Tamil people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tamil people
தமிழர்கள்
Thamizharkal
Tiruvalluvar Statue Kanyakumari 140x190.jpg
Statue of Avvaiyar.jpg
The Saint Andal LACMA M.86.94.2.jpg
Kambar cropped.JPG
Raraja detail 140x190.jpg
Srinivasa Ramanujan - OPC - 1.jpg
Subramanya Bharathi.jpg
Sir CV Raman.JPG
Sivaji Ganesan cropped.jpg
Ms subbulakshmi 140x190.jpg
President of Singapore SR Nathan.jpg
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-08.jpg
MIA front face.jpg
அப்துல் கலாம்.JPG
AR Rahman 140x190.jpg
VishyAnand09.jpg
Navanethem Pillay crop.jpg
Photograph of Muttiah Muralitharan.jpg
Ilaiyaraaja BHung.jpg
IndraNooyiDavos2010ver2.jpg
Total population
77 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 India 60,793,814 (2001)[2]
 Sri Lanka around 6 millions (2013)[3]
 Malaysia 1,396,000 (2000)[4]
 Singapore

351,700 (2013)[5]

for others see Tamil diaspora
Religion
Predominantly: Minorities:
Related ethnic groups

Tamil people (Tamilதமிழர், thamizhar (singular) ?, or Tamilதமிழர்கள், tamiḻarkaḷ (plural) ?), also known as Tamilans or simply Tamils, are an Dravidians ethnic group who speaks Tamil as mother tongue.[8] Tamil people with a population of about 77 million living around the world are found to be one of the largest and oldest of the existing ethno-linguistic cultural groups of people in the modern world to exist without a nation of their own.[9] [10] Tamils comprise 15.36% of the population in Sri Lanka, 5.91% in India, 5.83% in Mauritius, 5% of the population in Singapore and 5.7% of the population in Malaysia.

Thousands of years ago, urbanisation and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coast of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil political states Chera dynasty, Chola dynasty, Pandyan Dynasty and Pallava dynasty and a number of smaller states warring amongst themselves for dominance. Between the 3rd century BC and the 3rd century AD, Tamil people also produced native literature that came to be called Sangam literature.

Tamils were noted for their martial, religious and mercantile activities beyond their native borders. Pandyas and Cholas were historically active in Sri Lanka. Pallava traders and religious leaders travelled to South East Asia and played an important role in the cultural Indianisation of the region. Locally developed scripts such as Grantha and Pallava script induced the development of many native scripts such as Khmer, Javanese Kawi script, Baybayin, and Thai.

Tamil visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres and the productions of images of deities in stone and bronze. Chola bronzes, especially the Nataraja sculpture of the Chola period, have become notable as a symbol of Hinduism. Tamil performing arts are divided into popular and classical. Classical form is Bharatanatyam whereas the popular forms are known as Kuthus and performed in village temples and on street corners. Tamil cinema known as Kollywood is an important part of the Indian cinema industry. Music too is divided into classical Carnatic form and many popular genres. Although most Tamils are Hindus, most practice what is considered to be folk Hinduism, venerating a plethora of village deities. A sizeable number are Christians and Muslims. A small Jain community survives from the classical period as well. Tamil cuisine is informed by varied vegetarian and non-vegetarian items usually spiced with locally available spices. The music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people as in their ancient nation are still being learnt and practised. English historian and broadcaster Michael Wood called the Tamils the last surviving classical civilisation on Earth, because the Tamil mainstream preserved substantial elements of their past regarding belief, culture, music and literature despite of the modern globalised world.[11][12]

Etymology[edit]

It is unknown as to whether the term Thamizhar and its equivalents in Prakrit such as Damela, Dameda, Dhamila and Damila was a self designation or a term denoted by outsiders. Epigraphic evidence of an ethnic group termed as such is found in ancient Sri Lanka where a number of inscriptions have come to light datable from the 6th to the 5th century BC mentioning Damela or Dameda persons. In the well-known Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela, refers to a Tramira samghata (Confederacy of Tamil rulers) dated to 150 BC. It also mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence 113 years before then.[13] In Amaravati in present day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya (Tamil trader) datable to the 3rd century AD.[13] Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. A third inscription in Kanheri Caves refers to a Dhamila-gharini (Tamil house-holder). In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention to Damila-rattha (Tamil dynasty). There were trade relationship between the Roman Empire and Pandyan Empire. As recorded by Strabo, Emperor Augustus of Rome received at Antioch an ambassador from a king called Pandyan of Dramira.[14] Hence, it is clear that by at least the 300 BC, the ethnic identity of Tamils has been formed as a distinct group.[13] Thamizhar is etymologically related to Tamil, the language spoken by Tamil people. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz 'self-speak', or 'one's own speech'.[15] Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", and "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process (of speaking)."[16] Another theory say the term Thamizhar was derived from the name of the ancient people Dravida > Dramila > Damila > Tamila > Tamilar[17]

History[edit]

Tamils in India[edit]

Pre-historic period[edit]

Possible evidence indicating the earliest presence of Tamil people in modern day Tamil Nadu are the megalithic urn burials, dating from around 1500 BC and onwards, which have been discovered at various locations in Tamil Nadu, notably in Adichanallur in Tirunelveli District[18][19][20] which conform to the descriptions of funerals in classical Tamil literature.[21]

Various legends became prevalent after the 10th century AD regarding the antiquity of the Tamil people. According to Iraiyanar Agapporul, a 10th/11th century annotation on the Sangam literature, the Tamil country extended southwards beyond the natural boundaries of the Indian peninsula comprising 49 ancient nadus (divisions). The land was supposed to have been destroyed by a deluge. The Sangam legends also added to the antiquity of the Tamil people by claiming tens of thousands of years of continuous literary activity during three Sangams.[22]

Classical period[edit]

Grey pottery with engravings, Arikamedu, 1st century AD.

