||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (August 2007)|
Tamralipta, Tamolika, Tamralipti, Tamoluk
|Elevation||7 m (23 ft)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||WB 29-xxxx,WB 30-xxxx|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Tamluk|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Tamluk, Moyna, Nandakumar|
Tamluk (//) (Bengali: তমলুক) is a town in India. It is the district headquarters of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. Though there is some controversy, scholars have generally agreed that present day Tamluk is the site of the ancient city variously known as Tamralipta or Tamralipti. The present town is located on the banks of the Rupnarayan River close to the Bay of Bengal.
- 1 Demographics
- 2 History
- 3 People
- 4 Economy
- 5 Agriculture
- 6 Transport
- 7 Education
- 8 Health
- 9 Art and culture
- 10 Religion
- 11 Landmarks and tourist places
- 12 Notable people
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
As of the 2001 census of India, Tamluk had a population of 45,826. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Tamluk has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, and female literacy is 72%. In Tamluk, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
This ancient kingdom and port city was bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the south, river Rupnarayana in the east and Subarnarekha in the west. The Rupnarayana is the joint flow of the river Dwarkeshwar and the river Shilai. The Bay of Bengal and these great rivers with their numerous branches created a prosperous and easy water navigational system fostering commerce, culture and early contacts with the people outside the region. At the same time, these rivers helped to develop the agriculture in this region.
Archaeological remains show continuous settlement from about 3rd century BC. It was known as Tramralipti (in the Purans and the Mahabharata) or Tamralipta (in Mahabharata) or Tamalika (in historical documents) or Tamalitti (in foreigners' descriptions) or Tamoluk (in the British Raj). It was a seaport, now buried under river silt. For this reason, Tamluk has many ponds and lakes remaining today.
In the Mahabharata (Bhishma Parba/Nabam Adhyay) while describing the names of the holiest rivers and kingdoms of India, Sanjay took the name of "Tramralipta" to Dhritarastra.
Tamluk was also known as Bhivas, in religious texts, and Madhya Desh, as the Middle State of Utkal/Kalinga and Banga.
According to Jain sources, Tamralipti was the capital of the kingdom of Venga and was long known as a port.
The people of Tamluk are primarily Bengali speaking Hindus. There are some lingering effects of successive migrations and invasions from both the west, east, and especially from northern India . Its history shows the complex combination of indigenous, Buddhist, Jain and Hindu cultures, through trade, travel, and migration. There is an also a sizable Muslim community with roots in past immigration and political conquests.
Unlike other parts of Bengal, Tamluk was always well connected with the Gangetic plains. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that the culture of Aryavarta influenced life in early Tamluk. The worship of Bheema is a sign of the socio-religious acceptance of Aryan culture in this area. Even in the recent past, Tamluk was divided into many areas based on caste and occupation, such as Malakar Para (Flower traders), Adhikary Para (Brahmins),Metia Para in Nimtala (Transport Business and Timber Merchants), Dey Para (Gold traders), and Mathore Para (Sweeper's colony).
As a seaport, Tamluk was once famous as a centre for trade. Currently it also a place of affluent people. It is one of the highest "Premium Collecting Area" of LIC (Life Insurance Corporation of India) on a pan-India basis.
The main trade presently is of "Pan Leaf" (Betel leaf). The building of bus bodies is another important business as is transport.
Tamluk is mainly an agricultural area. About 60% of the land is under cultivation. Tamluk is one of the largest producer and exporter of the Pan Betel Leaf. Fishing was an important occupation of the local residents. Hilsa (Ilish Mach) of the River Rupnarayan is well known for its taste.
Main crops are: rice, bananas, coconut, potatoes, cotton, and fresh vegetables.
