INC 6,038
99 Modakkurichi K. R. Nallasivam SSP C. Kulandiammal INC 19,859
100 Mudukulathur R. R. Thevar SWA S. A. Servai INC 11,290
101 Mugaiyur A. Govindasamy DMK N. K Ganapathy INC 12,043
102 Musiri P. S. Muthuselvan DMK K. V. K. Reddiar INC 4,865
103 Mylapore Arangannal DMK V. R. Radhakrishnan INC 9,228
104 Nagapattinam K. R. Gnanasambandan CPM R. R. V. Naidu INC 10,134
105 Nagercoil M. C. Balan DMK T. Nadar INC 6,692
106 Namakkal M. Muthuswamy DMK V. R. K. Gounder INC 7,859
107 Nanguneri N. Duraipandian INC T. G. Nadar DMK 4,172
108 Nannilam P. Jayaraj INC T. P. Ramachandran CPM 6,482
109 Natrampalli T. C. T. Gounder DMK R. C. S. Gounder INC 2,439
110 Nellikuppam C. Govindarajan CPM A. Lakshminarayanan INC 4,973
111 Nilakkottai A. Muniyandi DMK A. S. Ponnammal INC 12,486
112 Nominated C.N. Annadurai DMK
113 Oddanchatram N. Gounder DMK A. P. Palaniappan INC 8,864
114 Omalur C. Palani DMK C. Govindan INC 10,245
115 Orathanad L. Ganesan DMK M. D. Pillai INC 16,093
116 Ottapidaram M. Muthiah SWA S. Dhanushkodi INC 5,123
117 Padmanabhapuram V. George INC M. M. Ali CPM 6,923
118 Palacode K. Murugesan INC M. B. Munusamy DMK 3,090
119 Palani Krishnamoorthy DMK A. Rajagopal INC 22,891
120 Palladam K. N. K. Gounder PSP R. Sengaliappan INC 7,556
121 Panamarathupatti T. Ponnumalai DMK C. Sepperumal DMK 7,727
122 Panruti S. Ramachandran DMK V. V. Padayachi INC 15,566
123 Papanasam R. S. Moopanar INC A. M. Sali IND 10,246
124 Paramakudi T. K. Siraimeetan DMK R. Thavasi INC 14,466
125 Park town H. V. Hande SWA T. N. Anandanayaki INC 2,679
126 Pattukkottai A. R. Marimuthu PSP N. Ramasamy INC 7,142
127 Pennagaram P. K. C. Muthusamy INC N. Manickam DMK 1,343
128 Perambalur J. S. Rasu DMK M. Ayyakannu INC 4,793
129 Perambur Satyavani Muthu DMK D. Sulochana INC 6,687
130 Peravurani M. Krishnamurthy DMK A. V. Servai INC 9,118
131 Periyakulam M. Metha DMK R. S. Subramaniam INC 6,375
132 Pernambattu P. Jayaraman DMK T. Manavalan INC 8,911
133 Pernamallur V. D. A. Mudaly DMK P. Ramachandran INC 9,188
134 Perundurai S. Balasubramanian SSP N. Nallasenapathi Sarkarai Mandradiar INC 3134
135 Perur N. Marudachalam CPM R. Rayappan INC 17,192
136 Pollachi A. P. S. Gounder DMK E. Gounder INC 11,792
137 Polur S. Kuppammal DMK S. M. Annamalai INC 13,068
138 Pongalur P. N. P. Gounder DMK P.S. Rangaswamy INC 15,957
139 Ponneri P. Nagalingam DMK T. P. Elumalai INC 9,995
140 Pudukkottai R. V. Thondaiman INC Thiagarajan DMK 20,087
141 Purasawalkam V. S. Govindarajan DMK Damodaran INC 12,226
142 Radhapuram N. Soundrapandian INC V. Kartheesan DMK 548
143 Rajapalayam A. A. S. Raja IND P. A. A. Raja INC 13,261
144 Ramanathapuram T. Thangappan DMK R. Shanmuga Rajeshwara Sethupathi INC 8,610
145 Ranipet M. Abdul Gaffoor Sahib IND S. K. Sheriff INC 1,058
146 Rasipuram P. Periasamy DMK K. Muthuswamy Gounder INC 7,529
147 Rishivandiyam M. Anandan DMK L. Anandan INC 318
148 Saidapet M. Karunanidhi DMK S. G. Vinayagamurthy INC 20,482
149 St. Thomas Mount M. G. Ramachandran DMK T. L. Ragupathy INC 27,674