From around the 3rd century BC onwards, three local royal dynasties—the Chola dynasty, the Chera dynasty and the Pandyan Dynasty—rose to dominate the ancient Tamil country.[20] Each of these dynasties had its own realm within the Tamil-speaking region. Classical literature and inscriptions also describe a number of Velirs, or minor chieftains, who collectively ruled over large parts of central Tamil Nadu.[23] Wars between the kings and the chieftains were frequent, as were conflicts with ancient Sri Lanka.[24][25] These wars appear to have been fought to assert hegemony and demand tribute, rather than to subjugate and annexe those territories. The kings and chieftains were patrons of the arts, and a significant volume of literature exists from this period.[23] The literature shows that many of the cultural practices that are considered peculiarly Tamil date back to the classical period.[23]

Agriculture was important during this period, and there is evidence that networks of irrigation channels were built as early as 2nd century AD.[26] Internal and external trade flourished, and evidence of significant contact with Ancient Rome exists.[27] Large quantities of Roman coins and signs of the presence of Roman traders have been discovered at Karur and Arikamedu.[27] There is evidence that at least two embassies were sent to the Roman Emperor Augustus by Pandya kings.[28] Potsherds with Tamil writing have also been found in excavations on the Red Sea, suggesting the presence of Tamil merchants there.[29] An anonymous 1st century traveller's account written in Greek, Periplus Maris Erytraei, describes the ports of the Pandya and Chera kingdoms in Damirica and their commercial activity in great detail. Periplus also indicates that the chief exports of the ancient Tamils were pepper, malabathrum, pearls, ivory, silk, spikenard, diamonds, sapphires, and tortoiseshell.[30]

The classical period ended around the 4th century AD with invasions by the Kalabhra, referred to as the kalappirar in Tamil literature and inscriptions.[31] These invaders are described as evil kings and barbarians coming from lands to the north of the Tamil country.[32] This period, commonly referred to as the Dark Age of the Tamil country, ended with the rise of the Pallava dynasty.[31][33][34] According to Clarence Maloney, during the classical period Tamils also settled the Maldive Islands.[6]

Economy & Trade[edit]

Imperial and post-imperial periods[edit]

The Varaha cave bas relief at Mahabalipuram built by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman II in 7th century AD

Although the Pallava records can be traced from the 2nd century AD, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the 6th century.[35] They transformed the institution of the kingship into an imperial one, and sought to bring vast amounts of territory under their direct rule. The Pallavas were followers of Hinduism, though for a short while one of their kings embraced Jainism and later converted to Hinduism.[36] The Bhakti movement in Hinduism was founded at this time, and rose along with the growing influence of Jainism and Buddhism.[37] The Pallavas pioneered the building of large, ornate temples in stone which formed the basis of the Dravidian temple architecture. They came into conflict with the Kannada Chalukyas of Badami. During this period, The great Badami Chalukya King Pulakesi II extended the Chalukya Empire up to the northern extents of the Pallava kingdom and defeated the Pallavas in several battles.[38] Pallava Narasimhavarman however reversed this victory in 642 by attacking and occupying Badami temporarily.[39] However a later Chalukya King Vikramaditya II took revenge by repeated invasions of the territory of Tondaimandalam and his subsequent victories over Pallava Nandivarman II and the annexation of Kanchipuram.[40] The Pallava dynasty was overthrown in the 9th century by the imperial Kannada Rashtrakutas who ruled from Gulbarga. King Krishna III, the last great Rashtrakuta king consolidated the empire so that it stretched from the Narmada River to Kaveri River and included the northern Tamil country (Tondaimandalam) while levying tribute on the king of Ceylon.[41]

The Tamil Chola Empire at its height, 1030AD

Under Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas became dominant in the 10th century and established an empire covering most of South India and Sri Lanka.[35] The empire had strong trading links with Chinese Song Dynasty and Southeast Asia.[42][43] The Cholas defeated the Eastern Chalukya and expanded their empire to the Ganges. They conquered the coastal areas around the Bay of Bengal and turned it to Chola lake. Rajendra Chola improved his father's fleet and created the first notable marine of the Indian subcontinent. The Chola navy conquered the Sri Vijaya Empire of Indonesia and the Malaysia and secured the sea trade route to China.[35] Cholas exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer Kingdom of Cambodia.[44] The power of the Cholas declined around the 13th century and the Pandyan Empire enjoyed a brief period of resurgence thereafter during the rule of Sundara Pandya.[35] The Pandyan Dynasty reached its peak in the 13th century during the reign of Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan I and Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I. The Pandyan Empire was threatened by the constant Islamic invasions of South India. In the early 14th Century, Madurai, the capital of Pandyans was conquered by Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan and an independent Madurai Sultanate was established. The short-lived Madurai Sultanate was captured in 1378 by the Vijayanagara Empire. During the 15th and 16th century the Vijayanagara Empire became the dominant power of South India. After the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1646, Tamil Nadu was dominated by small states like the Madurai Nayaks.

The western Tamil lands became increasingly politically distinct from the rest of the Tamil lands after the Chola and Pandya empires lost control over them in the 13th century.[45] They developed their own distinct language and literature, which increasingly grew apart from Tamil, evolving into the modern Malayalam language by the 15th century.[46]

Tamils in Sri Lanka[edit]

Main article: Sri Lankan Tamils
Megalithic burial urns or jar found in Pomparippu, North Western, Sri Lanka dated to at least five to two centuries before Common Era. These are similar to Megalithic burial jars found in South India and the Deccan during similar time frame.[47]

There is little scholarly consensus over the presence of the Tamil people in Sri Lanka, prior to the medieval Chola period (c. 10th century AD). One theory states that there was not an organised Tamil presence in Sri Lanka until the invasions from what is now South India in the 10th century AD; another theory contends that Tamil people were the original inhabitants of the island.[48][49] Yet according to another theory cultural diffusion, rather than migration of people, spread the Tamil language from peninsular India into an existing Mesolithic population, centuries before the Christian era.[50]

However according to Tamil tradition in Sri Lanka, they believe that they are lineal descendants of the aboriginal Naga and Yaksha people of Sri Lanka. The "Nakar" used the cobra totem known as "Nakam" in the Tamil language, which is still part of the Hindu Tamil tradition in Sri Lanka today as a subordinate deity.[51]

Pre-historic period[edit]

The indigenous Veddhas of Sri Lanka are ethnically related to tribal people of South India.[52] Settlements of people culturally similar to those of present-day Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu in modern India were excavated at megalithic burial sites at Pomparippu on the west coast and in Kathiraveli on the east coast of the island, villages established between the 5th century BC and 2nd century AD.[53][54] Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archeologists to 10th century BC. However, Indian history and archaeology have pushed the date back to 15th century BC, and in Sri Lanka, there is radiometric evidence from Anuradhapura that the non-Brahmi symbol-bearing black and red ware occur at least around 9th or 10th century BC.[55]

Historic period[edit]