Tamluk is well linked by road and rail. Tamluk is a major roadway junction with six bus-routes originating from it:
- Tamluk to Srirampur and Moyna
- Tamluk to Mecheda, Kolaghat, and Kolkata
- Tamluk to Panskura, Kharagpur and Ghatal
- Tamluk to Haldia, Durgachowk
- Tamluk to Digha, Contai, and Egra
Tamluk is a railway junction; routes are given below:
- Howrah to Haldia, via Tamluk
- Howrah to Digha, via Tamluk and Contai
- Haldia to Kharagpur via Tamluk
Direct trains from Howrah Jn:
- Tamralipta Express
- Kandari Express
- Paharia Express (Saturday Only)
- Tamluk Hamilton High School (Established 1852) The Tamluk Hamilton School is the second oldest institution in district of Medinipur. In 1852, this school was founded by Mr. Robert Charles Hamilton, who was a salt merchant but Mr. Hamilton was a philanthropist, and so his name can be compared with Mr. David Hare, an immortal name in educational history of Bengal. This school produced a lot of jewels, but this school is famous due to the Khudiram Bose, the first martyr, who sacrificed his life to free the nation from the hands of British rule. He was a student of this school from 1900 to 1903. It is having a Museum also on the main building.
- Tamluk Hamilton high school
- Kakharda Ramkrishna high school
- Demari High School
- Rajkumari Santonamoyee Girls' High School
- Tamluk High School (Town School)
- Vidyapeeth Girls' School
- Salgechia High School
- Daharpur Tapasheel(SC) High School
- Kelomal Santoshini High School
- Zilla Public School
- Tamluk Path Bhavan
- Kelomal Sarojbasini High School (Girls)
- Raghunath Memorial Academy
- Tamluk Central School
- Tamralipta Public School
- Byabattarhat Adarsha H.S School
- Sirampur Agricultural High School
- Balluk Girls' High School
- Chatra Kunja Rani Bani Bhavana
- K T P P High School
- Bhandar Beria Debendra High School
- Krishnaganj Krishi Silpa Vidhyalaya
- Balluk High School
- Mother Teresa Sikshaniketan, Biswas,
- Dakshin Moyna High School, Moyna
- Naikuri TD Institution,Naikuri
- Naikuri Dharanidhar Girls'High School, Naikuri
- Mamudpur High School, mamudpur
- Chanserpur High School, Chanserpur
- Vivekananda Mission High School, Mechogram
- Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya (Tamluk College) - One of the oldest colleges of this south-west region of West Bengal. It has BA, B.Com, B.Sc, B-ed section. The building is old, surrounded by a large ground.
There is no university in this district town but Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), the world's largest University established by the Government of India, has presence in the form of a Study Centre with Tarun Sangha Information & Documentation Centre (TASIDOC) as the host institution. It is a well-known study centre (Code No. 2829D) under the Kolkata Regional Centre and is located at Pairatungi(Near Irrigation Dak Bungalow); it was established on 18 July 2000.
The following programmes are activated in this Study Centre - Master of Arts(English)(MEG), Master of Library and Information Science(MLIS), Bachelor Preparatory Programme(BPP), Bachelor of Arts(BA), Bachelor of Commerce(B. Com), Bachelor in Computer Application(BCA), Bachelor of Library & Information Science(BLIS), Bachelor in Tourism Studies(BTS), Diploma in Nutrition & Health Education(DNHE), Diploma in Tourism Studies(DTS), Certificate in Information Technology(CIT), Certificate in Food & Nutrition(CFN), Certificate in Nutrition & Child Care(CNCC), Certificate of Teaching in English(CTE), Certificate in Tourism Studies(CTS) and more.
A Library, a computer laboratory, Gyan Darshan Channel, Alumni Association and other Student Support Services are available.
There is a district hospital in the town, named Tamluk District Hospital. People of this district and its surrounding area depend on this hospital.
Art and culture
Tamluk is well known for its cultural activities. There are lots of arts schools, dance academies and drama groups.
Tamluk which is also an important craft center which benefits from its location just 85 km south-west of Kolkata's markets.
During Fa-Hien's visit to Bengal, Fa-hien is said to have travelled eastward along the course of the Ganges river, and during his journey, he came across Buddhist stupas and monks at several places. In Tamluk/Tamralipti Fa-hien had spent two years, and visited twenty-two monasteries, inhabited by monks in Tamluk.
Since Bengal was adjacent to Magadha, it is possible that the Buddha had visited parts of the Port City Of Tamluk to commemorate these visits.
