Tamil cinema

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"Kollywood" redirects here. For Kaliwood, see Cinema of Nepal.
Tamil cinema
Kamala theatre, Chennai.JPG
Kamala theatre in Chennai
Number of screens 1546 Single-screens in Tamil Nadu[1]
Main distributors Ayngaran International
Aascar Films
AVM Productions
Kalaipuli Films
Pyramid Saimira
Red Giant Films
Sun Pictures
Produced feature films (2012)[2]
Total 262
Gross Box Office (2013)[2]
National films India: INR1190 crore (US$200 million)

Tamil cinema, the film industry producing films in the Tamil language, is centered in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, particularly in the Chennai neighbourhood of Kodambakkam, which led to the industry being nicknamed as Kollywood, a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood.[3] Tamil films are also produced in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and Canada.

The first silent film in Tamil, Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1916.[4] The first talkie was a multi-lingual Kalidas which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara[5] By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939. Tamil cinema later had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Chennai as a secondary hub for Telugu cinema, Malayalam cinema, Kannada cinema, and Hindi cinema.[6][7] In its modern era, Tamil films from Chennai have been distributed to various overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Malaysia, Japan, Oceania, the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America.[8] The industry also inspired filmmaking in Tamil diaspora populations in other regions, such as in Europe and Canada.[9]

Film studios in Chennai are bound by legislation, such as the Cinematography Film Rules of 1948,[10] the Cinematography Act of 1952,[11] and the Copyright Act of 1957.[12] In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theatres may charge a maximum of INR50, while theatres with more than three screens may charge a maximum of INR120 per ticket.[13]

History[edit]

Early exhibitors[edit]

In 1897, a European exhibitor first screened a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall in Madras. The films all featured non-fictional subjects; they were mostly photographed records of day-to-day events. In Madras (present-day Chennai), the Electric Theatre was established for the screening of silent films. It was a favourite haunt of the British community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years. This building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai (Mount Road). The Lyric Theatre was also built in the Mount Road area. This venue boasted a variety of events, including plays in English, Western classical music concerts, and ballroom dances. Silent films were also screened as an additional attraction.[14] Swamikannu Vincent, an employee of the South Indian Railways in Trichy, purchased a film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor.[15] He erected tents for screening films. His tent cinema became popular and he travelled all over the state with his mobile unit.[16] In later years, he produced talkies and also built a cinema in Coimbatore.[17] To celebrate the event of King George V's visit in 1909, a grand exhibition was organised in Madras. Its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. A British company imported a Crone megaphone, made up of a film projector to which a gramophone with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked, and both were run in unison, producing picture and sound simultaneously. However, there was no synched dialogue. Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu, a successful photographer, took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court.[14] R. Venkiah, flush with funds, built in 1912 a permanent cinema in the Mount Road area named Gaiety Theatre. It was the first in Madras to screen films on a full-time basis. The theatre later closed for commercial developments.[18]

Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.[19]

Influences[edit]

A scene from the Tamil film Chandralekha (1948)

The main impacts of the early cinema were the cultural influences of the country. The Tamil language was the medium in which many plays and stories were written since the ages as early as the Cholas. They were highly stylised and nature of the spectacle was one which could attract the people. Along with this, music and dance were one of the main entertainment sources.[20]

The Bharata Natyam, a classical dance was the oldest performed dance form of India and so impacted the cultural heritage to a very great extent. Usually the kings sitting in the court were seen admiring dancers, and enjoying the music and dance along with the courtiers. Themes of this kind were commonly found in films. The theory of rasa dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama is believed to be one of the most fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema.[citation needed]

Along with the music and dance of ancient India, the novels and books written by many authors were used for making the films and sometimes, the entire story was adopted from the book alone and made into films. The ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of popular Indian cinema, particularly in its narratives. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story, back-story and story within a story. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots which were common in the early Tamil cinema.[20]

There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy tales and so on through song and dance. Whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day-to-day lives in complex ways.[21] By the end of the 1930s, the State of Madras legislature passed the Entertainment Tax Act 1939.