South Indian type Black and Red ware potsherds found in Sri Lanka and dated 1st to 2nd century AD. Displayed at the National Museum of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Potsherds with early Tamil writing from the 2nd century BC have been found in excavations in north of the island in Poonagari, bearing several inscriptions including a clan name – vela, a name related to velir from ancient Tamil country.[56] Tamil Brahmi inscribed potsherds have also been excavated in the south of the island in Tissamaharama. There is epigraphic evidence of people identifying themselves as Damelas or Damedas (the Prakrit word for Tamil people) in Anuradhapura, the capital city of Rajarata, and other areas of Sri Lanka as early as the 2nd century BC.[57] Historical records establish that Tamil kingdoms in modern India were closely involved in the island's affairs from about the 2nd century BC.[24][25] In Mahavamsa, a historical poem, ethnic Tamil adventurers such as Elara invaded the island around 145 BC.[58] Tamil soldiers from what is now South India were brought to Anuradhapura between the 7th and 11th centuries AD in such large numbers that local chiefs and kings trying to establish legitimacy came to rely on them.[59] By the 8th century AD there were Tamil villages collectively known as Demel-kaballa (Tamil allotment), Demelat-valademin (Tamil villages), and Demel-gam-bim (Tamil villages and lands).[60]

Medieval period[edit]

In the 9th and 10th centuries AD, Pandya and Chola incursions into Sri Lanka culminated in the Chola annexation of the island, which lasted until the latter half of the 11th century AD.[59][61][62][63]

During the rule of the great Chalukya King Vikramaditya VI, in the late eleventh to early twelfth century, the Western Chalukyas convincingly defeated the Cholas on several occasions, weakening their empire.[64][65] The eventual decline of Chola power in South India in the 12th century was also due to the rise of Hoysala power in the region.[66][67][68] The Hoysalas extended their foothold in Tamil Nadu around 1225, making the city of Kannanur Kuppam near Srirangam a provincial capital that give them control over South Indian politics and began a period of Hoysala hegemony in the southern Deccan.[69][70] Hoysala Vira Narasimha II's son Vira Someshwara earned the honorific "uncle" (Mamadi) from the Pandyas and Cholas. The Hoysala influence spread over Pandya kingdom from who they gained tribute.[71] The Chola decline in Sri Lanka was followed by the restoration of the Polonnaruwa monarchy in the late 11th century AD.[72] In 1215, following Pandya invasions, the Tamil-dominant Arya Chakaravarthi dynasty established an independent Jaffna kingdom[73] on the Jaffna peninsula and parts of northern Sri Lanka. The Arya Chakaravarthi expansion into the south was halted by Alagakkonara,[74] a man descended from a family of merchants from Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. He was the chief minister of the Sinhalese king Parakramabahu V (AD 1344–59). Vira Alakeshwara, a descendant of Alagakkonara, later became king of the Sinhalese,[75] but he was overthrown by the Ming admiral Cheng Ho in 1409. The Arya Chakaravarthi dynasty ruled over large parts of northeast Sri Lanka until the Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom in 1619. The coastal areas of the island were taken over by the Dutch and then became part of the British Empire in 1796. The English sailor Robert Knox described walking into the island's Tamil country in the publication An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, annotating some kingdoms within it on a map in 1681.[76] Upon arrival of European powers from the 17th century, the Tamils' separate nation was described in their areas of habitation in the northeast of the island.[77]

The caste structure of the majority Sinhalese has also accommodated Hindu immigrants from South India since the 13th century AD. This led to the emergence of three new Sinhalese caste groups: the Salagama, the Durava and the Karava.[78][79][80] The Hindu migration and assimilation continued until the 18th century.[78]

Modern period[edit]

British colonists consolidated the Tamil territory in southern India into the Madras Presidency, which was integrated into British India. Similarly, the Tamil speaking parts of Sri Lanka joined with the other regions of the island in 1802 to form the Ceylon colony. They remained in political union with India and Sri Lanka after their independence, in 1947 and 1948 respectively.

When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became the Madras State, comprising present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh, northern Kerala, and the southwest coast of Karnataka. The state was subsequently split along linguistic lines. In 1953, the northern districts formed Andhra Pradesh. Under the States Reorganization Act in 1956, Madras State lost its western coastal districts. The Bellary and South Kanara districts were ceded to Mysore state, and Kerala was formed from the Malabar district and the former princely states of Travancore and Cochin. In 1968, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu.

There was some initial demand for an independent Tamil state following the adoption of the federal system.[81] In Sri Lanka, however, the unitary arrangement led to legislative discrimination of Tamils by the Sinhalese majority. This resulted in a demand for federalism, which in the 1970s grew into a movement for an autonomous Tamil country. The situation deteriorated into civil war in the early 1980s. A ceasefire in effect since 2002 broke down in August 2006 amid shelling and bombing from both sides; in 2009 the Tamil Tigers were defeated amid accusations of war crimes committed against the Tamil populace by the Sri Lankan state. Today Tamils make up 18% of Sri Lanka's population (3.8 Million).[82]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Indian Tamils[edit]

Most Tamils in India live in the state of Tamil Nadu. Tamils are the majority in the union territory of Puducherry, a former French colony. Puducherry is a subnational enclave situated within Tamil Nadu. Tamils account for at least one-sixth of the population in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

There are significant Tamil communities in other parts of India. Most of these have emerged fairly recently, dating to the colonial and post-colonial periods, but some—particularly the Hebbar and Mandyam Tamils of southern Karnataka (2.9 million), Pune, Maharashtra (1.4 million), Andhra Pradesh (1.2 million), Palakkad and Trivandrum in Kerala (0.6 million), and Delhi (0.1 million) — date back to at least the medieval period.[83]

Sri Lankan Tamils[edit]

Distribution of Tamil speakers in South India and Sri Lanka (1961).

There are two groups of Tamils in Sri Lanka: the Sri Lankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils. The Sri Lankan Tamils (or Ceylon Tamils) are descendants of the Tamils of the old Jaffna Kingdom and east coast chieftaincies called Vannimais. The Indian Tamils (or Hill Country Tamils) are descendants of bonded labourers sent from Tamil Nadu to Sri Lanka in the 19th century to work on tea plantations.[84] Furthermore, there is a significant Tamil-speaking Muslim population in Sri Lanka; however, unlike Tamil Muslims from India, they are not ethnic Tamils and are therefore listed as a separate ethnic group in official statistics.[85][86]

Most Sri Lankan Tamils live in the Northern and Eastern provinces and in the capital Colombo, whereas most Indian Tamils live in the central highlands.[86] Historically both groups have seen themselves as separate communities, although there is a greater sense of unity since the 1980s.[87]

Under the terms of an agreement reached between the Sri Lankan and Indian governments in the 1960s, about 40 percent of the Indian Tamils were granted Sri Lankan citizenship, and many of the remainder were repatriated to India.[88] By the 1990s, most Indian Tamils had received Sri Lankan citizenship.[88]

Tamil diaspora[edit]

Kavadi dancers in Hamm, Germany in 2007

Significant Tamil emigration began in the 18th century, when the British colonial government sent many poor Tamils as indentured labourers to far-off parts of the Empire, especially Malaya, South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius and the Caribbean. At about the same time, many Tamil businessmen also migrated to other parts of the British Empire, particularly to Burma and East Africa.[89]