150 Salem - I K. Jayaraman DMK P. Thiagarajan INC 14,066
151 Salem - II E. R. Krishnan DMK A. R. Gounder INC 11,496
152 Sankarapuram S. P. Pachaiyappan DMK D. Muthusami INC 5,518
153 Sankarankoil P. Durairaj DMK P. Urkavalan INC 17,962
154 Sankari R. Nallamuthu DMK A. Rajendran INC 12,928
155 Sattur S. Ramaswamy Naidu SWA R. Krishnasamy Naidu INC 19,910
156 Sathankulam Martin INC Adithan DMK 4,297
157 Satyamangalam P. G. Karuthiruman INC S. M. Marappan CPM 1,206
158 Sedapatti V. T. Thevar SWA T. A. Nadar INC 19,614
159 Sembanarkoil S. Ganesan DMK S. Ramalingam INC 18,947
160 Sendamangalam A. S. Gounder INC S. T. Doraiswamy CPM 771
161 Sholavandan P. S. Maniyan DMK R. S. Servai INC 16,493
162 Sholinghur Aranganathan DMK A. M. P. Mudaliar INC 7,024
163 Singanallur P. Velusamy PSP V. K. L. Gounder INC 13,263
164 Sivaganga S. Sethuraman DMK R. V. Swaminathan INC 12,950
165 Sivakasi S. A. Thevar SWA R. R. Thevar INC 11,498
166 Sirkazhi K. B. S. Mani IND R. Thangavelu INC 12,814
167 Srirangam S. Ramalingam INC M. Aruna INC 1,118
168 Sriperumbudur D. Rajarathinam DMK M. Bakthavatsalam INC 8926
169 Srivaikuntam S. P. Adithanar DMK R. Nadar INC 19,061
170 Srivilliputhur K. A. A. Gurusamy DMK S. P. Dharmaraj INC 8,941
171 Talavasal Moo. Marimuthu DMK A. Doraisamy INC 8,841
172 Taramangalam Govindan DMK M. S. Krishnan INC 8,963
173 Tenkasi I. A. C. Pillai INC K. M. K. Samsudin DMK 743
174 Thandrambattu K. S. Kandar INC R. Dharmalingam DMK 1,339
175 Thanjavur A. Y. S. Parisutha Nadar INC S. Natarajan DMK 4,511
176 Theni P. T. R. Palanivel Rajan DMK M. Malaichami INC 12,514
177 Thirumangalam N. S. V. Chithan INC M. P. Rajan SWA 3,257
178 Thirupparangundram S. Agniraju DMK S. Sonaimuthu INC 22,377
179 Thiruvattar J. James INC D. Gnanasigamani CPM 8,092
180 Thondamuthur R. Manickavasakam DMK V. E. Naidu INC 15,419
181 Thottiyam Vadivel DMK T. Veerappan INC 10,031
182 Thousand lights K. A. Mathialagan DMK M. Sivaraj INC 14,148
183 T. Nagar M. P. Sivagnanam DMK K. M. Subramaniam IND 9,993
184 Thirumayam Ponnambalam DMK V. Ramiah INC 20,221
185 Thiruthuraipundi N. Dharmalingam DMK K. C. Manali CPI 1,502
186 Thiruvaiyaru G. M. Sethurar DMK K. B. Palani INC 3,528
187 Thiruvarambur V. Swaminathan INC K. Kamakshi DMK 4,629
188 Thiruvarur Dhanushkodi CPM Vedaiyan INC 2,554
189 Tindivanam K. Ramamoorthy INC A. Thangavelu DMK 2098
190 Tiruchendur E. Fernando DMK S. Nadar INC 10,648
191 Tiruchengode T. A. Rajavelu DMK T. P. Natesan INC 20,348
192 Tiruchy - I M. S. Mani DMK A. S. G. L. Pillai INC 3,305
193 Tiruchy - II R. Nagasundaram DMK M. K. M. A. Salam INC 7,206
194 Tirukoilur E. M. Subramaniam INC A. S. Kumarasamy DMK 1,673
195 Tirunelveli A. L. Subramanian DMK M. S. M. Pillai INC 16,225
196 Tiruppattur (41) C. Gounder DMK Shanmugmam INC 2,077
197 Tiruppattur (194) S. Madhavan DMK V. S. S. Chettiar INC 13,638
198 Tirupporur Munu Adhi DMK N. M. Manivarma INC 16,416
199 Tiruppur S. Duraisamy DMK K. N. P. Gounder INC 14,145