Studios[edit]

AVM studios in Chennai, the oldest surviving studio in India

The year 1916 marked the birth of Tamil cinema with the first Madras production and South Indian film release Keechaka Vaadham produced and directed by R. Nataraja, who established the India Film Company Limited.(The Destruction of Keechaka).[22] During the 1920s, silent Tamil language film were shot at makeshift locations in and around Chennai, and for technical processing, they were sent to Pune or Calcutta. Later, some films featuring M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar were shot in those cities as well.In 1935, A Ramaiah from Thanjavur established the first studio, Star Combines, in Kodambakkam. In the 1930s AVM set up its makeshift studioIndependent Tamil film production in places outside of India, including Sri Lanka, Singapore, Canada, and Europe, took prominence over the late-20th century. The history of filmmaking of Tamil language films in Canada dates back to the early 1990s. It is primarily based in the metropolitan region of the Greater Toronto Area in Southern Ontario.

Tamil films are also made in Sri Lanka where Tamil is one of the official languages since the ancient times. The film My Magic directed by Singaporean Eric Khoo became Singapore's first film to be nominated for the Palme d'Or at Cannes. Some of these films have involved one or more film personalities from the Chennai industry as well. in the town of Karaikudi, and during the same decade, full-fledged film studios were built in Salem (Modern Theatres Studio) and Coimbatore (Central Studios, Neptune, and Pakshiraja). By the mid-1940s, Chennai became the hub of studio activity with two more film studios built in Chennai, Vijaya Vauhini Studios and Gemini Studios. Later, AVM Studios shifted its operations to Chennai. Thus, with the undivided Madras Presidency being the Capital to most of South India, Chennai became the center for Tamil- and Telugu-language films. Also, most of the pre-independence era drama and stage actors joined the film industry from the 1940s, and Chennai became the hub for South Indian–language film production and the cinema of Sri Lanka before independence.

Distribution[edit]

The Chennai film industry produced the first nationally distributed film across India in 1948 with Chandralekha.[23] They have one of the widest overseas distribution, with large audience turnout from the Tamil diaspora alongside Hindi films. They are distributed to various parts of Asia, Africa, Western Europe, North America and Oceania.[24]

Keechaka Vadham (1918) was the first Silent film made in South India.[25] Kalidas (1931) was the first Tamil talkie film made in 1931.[26] Kalava was the first Full-length Talkie made entirely in Tamil.[27] Nandanar (1935) was the first film for American film director Ellis R. Dungan[28] Balayogini released in 1937 was considered to be first children's film of South India.[29] Marmayogi that starred M. G. Ramachandran was the first Tamil film to receive an "Adult" certificate from the film censor board.[30] It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai films.

Tamil films have enjoyed consistent popularity among populations in South East Asia. Since Chandralekha, Muthu was the second Tamil film to be dubbed into Japanese (as Mutu: Odoru Maharaja[31]) and grossed a record $1.6 million in 1998.[32] In 2010, Enthiran grossed a record $4 million in North America.

Many Tamil-language films have premiered or have been selected as special presentations at various film festivals across the globe, such as Mani Ratnam's Kannathil Muthamittal, Vasanthabalan's Veyyil and Ameer Sultan's Paruthiveeran. Kanchivaram (2009) was selected to be premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. Tamil films have been a part of films submitted by India for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language on eight occasions, next only to Hindi.[33] Mani Ratnam's Nayagan (1987) was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list.[34] In 1991, Marupakkam directed by K.S. Sethu Madhavan, became the first Tamil film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram in 2007. [35]

Tamil films enjoy significant patronage in neighbouring Indian states like Kerala, Karnataka especially Bangalore and Mysore due large Tamil speaking population and also Kannadigas do watch Tamil movies., Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra, Gujarat and New Delhi. In Kerala and Karnataka the films are directly released in Tamil but in Andhra Pradesh they are generally dubbed into Telugu where they have a decent market.[36] There have been instances where dubbed films from Tamil making more profits than Telugu films; dubbed Tamil films had a significant impact over the Telugu box office in 2005 and 2011.[36][37]

Many successful Tamil films have been remade by other film industries. It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai films. It is not uncommon to see movies that feature dialogue studded with English words and phrases, or even whole sentences. Some movies are also simultaneously made in two or three languages (either using subtitles or several soundtracks). Chennai's film composers have popularised their highly unique, syncretic style of film music across the world. Quite often, Tamil movies feature Madras Tamil, a colloquial version of Tamil spoken in Chennai.

Independent Tamil film production in places outside of India, including Sri Lanka, Singapore, Canada, and Europe, took prominence over the late-20th century. The history of filmmaking of Tamil language films in Canada dates back to the early 1990s. It is primarily based in the metropolitan region of the Greater Toronto Area in Southern Ontario. Tamil films are also made in Sri Lanka where Tamil is one of the official languages since the ancient times. The film My Magic directed by Singaporean Eric Khoo became Singapore's first film to be nominated for the Palme d'Or at Cannes. Some of these films have involved one or more film personalities from the Chennai industry as well.