Batu Caves temple built by Tamil Malaysians in circa 1880s

Many Tamils still live in these countries, and the Tamil communities in Singapore, Reunion Island, Malaysia and South Africa have retained much of their original culture and language. Many Malaysian children attend Tamil schools, and a significant portion of Tamil children are brought up with Tamil as their first language. In Singapore, Mauritius and Reunion, Tamil students learn Tamil as their second language in school, with English as the first. In Singapore, to preserve the Tamil language, the government has made it an official language despite Tamils comprising only about 5% of the population, and has also introduced compulsory instruction of the language for Tamils. Other Tamil communities, such as those in South Africa and Fiji, no longer speak Tamil as a first language, but still retain a strong Tamil identity, and are able to understand the language, while most elders speak it as a first language.[90]

A large emigration also began in the 1980s, as Sri Lankan Tamils sought to escape the ethnic conflict there. These recent emigrants have most often fled to Australia, Europe, North America and Southeast Asia.[91] Today, the largest concentration of Tamils outside southern Asia is in Toronto, Canada.[92]

Culture[edit]

Language and literature[edit]

An idol in Madurai representing the Tamil language as a goddess; The caption on the pedestal reads Tamil Annai ("Mother Tamil").

Tamils have strong attachment to the Tamil language, which is often venerated in literature as "Tamil̲an̲n̲ai", "the Tamil mother".[93] It has historically been, and to large extent still is, central to the Tamil identity.[94] Like the other languages of South India, it is a Dravidian language, unrelated to the Indo-European languages of northern India. The language has been far less influenced by Sanskrit than the other Dravidian languages, and preserves many features of Proto-Dravidian, though modern-day spoken Tamil in Tamil Nadu, freely uses loanwords from Sanskrit and English.[95] Tamil literature is of considerable antiquity, and is recognised as a classical language by the government of India. Classical Tamil literature, which ranges from lyric poetry to works on poetics and ethical philosophy, is remarkably different from contemporary and later literature in other Indian languages, and represents the oldest body of secular literature in South Asia.[96]

Religion[edit]

Grave of Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed in Erwadi who first brought Islam to Tamil Nadu.
The Om symbol in Tamil script.
Velankanni Our Lady of Good Health Church, a Marian church.
Tamil Jain Temple Karandai Digambar

About 88%[97] of the population of Tamil Nadu are Hindus. Christians and Muslims account for 6% and 5.5% respectively.[97] The majority of Muslims in Tamil Nadu speak Tamil,[98] with less than 15% of them reporting Urdu as their mother tongue.[99] Tamil Jains number only a few thousand now.[100] Atheist, rationalist, and humanist philosophies are also adhered by sizeable minorities, as a result of Tamil cultural revivalism in the 20th century, and its antipathy to what it saw as Brahminical Hinduism.[101]

The most popular deity is Murugan, also known as Karthikeya, the son of Siva.[102] The worship of Amman, also called Mariamman, is thought to have been derived from an ancient mother goddess, is also very common.[103] Kan̲n̲agi, the heroine of the Cilappatikār̲am, is worshipped as Pattin̲i by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka.[104] There are also many followers of Ayyavazhi in Tamil Nadu, mainly in the southern districts.[105] In addition, there are many temples and devotees of Vishnu, Siva, Ganapathi, and the other Hindu deities. Muslims across Tamil Nadu follow Hanafi and Shafi'i schools. Most Tamil Muslims are Shadhilis. Erwadi in Ramanathapuram district and Nagore in Nagapattinam district[106] are the major pilgrimage centres for Muslims in Tamil Nadu.

The most important Tamil festivals are Pongal, a harvest festival that occurs in mid-January, and Varudapirappu, the Tamil New Year, which occurs on 14 April. Both are celebrated by almost all Tamils, regardless of religion. The Hindu festival Deepavali is celebrated with fanfare; other local Hindu festivals include Thaipusam, Panguni Uttiram, and Adiperukku. While Adiperukku is celebrated with more pomp in the Cauvery region than in others, the Ayyavazhi Festival, Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, is predominantly celebrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari District, Tirunelveli, and Thoothukudi.[107]

In rural Tamil Nadu, many local deities, called aiyyan̲ārs, are thought to be the spirits of local heroes who protect the village from harm.[108] Their worship often centres around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition.[109]

The Saivist sect of Hinduism is significantly represented amongst Tamils, more so among Sri Lankan Tamils, although most of the Saivist places of religious significance are in northern India. The Alvars and Nayanars, who were predominantly Tamils, played a key role in the renaissance of Bhakti tradition in India. In the 10th century, the philosopher Ramanuja, who propagated the theory of Visishtadvaitam, brought many changes to worshiping practices, creating new regulations on temple worship, and accepted lower-caste Hindus as his prime disciples.[110]

Tamil Jains constitute around 0.13% of the population of Tamil Nadu.[97] Many of the rich Tamil literature works were written by Jains.[111] According to George L. Hart, the legend of the Tamil Sangams or "literary assemblies: was based on the Jain sangham at Madurai.[112]

Visual art and architecture[edit]

Dancing Siva or Nataraja is a typical example of Chola bronze
The Brihadeshswara Temple at Thanjavur, also known as the Great Temple, built by Rajaraja Chola I

.

Most traditional art are religious in some form and usually centres on Hinduism, although the religious element is often only a means to represent universal—and, occasionally, humanist—themes.[113]

The most important form of Tamil painting is Tanjore painting, which originated in Thanjavur in the 9th century. The painting's base is made of cloth and coated with zinc oxide, over which the image is painted using dyes; it is then decorated with semi-precious stones, as well as silver or gold thread.[114] A style which is related in origin, but which exhibits significant differences in execution, is used for painting murals on temple walls; the most notable example are the murals on the Kutal Azhakar and Meenakshi temples of Madurai, the Brihadeeswarar temple of Tanjore.[115]

Tamil sculpture ranges from elegant stone sculptures in temples, to bronze icons with exquisite details.[116] The medieval Chola bronzes are considered to be one of India's greatest contributions to the world art.[117][118] Unlike most Western art, the material in Tamil sculpture does not influence the form taken by the sculpture; instead, the artist imposes his/her vision of the form on the material.[119] As a result, one often sees in stone sculptures flowing forms that are usually reserved for metal.[120]

Music[edit]

Folk artists performing at a funeral

Ancient Tamil works, such as the Cilappatikaram, describe a system of music,[121] and a 7th-century Pallava inscription at Kudimiyamalai contains one of the earliest surviving examples of Indian music in notation.[122] Contemporary dance forms such as Bharatanatyam have recent origins but are based older temple dance forms known as Catir Kacceri as practised by courtesans and a class of women known as Devadasis[123]