Historical artifacts and documents reveal that Buddhism had established a powerful foot-hold in Bengal during Ashoka's reign. The discovery of a Mauryan inscription in Brahmi characters at Mahasthan in the district of Bogra, in Bangladesh, bearing the name Pudanagala (Pundranagara) and the recovery of many Mauryan coins and other artifacts dating from the fourth and third centuries BC suggest that the Gangetic delta was under the control of the Mauryan empire. The Chinese traveller, I-tsing, is said to have noticed Asoka's stupas near tamralipti (Tamluk).
In southern Bengal from the time of Asoka to the Pala period, both the Theravada and Mahayana, not the tantric, forms of Buddhism were practised. But a mystic form of Buddhism developed in Bengal during the Pala period and its profound impact entirely changed the course and history of Buddhism. This medieval Buddhist movement was founded by the tantric acharyas known as Siddhas who are traditionally believed to be men of psychic and supernatural powers. Buddhism, as a typical tantric form of mysticism, reached a stage in Bengal in the hands of the Siddhas where it was easily assimilated to Shaktism. The fusion between Saktism and Buddhist mysticism gave rise to new schools of Saktism and some forms of popular religion in which Buddhism is said to have survived, despite its decline in the face of Brahmanism.
Tamluk was also witness of these historical changes of Buddhism. The famous Buddhist Tantric Devi Tara or Ugratara, who used to be worshiped in a Buddhist Vihar in Tamluk, started to be recognised as Hindu Devi Kali named as Barghobhima. The temple of Devi barghobhima is built on the site of a Buddhist vihara.
Tamluk, the famous Buddhist Religious and Academic centre of South East Bengal and Eastern India gradually became a centre of Sanatan Shakti Peeth.
Tamluk is also home to the Tamluk Temples—a collection of 36 ancient Buddhist and Hindu temples that are traced back to the Pala Empire of Bengal. These temples feature some of the oldest Buddhist architecture from the original Dharmapala Guardians seen today as Nio Protectors across Japan to original symbolism of Amitabha Buddha and the Bodhisattva path. The architecture is also similar to Vikramashila University and includes a monastery for the Siddha Acharyas who founded Tibetan Buddhism. The Tamluk temples have been declared Heritage Sites by the Archeological Survey of India.
Sanatan Shakti Peeth
In the vaisnava dharma Tamluk is also an important Vaisnava Tirtha. According to Kashidas Mahabharat and Jaimini's Mahabharat, Supreme Lord Sri Krishna and Arjuna came here to release the Divine Horse of Ashwamedh Yagna from King Tramradhwaja. The land of Tamluk is always divine and sacred because it was touched by the lotus feet of Sri Krishna.
Sri Krishna himself confessed his affection with Tamluk to Arjuna, the son of Kunti.
- Tamoliptat Param Sthanam Nasmakam Pritirishyate
- Mamakam Hridayang Lakkha Jathatyajyang Tatha Maya
- Tamoliptang Hi Natyajyamidameba Sunischatam
- Tyajyami Sarbatirthani Kale Kale Yuge Yuge
- Tamoliptantta Kausteya Na tyajyami Kadachana.
It means : Tamluk is the supreme place of religion, the way my wife Lakshmi Devi stays in my heart, Tamluk is always nearer to my heart in such a way, Again and again, time to time I will leave all Pilgrimage, but will never leave tamluk even for a moment.
Christianity In Tamluk
The ancient religious centre of Buddhist and Hindus also came under the influence of Christianity. The first Christians in Tamluk were the Portuguese. After their intermarriage with local women, their descendants became the first indigenous Christians. Then came the local converts to Christianity from both Hinduism and Islam.
In Tamluk, the Portuguese settlement had a church built in 1635. The flourishing slave market at Tamluk in the seventeenth century was mentioned by Shihabuddin Talish. In 1724, Valintine had mentioned the wax trade at Tamluk, while Carreri in 1695 had found Tamluk under Portuguese control and Christianity.
This rapidly modernising small town is full of mandirs (temples). Lord Chaitanya purified the land of Tamluk with his lotus feet the way to Neelachal/Puri. There is mandir of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. It is called "Harir Mandir". Chaitanya Dev arrived here in 1507 (1402 Shakaba) and took a holy bath. When the divine self of Sri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu left this world in 1534 his disciple Bashudev Ghosh built the Harir Mandir in Tamluk.