200 Tiruttani K. Vinayakam INC V. K. Kuppuswamy DMK 1,786
201 Tiruvadanai K. Ambalam SWA M. Arunachalam INC 3,969
202 Tiruvallur S. M. Dorairaj DMK V. S. Arunachalam INC 21,657
203 Tiruvannamalai D. Vijayaraj INC P. U. Shanmugam DMK 3,185
204 Tiruvottiyur A. P. Arasu DMK V. Venkateswaralu INC 18,873
205 Triplicane V. R. Nedunchezhiyan DMK M. S. Sammandappa INC 12,694
206 Tuticorin M. S. Sivasami DMK S. P. Nadar INC 14,658
207 Udagamandalam K. Bojan SWA T. K. Gowder INC 19,889
208 Uddanapalle K. S. Kothandaramiah SWA D. C. Vijendriah INC 14,078
209 Udumalpet S. J. S. Pasha DMK K. Ramasami INC 14,018
210 Uppiliyapuram T. P. Alagamuthu DMK A. V. Mudaliar INC 12,037
211 Usilambatti P. K. M. Thevar FBL A. M. N. Thevar INC 28,489
212 Ulundurpet M. K. Padayachi INC V. S. Padayachi DMK 1,560
213 Uthangarai T. T. Gownder INC K. R. Krishnan DMK 2,040
214 Uthiramerur K. M. Rajagopal DMK O. S. Reddiar INC 20,875
215 Vadamadurai P. T. Naicker INC V. S. Lakshmanan DMK 1,856
216 Valangiman N. Somasundaram DMK R. Subramaniam INC 4,018
217 Valparai E. Ramaswamy DMK N. Nachimuthu INC 20,077
218 Vanur A. G. Balakrishnan DMK Velayudham INC 70
219 Vandavasi Muthulingam DMK A. Adineelam INC 17,326
220 Vaniyambadi Rajamannar INC Vadivel DMK 1,638
221 Varahur R. Narayanan DMK M. V. Perumal INC 12,313
222 Vasudevanallur A. Velladurai DMK M. P. Swamy INC 6,980
223 Vedaranyam P. V. Thevar INC P. V. Thevar DMK 264
224 Vedasandur N. Varadaraj CPM S. N. Rao INC 691
225 Veerapandy S. Arumugam DMK N. S. Sundararajan INC 20,805
226 Vellakoil K. N. S. Gounder DMK D. P. Gounder INC 19,431
227 Vellore M. P. Sarathi DMK J. Mudaliar INC 14,414
228 Vilathikulam M. Rathinasabapathy DMK M. P. S. Reddiar IND 3,555
229 Vilavancode R. Ponnappan Nadar INC P. M. N. Pillai IND 11,327
230 Villupuram M. Shanmugam DMK V. P. S. Gounder INC 5,931
231 Viralimalai S. S. Thethuvandar DMK P. P. Gounder INC 3,934
232 Virudunagar P. Seenivasan DMK K. Kamaraj INC 1,285
233 Vridhachalam G. Bhuvaraghan INC M. Selvaraj DMK 8,867
234 Washermanpet M. Vedachalam DMK M. Mayandi Nadar INC 7,242
235 Yercaud V. Chinnasamy DMK Ponnudurai INC 5,587

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ the Governors Committee has commented against the practice of appointing a non-member of the State legislature or a nominated member of the House as Chief Minister. For instance, in Uttar Pradesh Mr. CB Gupta in 1960; Mr. TN Singh in 1970; in Orissa Mr. Biswanath Das in 1971; Mrs. Nandini Satpathi in 1972; in Madhya Pradesh Mr. PC. Sethi in 1972; in Gujrat Mr. Balwatray Mehta and Mr. Ghansham Oza in 1972; in Madras Mr. CN Annadurai in 1967 ; in punjab giani gurmukh singh mussafir in 1966 and in Bihar Mr. Kedar Pandey in 1972. - HA Gani, Governor in the Indian Constitution: certain controversies and Sarkaria Commission, p.45
  2. ^ Atul Kohli (1990). Democracy and discontent: India's growing crisis of governability. Cambridge University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-521-39692-1. 