Performing arts[edit]

Young Bharatanatyam dancer

Famous Tamil dance styles are

Contemporary dance forms such as Bharatanatyam have recent origins but are based older temple dance forms known as Catir Kacceri as practised by courtesans and a class of women known as Devadasis[123] One of the Tamil folk dances is karakattam. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamma.[124] The kuravanci is a type of dance-drama, performed by four to eight women. The drama is opened by a woman playing the part of a female soothsayer of the kurava tribe(people of hills and mountains), who tells the story of a lady pining for her lover. The therukoothu, literally meaning "street play", is a form of village theater or folk opera. It is traditionally performed in village squares, with no sets and very simple props.[125] The performances involve songs and dances, and the stories can be either religious or secular.[126] The performances are not formal, and performers often interact with the audience, mocking them, or involving them in the dialogue. Therukkūthu has, in recent times, been very successfully adapted to convey social messages, such as abstinence and anti-caste criticism, as well as information about legal rights, and has spread to other parts of India.[127] Tamil Nadu also has a well developed stage theatre tradition, which has been influenced by western theatre. A number of theatrical companies exist, with repertoires including absurdist, realist, and humorous plays.[128]

Film and theater arts[edit]

Main article: Tamil cinema

The theatrical culture that flourished Tamil culture during the classical age. Tamil theatre has a long and varied history whose origins can be traced back almost two millennia to dance-theatre forms like Kotukotti and Pandarangam, which are mentioned in an ancient anthology of poems entitled the Kalingathu Parani.[129] The modern Tamil film industry originated during the 20th century. Tamil film industry has its headquarters in Chennai and is known under the name Kollywood, it is the second largest film industry in India after Bollywood.[130] Films from Kollywood entertain audiences not only in India but also overseas Tamil diaspora. Tamil films from Chennai have been distributed to various overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Malaysia, Japan, Oceania, the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America.[131] Inspired by Kollywood originated outside India Independent Tamil film production in Sri Lanka, Singapore, Canada, and western Europe. Several Tamil actresses such as Anuisa Ranjan Vyjayanthimala, Hema Malini, Rekha Ganesan, Sridevi, Meenakshi Sheshadri, and Vidya Balan have acted in Bollywood and dominated the cinema over the years. Some Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu like MG Ramachandran, Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa have their background in Tamil film industry.

Martial Art Traditions[edit]

Various martial arts including Kuttu Varisai, Varma Kalai, Silambam, Adithada, Malyutham and Kalarippayattu, are practised in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.[132] The warm-up phase includes yoga, meditation and breathing exercises. Silambam originated in ancient Tamilakam and was patronized by the Pandyans, Cholas and Cheras, who ruled over this region. Silapathiharam a Tamil literature from 2nd century AD, refers to the sale of Silamabam instructions, weapons and equipment to foreign traders.[133] Since the early Sangam age, there was a warlike culture in South India. War was regarded as a honorable sacrifice and fallen heroes and kings were worshiped in the form of a Hero stone. Each warrior was trained in martial arts, horse riding and specialized in two of the weapons of that period Vel (spear) Val (sword) and Vil (bow).[134] The Tamil kings and warriors followed a code of honor and committed suicide to save the honor, like the seppuku from Japan. The forms of martial suicide were known as Avipalli, Thannai, Verttal, Marakkanchi and Vatakkiruttal. Avipalli was mentioned in all the works except Veera Soliyam. It was a self-sacrifice of a warrior to the goddess of war for the victory of his commander.[135]

Weapons[edit]

The Tamil martial arts also includes various types of weapons.

Jallikattu[edit]

Jallikattu is a traditional bull-taming sport played in Tamil Nadu

In Ancient times, Two bullfighting sports were conducted. 1.Manjuvirattu and 2. Yeruthazhuval. These sports were organised to keep the people's temperament always fit and ready for the war at anytime. Each has its own techniques and rules. These sports acted as one of the criteria to marry girls of warrior family. There were traditions where the winner would be chosen as bridegroom for their daughter or sister.

Mr. Gandhirajan, who is a post-graduate in Art History from Madurai-Kamaraj University, said the ancient Tamil tradition was “manju virattu” (chasing bulls) or “eruthu kattuthal” (lassoing bulls) and it was never “jallikattu,” that is baiting a bull or controlling it as the custom obtained today. In ancient Tamil country, during the harvest festival, decorated bulls would be let loose on the “peru vazhi” (highway) and the village youth would take pride in chasing them and outrunning them. Women, elders and children would watch the fun from the sidelines of the “peru vazhi” or streets. Nobody was injured in this. Or the village youth would take delight in lassoing the sprinting bulls with “vadam” (rope).

It was about 500 years ago, after the advent of the Nayak rule in Tamil Nadu with its Telugu rulers and chieftains, that this harmless bull-chasing sport metamorphosed into “jallikattu,” said Mr. Gandhirajan. [136]