At Tamluk's southern part there is a sacred ghat to take bath on the day of Makar Sankranti and is considered as one of the holiest in India.
Following are the special religious places of interest of Tamluk:
- Barghobhima Mandir
- Harir Mandir & Mahaprabhur Dalan (Near Jelkhanar More)
- Jishnu-Hari Mandir
- Radhamadhav & Radharaman Mandir (at Rajbari)
- Ramkrishna Mission Sevashram
Following are the Special religious festivals of Tamluk:
- Ratha Yatra (At Demari Football Ground)
- Charak Mela
- Makar Sankrant Barunir Mela (Very famous)
- Bhim Mela (On 11th day of Bengali month Magha)
- Kali Mela (at RAJARAMPUR in the Bengali month of Chaitra)
- Ratha Jatra (at Harir Hat in the Bengali month of Ashar)
- Bhim Mela ( at Bamanara village on Bhim Ekadashi day)
- kiarana rath jatra(purnima)
Landmarks and tourist places
- Rupnarayan : The bank of river Rupnarayan is famous for picnic.
- Devi Barghobhima : Nearly 1150 year old Temple of Kali named as Devi Bargobhima. This temple is a part of 51 Shakti Peethas. Puranas say that the small finger of left feet of Sati/Parvati fell here when Lord Vishnu cut the sacred Body of Goddess Sati into several pieces to make Lord Shiva quite.
- Tamluk Rajbari : It is on the outskirts of town. The literal translation for "rajbari" is king's house, once housing one of the many kings in West Bengal. The Mayura-dhwaja (Peackok) Dynasty had been named in Mahabharata, Bhagvat, Bramhabaibarto Puran etc. as a very rich and wealthest one of that region.
- Tamralipta Archeological Museum : It is an Archeological Museum in Tamluk; it is a must see place of the town. Dr. Kamal Kundu is the one of the prominent person who did his best to run this museum. The Tamralipta Museum at Tamluk contains artifacts of tamra or copper. Inscribed copper templates comprise the documents of this museum. The museum has preserved a tamralipta of Greek inscriptions. The Tamralipta Museum preserves the historical heritage of Bengal.
- Rakhit Bati : It is the another place to visit in Tamluk. In the beginning of 19th century it was famous as a secret center of the then revolutionary party ‘Anusilan Samiti’ & ‘Gupta samiti. Famous historian late Shri Tailakyanath Rakhit rebuilt this building.
- Matangani Sahid Smarak : It is at the side of pond called Banpukur at Abasbari Para near Tamluk Court. During the ‘Ahimsa’ movement of 1942, while a crowd trying to capture Tamluk administrative building, British police opened fire in which Smt Matangini Hazara became ‘Sahid’. Later on Mahatma Gandhi appreciated her bravery and titled her as ‘Birangana’. This monument is a homage to her by Ex- prime-minister, Smt Indira Gandhi. This is about 7 km from Tamluk station and on the way to Tamluk college.
- Tamluk irrigation Bungalow and its nearby areas : This area is famous for its semi-nonurban atmospheres. The River Rupnarayana is just 1 km from the bungalow.
- Geonkhali : At geonkhali river Rupnarayan joins Hooghly river with a beautiful backdrop.
- Mahishadal : Nearby tourist place.
- Kolaghat :- It is another town on the bank of Rupnarayan River and famous for Hilsa (Ilish) fishes.
- Green fields near the rail station is another popular picnic destination in Tamluk.
- Khudiram Bose, young revolutionary
- Matangini Hazra, Indian independence movement revolutionary
- Satish Chandra Samanta Indian independence movement activist
- Ajoy Mukherjee former chief minister of the state
- Paresh Maity artist
- [dead link]
- "Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya". Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- "List of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains of West Bengal - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved April 2013.
- Life of Matangini Hazra
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Tamluk.|
- Tamluk travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Tamluk Municipality
- Purba Medinipur District Official Website
- Paschim Medinipur District Official Website
- Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya
- radioBollyFM-Live Radio From Tamluk
- On temples of Midnapur