Tammam Salam

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Tammam Salam
Tammam Salam.jpg
Prime Minister of Lebanon
Incumbent
Assumed office
15 February 2014
President Michel Suleiman
Preceded by Najib Mikati
President of Lebanon
Acting
Incumbent
Assumed office
25 May 2014
Preceded by Michel Suleiman
Minister of Culture
In office
11 July 2008 – 9 November 2009
Prime Minister Fouad Siniora
Preceded by Tarek Mitri
Succeeded by Salim Wardeh
Personal details
Born Tammam Saeb Salam
1945 (age 68–69)
Beirut, Lebanon
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Lama Badreddine
Children 3
Alma mater Haigazian University
Religion Sunni Islam

Tammam Saeb Salam (Arabic: تمام صائب سلام‎; born 1945) is a Lebanese politician who has been Prime Minister of Lebanon since February 2014 until the present. He previously served in the government of Lebanon as Minister of Culture from 2008 to 2009.

Salam was tasked with forming a new government on 6 April 2013. He was one of the independent Sunni politicians.[1] He is close to March 14 Alliance, and still has good relations with the March 8 Alliance.[2] Salam was elected Prime Minister on 15 February 2014.[3] [4] [5] [6]

Early life and education[edit]

Salam was born into a prominent Sunni family in Beirut in 1945.[7] He comes from a politically powerful family in Lebanon.[7][8] He is the eldest son of Saeb Salam, who held the office several times since independence.[9][10][11] His mother, Tamima Mardam Beik, is of Syrian origin and hails from Damascus.[12][13][14] His grandfather, Salim Ali Salam, was one of the Lebanese officials who served during the Ottoman era and French era.[15][16] More specifically, he served as a Beirut deputy in the Ottoman parliament and was also the head of the Beirut municipality.[16] Tammam Salam has two older sisters and two younger brothers.[17]

Tammam Salam is a graduate of Broummana High School and Haigazian University in Beirut.[18][19] He also holds an economics and management degree, which he received in England.[20]

Early careers[edit]

Salam began his career as a businessman after graduation.[18] He joined the political field at the beginning of the 1970s.[18] He established the Pioneers of Reform Movement (Arabic: حركة روّاد الإصلاح‎) in 1973.[21] [22] The objective of the movement was to follow a moderate policy in the middle of the turmoil in the country.[21] On the other hand, the movement was also regarded as the private militia group of Salam's father, Saeb Salam.[23] However, the movement was dissolved by Tammam Salam at the initial phase of the Lebanese civil war in order to avoid being part of the militant activities.[18]

In 1978, he joined the Makassed foundation a non-profit charity organization in Beirut as a board member.[18] He became the president of the foundation in 1982.[24] The leadership of the foundation was passed through generations in the Salam family.[25][26] Tammam Salam resigned as president of the Foundation in September 2000.[27] He is currently the honorary president of the Foundation.[12] Later, he also became the head of the Saeb Salam Foundation for culture and higher education.[28]

Later politics[edit]

Salam shaking hands with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Beirut on 4 June 2014.

In the general elections of 1992, Salam was a candidate, but later he withdrew his candidacy as a protest over the Syrian dominance in Lebanon.[16][29] His boycott aimed at supporting the Lebanese Christians in an attempt to preserve the sectarian balance in the country.[30] Salam was first elected to the parliament in the 1996 elections from Beirut as an independent candidate.[31][32] However Salam lost his seat in the general elections held in 2000.[33][34] He did not run for office in the 2005 general elections.[35][36]

He was appointed minister of culture in the cabinet led by Prime Minister Fouad Siniora on 11 July 2008.[31][37] Salam also won his seat in the general elections held in 2009.[38] He entered an electoral alliance with Saad Hariri and became part of his list in Beirut's third district.[39][40] Salam is an independent member of the Lebanese parliament.[41][42] In addition, he is part of the Lebanon First bloc in the parliament,[43][44] but not a member of any political party, making him a centrist figure.[45]

Premiership[edit]

Following the resignation of Najib Mikati as prime minister on 23 March 2013, Salam was designated as a consensus Prime Minister.[46] The 14 March Alliance officially nominated Salam as Prime Minister.[47] Salam was tasked with forming a government on 6 April 2013 after garnering 124 votes out of 128 parliament members.[48][49][50] On 15 February 2014, he announced the formation of a new government of 24 ministers.[3]

Views[edit]

Following the assassination of Rafik Hariri on 14 February 2005, Salam said "Playing with emotions is a very dangerous game in Lebanon, a game which Hariri himself never subscribed to." referring to mass demonstrations blaming Syria for the assassination in the country.[51]

Personal life[edit]