The ancient Tamil art of unarmed bullfighting, popular amongst warriors in the classical period,[137][138] has also survived in parts of Tamil Nadu, notably Alanganallur near Madurai, where it is known as Jallikaṭṭu and is held once a year around the time of the Pongal festival.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Top 30 Languages by Number of Native Speakers: sourced from Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. (2005)", Vistawide – World Languages & Cultures, retrieved 3 April 2007 
  2. ^ "Census of India". Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  3. ^ "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  4. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code tam". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  5. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code tam". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  6. ^ a b Maloney, Clarence, Maldives People, retrieved 22 June 2008 
  7. ^ Kshatriya, G.K. (1995), "Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations", Human Biology 67 (6): 843–66, PMID 8543296 
  8. ^ Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. 
  9. ^ Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. p. 1835-1850. 
  10. ^ N. Subrahmanian (29 August 2008). The Tamils: Their History, Culture, and Civilization 36. Institute of Asian studies. pp. 150–158. 
  11. ^ "Michael Wood, BBC". Bbc.co.uk. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  12. ^ Wood, Michael. A South Indian Journey: The Smile of Murugan. Penguin UK. 
  13. ^ a b c Indrapala, K The Evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka, p.155-156
  14. ^ The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia By Edward Balfour
  15. ^ Southworth, Franklin C. (1998), "On the Origin of the word tamiz", International Journal of Dravidial Linguistics 27 (1): 129–132 
  16. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil V. (1992), Companion Studies to the history of Tamil literature, Leiden: E.J. Brill  at pp. x–xvi.
  17. ^ Gustav Salomon Oppert, On the Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsa Or India: The Dravidians, p 41
  18. ^ John, Vino (27 January 2006), Reading the past in a more inclusive way: Interview with Dr. Sudharshan Seneviratne, Frontline, retrieved 9 July 2008, "But Indian/south Indian history/archaeology has pushed the date back to 1500 B.C., and in Sri Lanka, there are definitely good radiometric dates coming from Anuradhapura that the non-Brahmi symbol-bearing black and red ware occur at least around 900 B.C. or 1000 B.C." 
  19. ^ K. De B. Codrington (October 1930), "Indian Cairn- and Urn-Burials", Man (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 30 (30): 190–196, doi:10.2307/2790468, JSTOR 2790468, "...at Perambair & Pallavaram a second type of burial exists in legged urns..." 
  20. ^ a b Comparative excavations carried out in Adichanallur in Thirunelveli district and in Northern India have provided evidence of a southward migration of the Megalithic culture – K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, pp49–51
  21. ^ K. De B. Codrington (October 1930), "Indian Cairn- and Urn-Burials", Man 30 (30): 194, JSTOR 2790468, "It is necessary to draw attention to certain passages in early Tamil literature which throw a great deal of light upon this strange burial ceremonial..." 
  22. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, A history of South India, p 105
  23. ^ a b c K. Sivathamby (December 1974), "Early South Indian Society and Economy: The Tinai Concept", Social Scientist (Social Scientist) 3 (5): 20–37, doi:10.2307/3516448, JSTOR 3516448, "Those who ruled over small territories were called Kurunilamannar. The area ruled by such a small ruler usually corresponded to a geographical unit. In Purananuru a number of such chieftains are mentioned;.." 
  24. ^ a b de Silva 1997, pp. 30–32
  25. ^ a b Mendis, G.C.Ceylon Today and Yesterday, pp. 24–25
  26. ^ "Grand Anaicut", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 3 May 2006 
  27. ^ a b M. G. S. Narayanan (September 1988), "The Role of Peasants in the Early History of Tamilakam in South India", Social Scientist (Social Scientist) 16 (9): 17–34, doi:10.2307/3517170, JSTOR 3517170 
  28. ^ "Pandya Dynasty", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 3 May 2007 
  29. ^ "Archaeologists Uncover Ancient Maritime Spice Route Between India, Egypt", Veluppillai, Prof. A., (dickran.net), retrieved 15 November 2006 
  30. ^ The term Periplus refers to the region of the eastern seaboard of South India as Damirica"The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century", Ancient History source book 
  31. ^ a b The Indian Geographical Journal, Indian Geographical Society, 1941, p. 69, "These Kalabhras were thrown out by the powerful Pallava dynasty in the fourth century AD ... this period is aptly known as "Dark Ages" of Tamil Nadu. ..." 
  32. ^ 'Kalabhraas were denounced as 'evil kings' (kaliararar) – K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, pp 130
  33. ^ K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India
  34. ^ Marilyn Hirsh (1987), "Mahendravarman I Pallava: Artist and Patron of Mamallapuram", Artibus Asiae 48 (1/2): 122, doi:10.2307/3249854, retrieved 3 May 2007 
  35. ^ a b c d Smith, Vincent Arthur (1904), The Early History of India, The Clarendon press, pp. 336–358, ISBN 81-7156-618-9 
  36. ^ (Source- K.A.Nilakanta Sastri's "History of South India")
  37. ^ Chandra, Satish (1997), Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206–1526) – I, Har-Anand Publications, p. 250, ISBN 81-241-1064-6, "...Starting from the Tamil lands under the Pallava kings, bhakti spread to different parts of south India..." 
  38. ^ Chopra, Ravindran and Subramanian (2003), p. 74 part 1
  39. ^ Sastri (1955), p. 136
  40. ^ Sastri 1955, p. 140
  41. ^ Sastri (1955), p162
  42. ^ Srivastava, Balram (1973), Rajendra Chola, National Book Trust, India, p. 80, "The mission which Rajendra sent to China was essentially a trade mission,..." 
  43. ^ D. Curtin, Philip (1984), Cross-Cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge University Press, p. 101, ISBN 0-521-26931-8 
  44. ^ Om Gupta, Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, pp 532
  45. ^ Freeman, Rich (February 1998), "Rubies and Coral: The Lapidary Crafting of Language in Kerala", The Journal of Asian Studies (Association for Asian Studies) 57 (1): 38–65, doi:10.2307/2659023, JSTOR 2659023  at pp. 41–43.
  46. ^ "Malayalam first appeared in writing in the vazhappalli inscription which dates from about 830 CE." "Writing Systems and Languages of the world", Omniglot (Omniglot.com), retrieved 15 November 2006 
  47. ^ de Silva, A. History of Sri Lanka, p. 129
  48. ^ Natarajan, V., History of Ceylon Tamils, p. 9
  49. ^ Manogaran, C. Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka, p. 2
  50. ^ Indrapala, K. The Evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka, pp. 53–54
  51. ^ South Asia Bulletin, University of California, Los Angeles: Google, 1987 
  52. ^ "Vedda", Encyclopædia Britannica Online (London: Encyclopædia Britannica), 2008, retrieved 23 June 2008 
  53. ^ de Silva 1997, p. 129
  54. ^ Indrapala, K. The Evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka, p. 91
  55. ^ Subramanian, T.S. (27 January 2006), "Reading the past in a more inclusive way: Interview with Dr. Sudharshan Seneviratne", Frontline, retrieved 9 July 2008 
  56. ^ Mahadeva, I. Early Tamil Epigraphy: From the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D., p. 48
  57. ^ Indrapala, K., The Evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka, p. 157
  58. ^ Nadarajan, V., History of Ceylon Tamils, p. 40
  59. ^ a b Spencer, George W, "The politics of plunder: The Cholas in eleventh century Ceylon", The Journal of Asian Studies (Association for Asian Studies) 35 (3): 408 
  60. ^ Indrapala, K The Evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sr Lanka, pp. 214–215
  61. ^ de Silva 1997, pp. 46, 48, 75
  62. ^ Mendis, G.C. Ceylon Today and Yesterday, pp. 30–31
  63. ^ Smith, V.A. The Oxford History of India, p. 224
  64. ^ Shastri (1955), p. 175
  65. ^ Chopra, Ravindran and Subramaniyan(2003), p.139, part 1
  66. ^ Sastri, (1955), p. 195
  67. ^ Chopra, Ravindran and Subramaniyan (2003), p. 154, part 1
  68. ^ Keay (2000), p. 252
  69. ^ Keay (2000), p252
  70. ^ Chopra Ravindran and Subramaniyan (2003), p155, part 1
  71. ^ Sastri 1955, p195
  72. ^ de Silva 1997, p. 76
  73. ^ de Silva 1997, pp. 100–102