Economics[edit]

Average annual film output in Tamil film industry peaked in 1985.The Tamil film market accounts for approximately 0.1% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the state of Tamil Nadu.[38] For the purpose of entertainment taxes, returns have to be filed by the exhibitors weekly (usually each Tuesday).[39] Costs of production have grown exponentially from just under INR 40 lakhs in 1980 to over INR 11 crores by 2005 for a typical star-studded big-budget film. Similarly, costs of processing per print have risen from just under INR 2,500 in 1980 to nearly INR 70,000 by 2005.[citation needed]

The Government of Tamil Nadu made provisions for an entertainment tax exemption for Tamil films having titles in words from the Tamil language only.[40] This is in accordance with Government Order 72 passed on 22 July 2006. The first film to be released after the new Order was Unakkum Enakkum. The original title had been Something Something Unakkum Ennakkum, a half-English and a half-Tamil title.[40] In July 2011, strict norms on entertainment tax were passed which stated that films which were given a 'U' certificate by the Central Board of Film Certification alone were eligible for tax exemption and those with an 'A' certificate could not fit into this category.[41]

There are 3 major roles in the Tamil film value chain viz producer, distributor and exhibitor.[42] The distributor purchases theatrical distribution rights from the producer for exhibiting the film in a defined territory. The distributor performs enhanced functions such as:

  1. part-financing of film (in case of minimum guarantee / advance based purchase of film rights)
  2. localised marketing of film
  3. selection of exhibition halls
  4. managing the logistics of physical print distribution

There are three popular approaches to transfer of distribution rights via distribution contracts:

  1. Minimum Guarantee + Royalty – Here, the producer sells the distribution rights for a defined territory for a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Any surplus is shared between the producer and distributor, in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:2) after deducting entertainment tax, show rentals, commission, print costs and publicity costs. Effectively, the distributor becomes a "financier" in the eyes of the market. This is the most common channel available to high budget producers.
  2. Commission – Here, the distributor pays the producer the entire box office collection after deducting commission. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the producer. This is the most common channel available to low budget producers.
  3. Outright Sale – Here, the producer sells all distribution and theatrical rights for a defined territory exclusively to a distributor. Effectively, the distributor becomes a "producer" in the eyes of the market. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor.

There are four popular approaches to transfer of exhibition rights via exhibition contracts:

  1. Theatre Hire – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor the entire box office collection after deducting entertainment tax and show rentals. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor. This is the most common channel for low-budget films, casting rank newcomers, with unproven track record.
  2. Fixed Hire – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor a maximum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Rental is not chargeable per show. Any surplus after deducting entertainment tax is retained by the exhibitor. Effectively, the exhibitor becomes a "producer" in the eyes of the market. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the exhibitor. This is the most common channel for high budget films, casting established front-runners, with proven track record.
  3. Minimum Guarantee + Royalty – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Any surplus after deducting entertainment tax and show rental is shared in a pre-set ratio (typically 2:1) between the exhibitor and distributor. But risk of deficit remains with the exhibitor. This is the most common channel preferred by single screens.
  4. Revenue Share – Here, the exhibitor shares with the distributor, in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:2), the entire box office collection of the film after deducting entertainment tax. Rental is not chargeable per show. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film is shared between the exhibitor and distributor. This is the most common channel preferred by multiplex screens.

Noted persons[edit]

Actors[edit]

Sivaji Ganesan (1928-2001)

Musicians[edit]

Union associations[edit]

The industry includes several groups who organise their own events based on different issues of major concern. Rather than forming separate and distinct groups, each association occasionally collaborate for certain events. These associations are based on profession in the industry, such as a directors' association or producers' association. The most notable association is the South Indian Film Artistes' Association which is a group of all prominent Tamil film actors. Formed in 1952 under the leadership of actor Sivaji Ganesan, the association governs film or media-related issues that may arise to its members. The association has also continued to conduct philanthropic activities, as well as public outcries for certain political and humanitarian issues. The current president of the association is the actor-turned-politician R. Sarath Kumar.[43]

