Tammuz (Hebrew month)
|← Sivan Tammuz (תמוז) Av →|
Tammuz is the month of the sin of the golden calf,
which resulted in Moses breaking the Ten Commandments.
|Number of Days:||29|
The name of the month was adopted from the Assyrian-Babylonian calendar, in which the month was named after one of the main Mesopotamian gods, Tammuz. This is referred to in Ezekiel 8:14. Tammuz is also a month in the modern Assyrian calendar of the ethnic Assyrian Christians.
Holidays in Tammuz 
17 Tammuz - Seventeenth of Tammuz – (Fast Day)
- 17 Tammuz is a fast day from 1 hour before sunrise to sundown in remembrance of Jerusalem's walls being breached. 17 Tammuz is the beginning of The Three Weeks, in which Jews follow similar customs as the ones followed during the Omer from the day following Passover until the culmination of the mourning for the death of the students of Rabbi Akiva (Akibah) the thirty-third day of the Omer - such as refraining from marriage and haircuts. The Three Weeks culminate with Tisha Be-Av (9th of Av).
- Ashkenazi communities refrain from wine and meat from the beginning of the month of Av, while Sefardi communities only do so from the beginning of the week in which the 9th of Av occurs. The mourning continues until noon on the 10th of Av, the date on which the Second Temple's destruction was complete.
Tammuz in Jewish history 
3 Tammuz - Joshua stops the sun.
3 Tammuz - (1994) - Death of Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson.
4 Tammuz - (1171) - Death of Rabbeinu Tam
4 Tammuz - (1286) - Maharam imprisoned
5 Tammuz - (429 BCE) - Ezekiel's vision of the "Chariot"
- This was of the Hebrew year 3332 (429 BCE), Ezekiel, who was one of the Prophets to prophesy outside the Land of Israel, had a vision of the Divine "Chariot" which represented the spiritual infrastructure of creation. (Ezekiel 1:4-26)
6 Tammuz - (1976) - Entebbe Rescue
9 Tammuz - (423 BCE) - Jerusalem Walls breached
- The Babylonian armies of King Nebuchadnezzar breached the walls of Jerusalem on the 9th of Tammuz in the Hebrew year 3338 (423 BCE). King Ziddikiahu (pronounced Tsidikyahu - known as Zedekiah in English) of Judah was captured and taken to Babylon. Three weeks later the capture of Jerusalem was finished with the destruction of the Holy Temple and the exile of most Jews to Babylon). Tammuz 9 was observed as a fast day until the second breaching of Jerusalem's walls by the Romans on the 17th of Tammuz, which was in the Hebrew year 3830 (70 CE), at which time the Rabbis moved the fast to that date. This is according to the Talmud, Rosh Hashanah and Tur Orach Chaim 549. However, Karaite Jews continue to observe the fast on Tammuz 9.
15 Tammuz - (1743) - Death of Rabbi Chayim ben Attar (Ohr HaChayim)
17 Tammuz - (1312 BCE) - Golden Calf offered by the Jewish people, 40 days after the giving of the Torah at Har Sinai. This is the first of the 5 national tragedies mourned on this day.
17 Tammuz - (423 BCE) - Temple service disrupted The daily sacrificial offerings (Korban Tamid) in the Holy Temple were discontinued, three weeks before the Babylonians' destruction of the First Temple in 586 BCE.. This is the second of the 5 national tragedies mourned on this day.
17 Tammuz - (70 CE) - Jerusalem Walls Breached The other three national tragedies mourned on Tammuz 17 are connected with the Roman conquest of Jerusalem and their destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Firstly, the walls of the besieged city of Jerusalem were breached. Secondly, the Roman general Apostomus burned the Torah and, third was that he placed an idol in the Holy Temple. The fighting in Jerusalem continued for three weeks until the 9th of Av, when the Holy Temple was set aflame.
21 Tammuz - (1636) - Death of Baal Shem of Worms
- Kabbalist Rabbi Eliyahu ben Moshe Loanz, who was known as "Rabbi Eliyahu Baal Shem" of Worms, Germany, died on the 21st of Tammuz which was the Hebrew year 5396 (1636 CE). He was a grandson of the shtadlan (Jewish activist) Rabbi Joselman of Rosheim, and the author of Michlal Yofi commentary on Ecclesiastes.
Other uses 
- "Tammūz" (Arabic: ﺗﻤﻮﺯ), is also the name for the month of July in the Levant and Turkey ("Temmuz" in Turkish). In Syriac it is ܬܡܘܙ. In Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories, the 2006 Lebanon War is generally known as حرب تموز Ḥarb Tammūz (i.e. the July War), following the Arab custom of naming the Arab-Israeli wars after months or years.
References In fiction 
- In the story of Xenogears, Tammuz is the name of a country, named after the Hebrew month. In the official Japanese version translation, however, it was transliterated Tamuzu. This was later further changed by the translation process to Thames for the English version.