  74. ^ de Silva 1997, pp. 102–104
  75. ^ de Silva 1997, p. 104
  76. ^ Knox, Robert (1681), An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, London: Robert Chiswell, p. 166, ISBN 1-4069-1141-0, 2596825 
  77. ^ Upon arrival in June 1799, Sir Hugh Cleghorn, the island's first British colonial secretary wrote to the British government of the traits and antiquity of the Tamil nation on the island in the Cleghorn Minute: "Two different nations from a very ancient period have divided between them the possession of the island. First the Sinhalese, inhabiting the interior in its Southern and Western parts, and secondly the Malabars [another name for Tamils] who possess the Northern and Eastern districts. These two nations differ entirely in their religion, language, and manners." McConnell, D., 2008; Ponnambalam, S. 1983
  78. ^ a b de Silva 1997, p. 121
  79. ^ Spencer, Sri Lankan history and roots of conflict, p. 23
  80. ^ Indrapala, K., The Evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka, p. 275
  81. ^ Vinoj Kumar, P.C., Tamil Nadu at the Crossroads, www.tehelka.com, retrieved 2 December 2006 
  82. ^ "Population of Sri Lanka – Srilanka People". Tourism-srilanka.com. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  83. ^ "Almost 5 million Tamils live outside Tamil Nadu, inside India". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  84. ^ de Silva 1997, pp. 177, 181
  85. ^ de Silva 1997, pp. 3–5, 9
  86. ^ a b Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka, Population by Ethnicity according to District (PDF), statistics.gov.lk, retrieved 3 May 2007 
  87. ^ V. Suryanarayan (2001), "In search of a new identity", Frontline, retrieved 2 July 2008 
  88. ^ a b de Silva 1997, p. 262
  89. ^ Christophe Z Guilmoto (1993), "The Tamil Migration Cycle 1830–1950", Economic and Political Weekly (Economic and Political Weekly) 28 (3): 111–120, JSTOR 4399307 
  90. ^ Tamil diaspora – a trans state nation, Tamilnation.org, retrieved 4 December 2006 
  91. ^ McDowell, Chris (1996), A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland, New York: Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-917-7 
  92. ^ Foster, Carly (2007). "Tamils: Population in Canada". Ryerson University. Retrieved 25 June 2008. "According to government figures, there are about 200,000 Tamils in Canada" 
  93. ^ See Sumathi Ramasamy, Passions of the Tongue, 'Feminising language: Tamil as Goddess, Mother, Maiden' Chapter 3.
  94. ^ (Ramaswamy 1998)
  95. ^ Kailasapathy, K. (1979), "The Tamil Purist Movement: A Re-Evaluation", Social Scientist (Social Scientist) 7 (10): 23–51, doi:10.2307/3516775, JSTOR 3516775 
  96. ^ See Hart, The Poems of Ancient Tamil: Their Milieu and their Sanskrit Counterparts (1975)
  97. ^ a b c "Census 2001 – Statewise population by Religion". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  98. ^ More, J.B.P. (2007), Muslim identity, print culture and the Dravidian factor in Tamil Nadu, Hyderabad: Orient Longman, ISBN 81-250-2632-0  at p. xv
  99. ^ Jain, Dhanesh (2003), "Sociolinguistics of the Indo-Aryan languages", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge language family series, London: Routledge, pp. 46–66, ISBN 0-7007-1130-9  at p. 57.
  100. ^ Total number of Jains in Tamil Nadu was 88,000 in 2001. Directorate of Census Operations – Tamil Nadu, Census, archived from the original on 30 November 2006, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  101. ^ Maloney, Clarence (1975), "Religious Beliefs and Social Hierarchy in Tamiḻ Nāḍu, India", American Ethnologist 2 (1): 169–191, doi:10.1525/ae.1975.2.1.02a00100  at p. 178
  102. ^ M. Shanmugam Pillai, "Murukan in Cankam Literature: Veriyattu Tribal Worship", First International Conference Seminar on Skanda-Murukan in Chennai, 28–30 December 1998. This article first appeared in the September 1999 issue of The Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies, retrieved 6 December 2006 
  103. ^ "Principles and Practice of Hindu Religion", Hindu Heritage Study Program, archived from the original on 14 November 2006, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  104. ^ PK Balachandran, "Tracing the Sri Lanka-Kerala link", Hindustan Times, 23 March 2006, archived from the original on 10 December 2006, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  105. ^ Dr. R.Ponnus, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, (Madurai Kamaraj University) Ram Publishers, Page 98
  106. ^ Indian Dargah's All Cities
  107. ^ Information on declaration of holiday on the event of birth anniversary of Vaikundar in The Hindu, The holiday for three Districts: Daily Thanthi, Daily(Tamil), Nagercoil Edition, 5 March 2006
  108. ^ Mark Jarzombek, "Horse Shrines in Tamil India: Reflections on Modernity", Future Anterior 4 (1): 18–36, doi:10.1353/fta.0.0031 
  109. ^ "'Hero stone' unearthed", The Hindu, 22 July 2006 (Chennai, India), 22 July 2006, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  110. ^ "Redefining secularism", The Hindu, 18 March 2004 (Chennai, India), 18 March 2004, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  111. ^ Jaina Literature in Tamil, Prof. A. Chakravartis
  112. ^ "There was a permanent Jaina assembly called a Sangha established about 604 A.D. in Maturai. It seems likely that this assembly was the model upon which tradition fabricated the cangkam legend." "The Milieu of the Ancient Tamil Poems, Prof. George Hart". Web.archive.org. 9 July 1997. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  113. ^ Coomaraswamy, A.K., Figures of Speech or Figures of Thought
  114. ^ "Tanjore – Painting", tanjore.net (Tanjore.net), retrieved 4 December 2006 
  115. ^ Nayanthara, S. (2006), The World of Indian murals and paintings, Chillbreeze, ISBN 81-904055-1-9  at pp.55–57
  116. ^ "Shilpaic literature of the tamils", V. Ganapathi (INTAMM), retrieved 4 December 2006 
  117. ^ Aschwin Lippe (December 1971), "Divine Images in Stone and Bronze: South India, Chola Dynasty (c. 850–1280)", Metropolitan Museum Journal (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) 4: 29–79, doi:10.2307/1512615, JSTOR 1512615, "The bronze icons of Early Chola period are one of India's greatest contribution to world art..." 
  118. ^ Heaven sent: Michael Wood explores the art of the Chola dynasty, Royal Academy, UK, retrieved 26 April 2007 
  119. ^ Berkson, Carmel (2000), "II The Life of Form pp29–65", The Life of Form in Indian Sculpture, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-376-0 
  120. ^ Sivaram 1994
  121. ^ Nijenhuis, Emmie te (1974), Indian Music: History and Structure, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-03978-3  at pp. 4–5
  122. ^ Widdess, D. R. (1979), "The Kudumiyamalai inscription: a source of early Indian music in notation", in Picken, Laurence, Musica Asiatica 2, London: Oxford University Press, pp. 115–150 
  123. ^ a b Leslie, Julia. Roles and rituals for Hindu women, pp.149–152
  124. ^ Sharma, Manorama (2004). Folk India: A Comprehensive Study of Indian Folk Music and Culture, Vol. 11
  125. ^ "Therukoothu". Tamilnadu.com. 16 February 2013. 
  126. ^ Tamil Art History, eelavar.com, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  127. ^ Striving hard to revive and refine ethnic dance form, Chennai, India: hindu.com, 11 November 2006, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  128. ^ "Bhagavata mela", The Hindu, 30 April 2004 (Chennai, India: hindu.com), 30 April 2004, retrieved 5 December 2006 
  129. ^ ,Dennis Kennedy "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance, Publisher:Oxford University Press
  130. ^ Templeton, Tom (26 November 2006), "The states they're in", Guardian, 26 November 2006 (London: guardian.com), retrieved 5 December 2006 
  131. ^ "Eros buys Tamil film distributor", Business Standard, 6 October 2011 
  132. ^ Zarrilli, Phillip B. (1992) "To Heal and/or To Harm: The Vital Spots in Two South Indian Martial Traditions"
  133. ^ IN INDIA
  134. ^ South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka(2003), p. 386.
  135. ^ Martial races of undivided India (2009), p. 276-277.
  136. ^ T.S. Subramanian (2008), The Hindu epaper The Bull fight tradition existed 2,000 years ago and more..., retrieved 15 Jan 2008 
  137. ^ Gautier, François (2001), Google books version of the book A Western Journalist on India: The Ferengi's Columns by François Gautier, ISBN 978-81-241-0795-9, retrieved 24 May 2007 
  138. ^ Grushkin, Daniel (22 March 2007), "NY Times: The ritual dates back as far as 2,000 years...", The New York Times, retrieved 24 May 2007 