Other associations include the Association of Tamil Film Directors which is headed by director P. Bharathiraja and the Tamil Film Producers' Council, headed by film director Rama Narayanan, who often meet to make financial decisions in the economy. A more broader association that incorporates all kinds of film personalities includes the well-known Film Employees Federation of South India (FEFSI). They often successfully pledge for the welfare of low-income film workers, such as lighting technicians and stunt coordinators.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "STATEWISE NUMBER OF SINGLE SCREENS". Film Federation of India. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "The Digital March Media & Entertainment in South India". Deloitte. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Hiro, Dilip (2010). After Empire: The Birth of a Multipolar World. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-56858-427-0. 
  4. ^ "Metro Plus Chennai / Madras Miscellany : The pioneer‘Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 7 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  5. ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj. Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. p. 2. 
  6. ^ "THE TAMIL NADU ENTERTAINMENTS TAX ACT, 1939". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  7. ^ Indian Cinema: The World’s Biggest And Most Diverse Film Industry (page 5) Written by Roy Stafford
  8. ^ "Eros buys Tamil film distributor". Business Standard. Retrieved 6 October 2011. [dead link]
  9. ^ "SYMPOSIUM: SRI LANKA'S CULTURAL EXPERIENCE". Chennai, India: Frontline. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  10. ^ "Cinematograph film rules, 1948". Government of India. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  11. ^ "Posters". Central Board of Film certification (CBFC). Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  12. ^ "INDIAN COPYRIGHT ACT, 1957". Government of India. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  13. ^ Ashok Kumar, S.R. (2 January 2007). "Cinema ticket rate revision reflects a balancing act". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Folklore, public sphere, and civil society. p. 116. 
  15. ^ "Pioneers in Indian Cinema - Swamikannu Vincent". Indiaheritage.org. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  16. ^ Rajmohan, Joshi. Encyclopaedia of Journalism and Mass Communication: Media and mass communication. p. 68. 
  17. ^ The Times of India http://o3.indiatimes.com/brahmanyan/archive/2007/09/21/4783241.aspx |url= missing title (help). 
  18. ^ "Cinema at Round Tana". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 June 2003. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  19. ^ "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  20. ^ a b "Abhinay Deo – "All stories can be found in Mahabharata and Ramayana" – Bollywood Movie News". IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  21. ^ "Indian Films vs Hollywood". Theviewspaper.net. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  22. ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). "'India' in Tamil silent era cinema". Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Routledge. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6. 
  23. ^ Singh, Sarina (2003). "Film Studios". India. Lonely Planet. p. 964. ISBN 978-1-74059-421-9. "Chennai's film industry now rivals that of Bollywood (Mumbai) for output" 
  24. ^ "Film industry isn’t high risk one: Kamal Haasan". The Business Line. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  25. ^ "Remembering a pioneer". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 9 May 2002. Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  26. ^ Gokulsing, K.; Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian popular cinema: a narrative of cultural change. Trentham Books. p. 24. ISBN 1-85856-329-1. 
  27. ^ "He drew inspiration from Shakespeare". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  28. ^ He transcended barriers with aplomb, The Hindu 1 February 2002
  29. ^ Blast From the Past – Balayogini 1937, The Hindu 10 April 2009
  30. ^ Blast from the Past – Marmayogi 1951, The Hindu 14 March 2004
  31. ^ "Mutu: Odoru Maharaja" (PDF). Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  32. ^ Gautaman Bhaskaran (6 January 2002). "Rajnikanth casts spell on Japanese viewers". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 May 2007. 
  33. ^ "India's Oscar failures (25 Images)". Movies.ndtv.com. Retrieved 12 May 2011. [dead link]
  34. ^ Nayakan, All-Time 100 Best Films, Time, 2005
  35. ^ Baskaran, Sundararaj Theodore (2013). The Eye Of The Serpent: An Introduction To Tamil Cinema. Westland. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-93-83260-74-4. 
  36. ^ a b Movie Buzz (14 July 2011). "Tamil films dominate Andhra market". Sify. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  37. ^ "A few hits and many flops". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 29 December 2006. 
  38. ^ "Superstars dominate". Hinduonnet.com. 28 December 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2011. [dead link]
  39. ^ tnsalestax.com http://www.tnsalestax.com/briefent.htm |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  40. ^ a b "Va: Cutting of the Quarter! Why? - Tamil Movie Articles - Va-Quarter Cutting | Kallarai Manithan". Behindwoods.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  41. ^ "Strict norms on entertainment tax - Tamil Movie News". Indiaglitz.com. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  42. ^ "Microsoft Word - Draft RHP PSTL 31.07.06.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  43. ^ "Film industry pays tributes". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 22 July 2006. 

Further reading[edit]