  3. ^ a b c d "The DMK and the Politics of Tamil Nationalism". Pacific Affairs (Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia) 37 (4): 410. Winter 1964–1965. JSTOR 2755132. 
  4. ^ a b Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Head Counts in India. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0-521-89141-8. 
  5. ^ "The competitive politics of rice", The Hindu, 9 April 2009, retrieved 16 November 2009 
  6. ^ "The politics of rice", The Hindu Business Line, 12 May 2006, retrieved 16 November 2009 
  7. ^ a b c The politics of Bioscope - Part 12, Thinnai.com (in Tamil)
  8. ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj (2001). Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. New York: Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 0-415-39680-8. 
  9. ^ a b c In India the term "Contest" is used to denote participation in an election. The Representation of People Act of 1951, the legislation which governs elections in India uses the term and so does the Election Commission of India."FAQs - Contesting for Elections". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  10. ^ "Periyar Movement". periyar.org. Retrieved 16 November 2009. 
  11. ^ E.V. Ramaswami Naicker and C.N. Annadurai - Cho Ramaswamy, India Today
  12. ^ Ariyapadavendiya Anna, Kalachuvadu Magazine (in Tamil)
  13. ^ a b "Annadurai’s historic rise to fame", The Hindu, 15 September 2009, retrieved 16 November 2009 
  14. ^ B. N. Pandey (1977). Leadership in South Asia. p. 434. 
  15. ^ "How the Communists Fared", Economic and Political Weekly, 18 March 1989, JSTOR 4394522 
  16. ^ Jayakanthan, D (2006). A Literary Man's Political Experiences. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-4067-3569-7. ISBN 1-4067-3569-8. 
  17. ^ Selvaraj Velayudham (2008). Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. Routledge. p. 73. 
  18. ^ The politics of Bioscope - Part 11, Thinnai.com (in Tamil)
  19. ^ The politics of Bioscope - Part 20, Thinnai.com (in Tamil)
  20. ^ "DETAILS OF TERMS OF SUCCESSIVE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLIES CONSTITUTED UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  21. ^ Madras (1968). Madras State administration report. 
  22. ^ 1967 Tamil Nadu Election Results, Election Commission of India accessed April 19, 2009
  23. ^ Karunakaran, Kotta P. (1975). Coalition governments in India: problems and prospects. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. p. 233. 
  24. ^ a b c "Voting Pattern in the Fourth General Election. I: D M K Success in Madras". Economic and Political Weekly (Economic and Political Weekly) 2 (24): 1083–88. 17 June 1967. JSTOR 4358065. 
  25. ^ Myron Weiner, Ergun Özbudun. Competitive elections in developing countries. American Enterprise Institute. p. 62. ISBN 0-8223-0685-9. 
  26. ^ Kandaswamy. P (2008). The political Career of K. Kamaraj. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 116–18. ISBN 81-7122-801-8. 
  27. ^ Election rewind (in Tamil)
  28. ^ "The meeting that made Periyar blush". The Hindu. 15 September 2009. 
  29. ^ Pushpa Iyengar, Sugata Srinivasaraju, "Where The Family Heirs Loom", Outlook India, retrieved 16 November 2009 
  30. ^ Gopal K. Bharghava, Shankarlal C. Bhatt. Land and people of Indian states and union territories. 25. Tamil Nadu. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 525. ISBN 81-7835-356-3. 
  31. ^ India, a reference annual. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. 1968. p. 447. 
  32. ^ India, a reference annual. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. 1967. p. 437. 
  33. ^ Ross Barnett, Marguerite (1975). Electoral politics in the Indian states: party systems and cleavages. Manohar Book Service. p. 86. 

External links[edit]