References[edit]

  • Bowers, F. (1956). Theatre in the East – A Survey of Asian Dance and Drama. New York: Grove Press.
  • Casson, L. (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation and Commentary. Princeton, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04060-5.
  • Chaitanya, Krishna (1971). A history of Malayalam literature. New Delhi: Orient Longman. ISBN 81-250-0488-2.
  • Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003], History of South India (Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1, New Delhi: Chand Publications, ISBN 81-219-0153-7 
  • Coomaraswamy, A.K. (1946). Figures of Speech or Figures of Thought. London: Luzac & Co.
  • de Silva, Chandra Richard (1997), Sri Lanka – A History (2, illustrated ed.), Vikas Pub. House, ISBN 0-9510710-2-5 
  • de Silva, K. M. (2005), A History of Sri Lanka, Colombo: Vijitha Yapa, ISBN 955-8095-92-3 
  • Gadgil, M. & Joshi, N.V. & Shambu Prasad, U.V. & Manoharan, S. & Patil, S. (1997). "Peopling of India." In D. Balasubramanian and N. Appaji Rao (eds.), The Indian Human Heritage, pp. 100–129. Hyderabad: Universities Press. ISBN 81-7371-128-3.
  • Hart, G.L. (1975). The Poems of Ancient Tamil: Their Milieu and their Sanskrit Counterparts. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02672-1.
  • Hart, G.L. (1979). "The Nature of Tamil Devotion." In M.M. Deshpande and P.E. Hook (eds.), Aryan and Non-Aryan in India, pp. 11–33. Michigan: Ann Arbor. ISBN 0-89148-014-5.
  • Hart, G.L. (1987). "Early Evidence for Caste in South India." In P. Hockings (ed.), Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in honor of David B. Mandelbaum. Berlin: Mouton Gruyter.
  • Mark Jarzombek, "Horse Shrines in Tamil India: Reflections on Modernity", Future Anterior, (4/1), pp 18–36.
  • Mahadevan, Iravatham (2003). Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01227-5.
  • Keay, John (2000) [2000], India: A History, New York: Grove Publications, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 
  • Parpola, Asko (1974). "On the protohistory of the Indian languages in the light of archaeological, linguistic and religious evidence: An attempt at integration." In van Lohuizen, J.E. de Leeuw & Ubaghs, J.M.M. (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1973, pp. 90–100. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  • Parpola, Asko (2003). Deciphering the Indus script (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79566-4.
  • Pillai, Suresh B. (1976). Introduction to the study of temple art. Thanjavur: Equator and Meridian.
  • Ramaswamy, Sumathi (1998). Passions of the Tongue: language devotion in Tamil India 1891–1970. Delhi: Munshiram. ISBN 81-215-0851-7.
  • Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (2002) [1955], A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-560686-8 
  • Sastri, K.S. Ramaswamy (2002). The Tamils: The People, Their History and Culture, Vol. 1: An Introduction to Tamil History and Society. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications. ISBN 81-7755-406-9.
  • Sharma, Manorama (2004). Folk India: A Comprehensive Study of Indian Folk Music and Culture, Vol. 11: Tamil Nadu and Kerala. New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 81-7574-141-4.
  • Sivaram, Rama (1994). Early Chola Art: Origin and Emergence of Style. New Delhi: Navrang. ISBN 81-7013-079-4.
  • Subramanian, T.S. (17 February 2005), 'Rudimentary Tamil-Brahmi script' unearthed at Adichanallur, Chennai, India: The Hindu 
  • International Tamil Organisation (2011). "Tamil Society Organisation"
  • Suryanarayan, V. (2001), "In search of a new identity", Frontline 18 (16): 2. 
  • Swaminatha Iyer, S.S. (1910). A Brief History of the Tamil Country, Part 1: The Cholas. Tanjore: G.S. Maniya.
  • Varadpande, M.L. (1992). Loka Ranga: Panorama of Indian Folk Theatre. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-278-0.
  • Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey (in English). New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7146-0.  edit
  • Zvebil, K. (1974). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.
  • Indrapala, K (2007). The evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa. ISBN 978-955-1266-72-1.
  • Leslie, Julia (June 1992), Roles and rituals for Hindu women, South Asia Books, ISBN 81-208-1036-8 .
  • Patil, S. (1997). "Peopling of India." In D. Balasubramanian and N. Appaji Rao (eds.), The Indian Human Heritage.
Population data

All population data has been taken from Ethnologue, with the exception of the data for Sri Lanka, which was taken from the CIA World Factbook's Sri Lanka page.