Salam is married to Lama Badreddine and has three children from a previous marriage.[12][20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moubayed, Sami (3 August 2006). "Nasrallah and the three Lebanons". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "Hezbollah bloc to back Salam for Lebanon premier". Reuters. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Lebanese PM unveils national unity cabinet Al Jazeera. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  4. ^ Lebanon Forms a Cabinet After 11 Months of Deadlock New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  5. ^ Lebanon Cabinet formed after 10-month stalemate USA Today. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  6. ^ Lebanon forms new government after months of political deadlock The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Lebanon Biographies of Potential Prime Ministers Following PM Karami's Cabinet Resignation". Wikileaks. 3 March 2003. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  8. ^ R. Hrair Dekmejian (1975). Patterns of Political Leade: Egypt, Israel, Lebanon. SUNY Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-87395-291-0. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  9. ^ Moubayed, Sami (no date). "From Father to Son in Beiruti Politics". Mid East Views. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  10. ^ Yehia, Ranwa (27 January – 2 February 2000). "Salam bid farewell". Al Ahram Weekly 466. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  11. ^ Dakroub, Hussein (5 April 2013). "Salam emerges as Lebanon’s next PM". The Daily Star (Beirut). Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c "Lebanon names Salam as prime minister". The Guardian. AP. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  13. ^ Mroue, Bassem (5 April 2013). "Lebanon Names UK-Educated Lawmaker Prime Minister". ABC News. AP. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  14. ^ "Lebanon's Salam - consensus PM for tough times". France24. AFP. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  15. ^ "Lebanon's March 14 camp endorses PM candidate". Al Jazeera. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c "How Tammam Salam Became a Consensual Candidate". Moulahazat. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  17. ^ Kechichian, Joseph A. (9 May 2008). "One Lebanon was his vision". Gulf News. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Mroueh, Wassim (5 April 2013). "Salam: Form, role of government more important than its head". The Daily Star. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  19. ^ "Haigazian University honors Minister of Culture". AZG Armenian Daily. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  20. ^ a b "Consensus builds on new Lebanon PM Tamam Salam". Ahram Online. AFP. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  21. ^ a b Frank Tachau (1994). Political Parties of the Middle East and North Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 342. Retrieved 31 August 2013.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  22. ^ "1974 حركة رواد الاصلاح". Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  23. ^ Samir Khalaf (1987). Lebanon's Predicament. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 91. Retrieved 31 August 2013.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  24. ^ "Profiles: Lebanon's new government". Lebanon Wire. 12 July 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  25. ^ "Families, not parties, dominate Lebanese politics". The Courier (Beirut). AP. 11 February 1983. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  26. ^ Mourtada, Hania (7 April 2013). "Tamam Salam Asked to Form a Government in Lebanon". The New York Times. 
  27. ^ "Salam heaps praise on Makassed". The Daily Star. 12 September 2000. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  28. ^ "Speakers". Arab Women Forum. 15–16 October 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  29. ^ "Many Lebanese back polls boycott". New Straits Times. 30 August 1992. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  30. ^ "Lebanon’s Salam - consensus premier for tough times". Al Arabiya. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  31. ^ a b "Meet the government". Now Lebanon. 11 July 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  32. ^ "Saeb Salam, 95, Former Lebanese Prime Minister". The New York Times. 23 January 2000. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  33. ^ "Murr Releases Official Results of Lebanon’s Second Round of Elections". Albawaba. 5 September 2000. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  34. ^ Yehia, Ranwa (7–13 September 2000). "A 'Future' premier". Al Ahram Weekly 498. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  35. ^ Moubayed, Sami (8 July 2005). "The new face of Lebanon". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  36. ^ "Saad Hariri plegeges to contest elections within opposition ranks". Lebanon Wire. 10 May 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  37. ^ "Backgrounder: Lebanon's new cabinet line-up". Xinhua (Beirut). 11 July 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  38. ^ "Saudi envoy calls for cabinet formed 'inside Lebanon'". The Daily Star. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  39. ^ Sfeir, Therese (8 May 2009). "Hariri vows Future Movement 'will follow path of peace'". The Daily Star. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  40. ^ Moubayed, Sami (9 June 2009). "Hezbollah handed a stinging defeat". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  41. ^ "Salam says Sunnite sect would not fight with other sects". NNA. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  42. ^ "How MPs will vote". Now Lebanon. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  43. ^ Hajj, Elie (4 April 2013). "Tammam Salam Likely March 14 Candidate for Lebanese Premier". Al Monitor. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  44. ^ "Salam supports a technocratic cabinet". Now Lebanon. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  45. ^ Salem, Paul (10 April 2013). "Lebanon Averts Crisis but New Prime Minister Faces Major Challenges". Carnegie Middle East. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  46. ^ "Tammam Salam Meets Hariri, Prince Bandar". Naharnet. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  47. ^ "Hariri led group nominates Salam as PM". Turkish Weekly Journal (Beirut). 5 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  48. ^ Pletts, Adam (6 April 2013). "Tammam Salam named new Lebanese prime minister". France 24. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  49. ^ "Tammam Salam named new Lebanese PM". Xinhua (Beirut). 6 April 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  50. ^ "Lebanon names Tammam Salam as new prime minister". BBC. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  51. ^ Abdel Latif, Omayma (3–9 March 2005). "What next, Lebanon?". Al Ahram Weekly 732. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Tarek Mitri
Minister of Culture
2008–2009
Succeeded by
Salim Wardeh
Preceded by
Najib Mikati
Prime Minister of Lebanon
2014–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Michel Suleiman
President of Lebanon
Acting

2014–present